਀  㰀栀攀愀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀椀琀氀攀㸀吀栀攀 倀爀漀樀攀挀琀 䜀甀琀攀渀戀攀爀最 攀䈀漀漀欀 漀昀 䴀愀爀猀 愀渀搀 椀琀猀 䌀愀渀愀氀猀㰀⼀琀椀琀氀攀㸀 ਀㰀猀琀礀氀攀 琀礀瀀攀㴀∀琀攀砀琀⼀挀猀猀∀㸀 body { margin-left:8%;margin-right:10%; }਀      ⸀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀 笀 爀椀最栀琀㨀㄀─㬀昀漀渀琀ⴀ猀椀稀攀㨀砀ⴀ猀洀愀氀氀㬀戀愀挀欀最爀漀甀渀搀ⴀ挀漀氀漀爀㨀椀渀栀攀爀椀琀㬀挀漀氀漀爀㨀猀椀氀瘀攀爀㬀 text-indent:0em;text-align:right;position:absolute;਀               戀漀爀搀攀爀㨀㄀瀀砀 猀漀氀椀搀 猀椀氀瘀攀爀㬀瀀愀搀搀椀渀最㨀㄀瀀砀 ㌀瀀砀㬀昀漀渀琀ⴀ猀琀礀氀攀㨀渀漀爀洀愀氀㬀 font-variant:normal;font-weight:normal;text-decoration:none; }਀      瀀 笀 琀攀砀琀ⴀ椀渀搀攀渀琀㨀 㬀洀愀爀最椀渀ⴀ琀漀瀀㨀 ⸀㔀攀洀㬀洀愀爀最椀渀ⴀ戀漀琀琀漀洀㨀 ⸀㔀攀洀㬀琀攀砀琀ⴀ愀氀椀最渀㨀樀甀猀琀椀昀礀㬀 紀 sup { vertical-align: top; font-size: 0.6em; }਀      ⸀昀猀猀 笀 昀漀渀琀ⴀ猀椀稀攀㨀㜀㔀─㬀 紀 .sc { font-variant:small-caps; }਀      ⸀氀愀爀最攀 笀 昀漀渀琀ⴀ猀椀稀攀㨀氀愀爀最攀㬀 紀 .xlarge { font-size:x-large; }਀      ⸀砀砀氀愀爀最攀 笀 昀漀渀琀ⴀ猀椀稀攀㨀砀砀ⴀ氀愀爀最攀㬀 紀 .lg-container-b { text-align: center; }਀      䀀洀攀搀椀愀 栀愀渀搀栀攀氀搀 笀 ⸀氀最ⴀ挀漀渀琀愀椀渀攀爀ⴀ戀 笀 挀氀攀愀爀㨀 戀漀琀栀㬀 紀紀 .lg-container-l { text-align: left; }਀      䀀洀攀搀椀愀 栀愀渀搀栀攀氀搀 笀 ⸀氀最ⴀ挀漀渀琀愀椀渀攀爀ⴀ氀 笀 挀氀攀愀爀㨀 戀漀琀栀㬀 紀紀 .linegroup { display: inline-block; text-align: left; }਀      䀀洀攀搀椀愀 栀愀渀搀栀攀氀搀 笀 ⸀氀椀渀攀最爀漀甀瀀 笀 搀椀猀瀀氀愀礀㨀 戀氀漀挀欀㬀 洀愀爀最椀渀ⴀ氀攀昀琀㨀 ㄀⸀㔀攀洀㬀 紀紀 .linegroup .group { margin: 1em auto; }਀      ⸀氀椀渀攀最爀漀甀瀀 ⸀氀椀渀攀 笀 琀攀砀琀ⴀ椀渀搀攀渀琀㨀 ⴀ㌀攀洀㬀 瀀愀搀搀椀渀最ⴀ氀攀昀琀㨀 ㌀攀洀㬀 紀 .linegroup .in10 { text-indent: 2.0em; }਀      ⸀氀椀渀攀最爀漀甀瀀 ⸀椀渀㄀㄀ 笀 琀攀砀琀ⴀ椀渀搀攀渀琀㨀 ㈀⸀㔀攀洀㬀 紀 .linegroup .in12 { text-indent: 3.0em; }਀      ⸀氀椀渀攀最爀漀甀瀀 ⸀椀渀㈀ 笀 琀攀砀琀ⴀ椀渀搀攀渀琀㨀 ⴀ㈀⸀ 攀洀㬀 紀 .linegroup .in3 { text-indent: -1.5em; }਀      ⸀氀椀渀攀最爀漀甀瀀 ⸀椀渀㐀 笀 琀攀砀琀ⴀ椀渀搀攀渀琀㨀 ⴀ㄀⸀ 攀洀㬀 紀 .linegroup .in5 { text-indent: -0.5em; }਀      ⸀氀椀渀攀最爀漀甀瀀 ⸀椀渀㘀 笀 琀攀砀琀ⴀ椀渀搀攀渀琀㨀  ⸀ 攀洀㬀 紀 .linegroup .in7 { text-indent: 0.5em; }਀      ⸀氀椀渀攀最爀漀甀瀀 ⸀椀渀㠀 笀 琀攀砀琀ⴀ椀渀搀攀渀琀㨀 ㄀⸀ 攀洀㬀 紀 .linegroup .in9 { text-indent: 1.5em; }਀      ⌀戀最瀀 笀 戀漀爀搀攀爀ⴀ挀漀氀氀愀瀀猀攀㨀 挀漀氀氀愀瀀猀攀㬀 琀攀砀琀ⴀ愀氀椀最渀㨀 挀攀渀琀攀爀㬀 洀愀爀最椀渀㨀 愀甀琀漀㬀 margin-bottom: 1em; margin-top: 1em; }਀      ⌀戀最瀀㈀ 笀戀漀爀搀攀爀ⴀ挀漀氀氀愀瀀猀攀㨀 挀漀氀氀愀瀀猀攀㬀 琀攀砀琀ⴀ愀氀椀最渀㨀 挀攀渀琀攀爀㬀 洀愀爀最椀渀㨀 愀甀琀漀㬀 margin-bottom: 1em; margin-top: 1em; }਀      ⌀挀挀 笀 洀愀爀最椀渀㨀 ㄀攀洀 愀甀琀漀㬀 琀攀砀琀ⴀ愀氀椀最渀㨀 氀攀昀琀㬀 洀愀砀ⴀ眀椀搀琀栀㨀 㐀 攀洀㬀 紀 #cd { border-collapse: collapse; margin: 1em auto; text-align: center; }਀      ⌀挀搀椀爀 笀 洀愀爀最椀渀㨀 ㄀攀洀 愀甀琀漀㬀 紀 #cl { border-collapse: collapse; margin: 1em auto; text-align: center;਀               洀愀砀ⴀ眀椀搀琀栀㨀 㔀 攀洀㬀 紀 #cw { border-collapse: collapse; margin: 1em auto; text-align: center; }਀      ⌀挀稀 笀 戀漀爀搀攀爀ⴀ挀漀氀氀愀瀀猀攀㨀 挀漀氀氀愀瀀猀攀㬀 洀愀爀最椀渀㨀 ㄀攀洀 愀甀琀漀㬀 紀 #dc { border-collapse: collapse; margin: 1em auto; text-align: left; }਀      ⌀搀爀 笀 戀漀爀搀攀爀ⴀ挀漀氀氀愀瀀猀攀㨀 挀漀氀氀愀瀀猀攀㬀 洀愀爀最椀渀㨀 ㄀攀洀 愀甀琀漀㬀 紀 #loi td.c { text-align: center; }਀      ⌀氀漀椀 琀搀⸀氀 笀 琀攀砀琀ⴀ愀氀椀最渀㨀 氀攀昀琀㬀 紀 #loi td.r { text-align: right; }਀      ⌀洀攀琀 笀 戀漀爀搀攀爀ⴀ挀漀氀氀愀瀀猀攀㨀 挀漀氀氀愀瀀猀攀㬀 琀攀砀琀ⴀ愀氀椀最渀㨀 氀攀昀琀㬀 洀愀爀最椀渀㨀愀甀琀漀㬀 洀愀爀最椀渀ⴀ戀漀琀琀漀洀㨀 ㄀攀洀㬀 }਀      ⌀洀攀琀㈀ 笀 戀漀爀搀攀爀ⴀ挀漀氀氀愀瀀猀攀㨀 挀漀氀氀愀瀀猀攀㬀 洀愀爀最椀渀㨀 愀甀琀漀㬀 洀愀爀最椀渀ⴀ戀漀琀琀漀洀㨀 ㄀攀洀㬀 紀 #pqp { margin: 1em auto; }਀      ⌀爀挀 笀 戀漀爀搀攀爀ⴀ挀漀氀氀愀瀀猀攀㨀 挀漀氀氀愀瀀猀攀㬀 洀愀爀最椀渀㨀 ㄀攀洀 愀甀琀漀㬀 洀愀砀ⴀ眀椀搀琀栀㨀㐀 攀洀㬀 紀 #ssl { border-collapse: collapse; margin: 1em auto; text-align: left; }਀      ⸀搀椀瘀ⴀ㌀   笀 眀椀搀琀栀㨀㌀  瀀砀㬀 洀愀砀ⴀ眀椀搀琀栀㨀㄀  ─㬀 搀椀猀瀀氀愀礀㨀椀渀氀椀渀攀ⴀ戀氀漀挀欀㬀 紀 .div-400 { width:400px; max-width:100%; display:inline-block; text-align:center; }਀      ⸀椀氀氀甀猀ⴀ㌀   笀 眀椀搀琀栀㨀 ㌀  瀀砀㬀 洀愀砀ⴀ眀椀搀琀栀㨀㄀  ─㬀 搀椀猀瀀氀愀礀㨀椀渀氀椀渀攀ⴀ戀氀漀挀欀㬀 琀攀砀琀ⴀ愀氀椀最渀㨀 挀攀渀琀攀爀㬀 }਀      ⸀椀洀最ⴀ㌀   笀 眀椀搀琀栀㨀㌀  瀀砀㬀 洀愀砀ⴀ眀椀搀琀栀㨀㄀  ─㬀 栀攀椀最栀琀㨀愀甀琀漀㬀 搀椀猀瀀氀愀礀㨀椀渀氀椀渀攀ⴀ戀氀漀挀欀㬀 紀 .img-400 { width:400px; max-width:100%; height:auto; }਀      ⸀椀洀最挀攀渀琀攀爀 笀 挀氀攀愀爀㨀 戀漀琀栀㬀 洀愀爀最椀渀㨀 ㈀攀洀 愀甀琀漀㬀 琀攀砀琀ⴀ愀氀椀最渀㨀 挀攀渀琀攀爀㬀 洀愀砀ⴀ眀椀搀琀栀㨀 ㄀  ─㬀 紀 .imgleft { clear:left; float:left; margin:4% 4% 4% 0; }਀      ⸀椀洀最爀椀最栀琀 笀 挀氀攀愀爀㨀爀椀最栀琀㬀 昀氀漀愀琀㨀爀椀最栀琀㬀 洀愀爀最椀渀㨀㐀─  ─ 㐀─ 㐀─㬀 紀 .myf { text-decoration:none }਀      ⸀琀挀 笀 洀愀爀最椀渀㨀愀甀琀漀㬀 紀 @media handheld { .img-300 { width:300px; } }਀      䀀洀攀搀椀愀 栀愀渀搀栀攀氀搀 笀 ⸀椀洀最ⴀ㐀   笀 眀椀搀琀栀㨀㐀  瀀砀㬀 紀 紀 @media handheld {.imgleft { float:left; }}਀      䀀洀攀搀椀愀 栀愀渀搀栀攀氀搀 笀⸀椀洀最爀椀最栀琀 笀 昀氀漀愀琀㨀爀椀最栀琀㬀 紀紀 div.tnotes { padding-left:1em;padding-right:1em;background-color:#E3E4FA;਀              戀漀爀搀攀爀㨀㄀瀀砀 猀漀氀椀搀 猀椀氀瘀攀爀㬀 洀愀爀最椀渀㨀㈀攀洀 ㄀ ─   ㄀ ─㬀 紀 h2 { clear:both; }਀      瀀⸀挀攀ⴀ挀愀瀀琀椀漀渀 笀 琀攀砀琀ⴀ愀氀椀最渀㨀 挀攀渀琀攀爀㬀 洀愀爀最椀渀ⴀ戀漀琀琀漀洀㨀  攀洀㬀 琀攀砀琀ⴀ椀渀搀攀渀琀㨀  攀洀㬀 紀 p.re-caption { text-align: right; margin-bottom: 0em; text-indent: 0em; }਀      琀搀⸀戀戀 笀 戀漀爀搀攀爀ⴀ戀漀琀琀漀洀㨀 琀栀椀渀 猀漀氀椀搀 戀氀愀挀欀㬀 紀 td.bl { border-left: thin solid black; padding-left: 1em; }਀      琀搀⸀戀爀 笀 戀漀爀搀攀爀ⴀ爀椀最栀琀㨀 琀栀椀渀 猀漀氀椀搀 戀氀愀挀欀㬀 瀀愀搀搀椀渀最ⴀ爀椀最栀琀㨀 ㄀攀洀㬀 紀 td.bt { border-top: thin solid black; }਀      琀搀⸀昀猀 笀 昀漀渀琀ⴀ猀椀稀攀㨀  ⸀㄀攀洀㬀 紀 td.hi { text-align: left; text-indent: -1em; padding-right: 1em;}਀      琀搀⸀渀戀戀 笀 戀漀爀搀攀爀ⴀ戀漀琀琀漀洀㨀 渀漀渀攀㬀 紀 td.nbl { border-left: none; padding-left: 1em; }਀      琀搀⸀渀戀爀 笀 戀漀爀搀攀爀ⴀ爀椀最栀琀㨀 渀漀渀攀㬀 瀀愀搀搀椀渀最ⴀ爀椀最栀琀㨀 ㄀攀洀㬀 紀 td.nbt { border-top: none; }਀      琀搀⸀琀挀攀 笀 琀攀砀琀ⴀ愀氀椀最渀㨀 挀攀渀琀攀爀㬀 紀 td.tle { text-align: left; }਀      琀搀⸀琀爀攀 笀 琀攀砀琀ⴀ愀氀椀最渀㨀 爀椀最栀琀㬀 紀 div.footnote>:first-child { margin-top:0; }਀      琀愀戀氀攀⸀昀渀琀愀戀 笀 洀愀爀最椀渀ⴀ氀攀昀琀㨀 㬀 紀 div.pbb { page-break-before:always; }਀      栀爀⸀瀀戀 笀 戀漀爀搀攀爀㨀渀漀渀攀㬀戀漀爀搀攀爀ⴀ戀漀琀琀漀洀㨀㄀瀀砀 猀漀氀椀搀㬀 洀愀爀最椀渀㨀㄀攀洀 愀甀琀漀㬀 紀 @media handheld { hr.pb { display:none; }}਀      ⸀挀栀愀瀀琀攀爀 笀 紀 .figcenter { clear:both; max-width:100%; margin:2em auto; text-align:center; }਀      搀椀瘀⸀昀椀最挀攀渀琀攀爀 瀀 笀 琀攀砀琀ⴀ愀氀椀最渀㨀挀攀渀琀攀爀㬀 紀 .ic001 { width:275px; max-width:100%; display:inline-block; text-align:center; }਀      ⸀椀挀  ㈀ 笀 眀椀搀琀栀㨀㈀㜀㔀瀀砀㬀 洀愀砀ⴀ眀椀搀琀栀㨀㄀  ─㬀 搀椀猀瀀氀愀礀㨀椀渀氀椀渀攀ⴀ戀氀漀挀欀㬀 琀攀砀琀ⴀ愀氀椀最渀㨀挀攀渀琀攀爀㬀 紀 .ic003 { width:275px; max-width:100%; display:inline-block; text-align:center; }਀      ⸀椀挀  㐀 笀 眀椀搀琀栀㨀㐀  瀀砀㬀 洀愀砀ⴀ眀椀搀琀栀㨀㄀  ─㬀 搀椀猀瀀氀愀礀㨀椀渀氀椀渀攀ⴀ戀氀漀挀欀㬀 琀攀砀琀ⴀ愀氀椀最渀㨀挀攀渀琀攀爀㬀 紀 .ic005 { width:400px; max-width:100%; display:inline-block; text-align:center; }਀      ⸀椀挀  㘀 笀 眀椀搀琀栀㨀㐀  瀀砀㬀 洀愀砀ⴀ眀椀搀琀栀㨀㄀  ─㬀 搀椀猀瀀氀愀礀㨀椀渀氀椀渀攀ⴀ戀氀漀挀欀㬀 琀攀砀琀ⴀ愀氀椀最渀㨀挀攀渀琀攀爀㬀 紀 .ic007 { width:400px; max-width:100%; display:inline-block; text-align:center; }਀      ⸀椀挀  㠀 笀 眀椀搀琀栀㨀㐀  瀀砀㬀 洀愀砀ⴀ眀椀搀琀栀㨀㄀  ─㬀 搀椀猀瀀氀愀礀㨀椀渀氀椀渀攀ⴀ戀氀漀挀欀㬀 琀攀砀琀ⴀ愀氀椀最渀㨀挀攀渀琀攀爀㬀 紀 .ic009 { width:400px; max-width:100%; display:inline-block; text-align:center; }਀      ⸀椀挀 ㄀  笀 眀椀搀琀栀㨀㐀  瀀砀㬀 洀愀砀ⴀ眀椀搀琀栀㨀㄀  ─㬀 搀椀猀瀀氀愀礀㨀椀渀氀椀渀攀ⴀ戀氀漀挀欀㬀 琀攀砀琀ⴀ愀氀椀最渀㨀挀攀渀琀攀爀㬀 紀 .ic011 { width:400px; max-width:100%; display:inline-block; text-align:center; }਀      ⸀椀挀 ㄀㈀ 笀 眀椀搀琀栀㨀㐀  瀀砀㬀 洀愀砀ⴀ眀椀搀琀栀㨀㄀  ─㬀 搀椀猀瀀氀愀礀㨀椀渀氀椀渀攀ⴀ戀氀漀挀欀㬀 琀攀砀琀ⴀ愀氀椀最渀㨀挀攀渀琀攀爀㬀 紀 .ic013 { width:400px; max-width:100%; display:inline-block; text-align:center; }਀      ⸀椀挀 ㄀㐀 笀 眀椀搀琀栀㨀㐀  瀀砀㬀 洀愀砀ⴀ眀椀搀琀栀㨀㄀  ─㬀 搀椀猀瀀氀愀礀㨀椀渀氀椀渀攀ⴀ戀氀漀挀欀㬀 琀攀砀琀ⴀ愀氀椀最渀㨀挀攀渀琀攀爀㬀 紀 .ic015 { width:400px; max-width:100%; display:inline-block; text-align:center; }਀      ⸀椀挀 ㄀㘀 笀 眀椀搀琀栀㨀㐀  瀀砀㬀 洀愀砀ⴀ眀椀搀琀栀㨀㄀  ─㬀 搀椀猀瀀氀愀礀㨀椀渀氀椀渀攀ⴀ戀氀漀挀欀㬀 琀攀砀琀ⴀ愀氀椀最渀㨀挀攀渀琀攀爀㬀 紀 .ic017 { width:400px; max-width:100%; display:inline-block; text-align:center; }਀      ⸀椀最  ㄀ 笀 眀椀搀琀栀㨀㈀㜀㔀瀀砀㬀 洀愀砀ⴀ眀椀搀琀栀㨀㄀  ─㬀 栀攀椀最栀琀㨀愀甀琀漀㬀 紀 .ig002 { width:275px; max-width:100%; height:auto; }਀      ⸀椀最  ㌀ 笀 眀椀搀琀栀㨀㈀㜀㔀瀀砀㬀 洀愀砀ⴀ眀椀搀琀栀㨀㄀  ─㬀 栀攀椀最栀琀㨀愀甀琀漀㬀 紀 .ig004 { width:400px; max-width:100%; height:auto; }਀      ⸀椀最  㔀 笀 眀椀搀琀栀㨀㐀  瀀砀㬀 洀愀砀ⴀ眀椀搀琀栀㨀㄀  ─㬀 栀攀椀最栀琀㨀愀甀琀漀㬀 紀 .ig006 { width:400px; max-width:100%; height:auto; }਀      ⸀椀最  㜀 笀 眀椀搀琀栀㨀㐀  瀀砀㬀 洀愀砀ⴀ眀椀搀琀栀㨀㄀  ─㬀 栀攀椀最栀琀㨀愀甀琀漀㬀 紀 .ig008 { width:400px; max-width:100%; height:auto; }਀      ⸀椀最  㤀 笀 眀椀搀琀栀㨀㐀  瀀砀㬀 洀愀砀ⴀ眀椀搀琀栀㨀㄀  ─㬀 栀攀椀最栀琀㨀愀甀琀漀㬀 紀 .ig010 { width:400px; max-width:100%; height:auto; }਀      ⸀椀最 ㄀㄀ 笀 眀椀搀琀栀㨀㐀  瀀砀㬀 洀愀砀ⴀ眀椀搀琀栀㨀㄀  ─㬀 栀攀椀最栀琀㨀愀甀琀漀㬀 紀 .ig012 { width:400px; max-width:100%; height:auto; }਀      ⸀椀最 ㄀㌀ 笀 眀椀搀琀栀㨀㐀  瀀砀㬀 洀愀砀ⴀ眀椀搀琀栀㨀㄀  ─㬀 栀攀椀最栀琀㨀愀甀琀漀㬀 紀 .ig014 { width:400px; max-width:100%; height:auto; }਀      ⸀椀最 ㄀㔀 笀 眀椀搀琀栀㨀㐀  瀀砀㬀 洀愀砀ⴀ眀椀搀琀栀㨀㄀  ─㬀 栀攀椀最栀琀㨀愀甀琀漀㬀 紀 .ig016 { width:400px; max-width:100%; height:auto; }਀      ⸀椀最 ㄀㜀 笀 眀椀搀琀栀㨀㐀  瀀砀㬀 洀愀砀ⴀ眀椀搀琀栀㨀㄀  ─㬀 栀攀椀最栀琀㨀愀甀琀漀㬀 紀 @media handheld {਀        ⸀椀最  ㄀ 笀 眀椀搀琀栀㨀㈀㜀㔀瀀砀㬀 紀 .ig002 { width:275px; 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}਀      ⸀挀  㔀 笀 戀漀爀搀攀爀㨀渀漀渀攀㬀戀漀爀搀攀爀ⴀ戀漀琀琀漀洀㨀㄀瀀砀 猀漀氀椀搀㬀洀愀爀最椀渀ⴀ琀漀瀀㨀㄀攀洀㬀洀愀爀最椀渀ⴀ戀漀琀琀漀洀㨀㄀攀洀㬀 margin-left:45%; width:10%; margin-right:45% }਀      ⸀挀  㘀 笀 琀攀砀琀ⴀ愀氀椀最渀㨀挀攀渀琀攀爀㬀昀漀渀琀ⴀ眀攀椀最栀琀㨀渀漀爀洀愀氀㬀昀漀渀琀ⴀ猀椀稀攀㨀㄀⸀㈀攀洀㬀 page-break-before:always;margin-top:4em; }਀      ⸀挀  㜀 笀 洀愀爀最椀渀ⴀ琀漀瀀㨀㈀攀洀㬀琀攀砀琀ⴀ椀渀搀攀渀琀㨀㄀攀洀㬀洀愀爀最椀渀ⴀ戀漀琀琀漀洀㨀 ⸀ 攀洀㬀 紀 .c008 { text-indent:1em;margin-top:0.0em;margin-bottom:0.0em; }਀      ⸀挀  㤀 笀 洀愀爀最椀渀㨀愀甀琀漀㬀 紀 .c010 { vertical-align:top;text-align:left;padding-right:1em; }਀      ⸀挀 ㄀㄀ 笀 琀攀砀琀ⴀ愀氀椀最渀㨀氀攀昀琀㬀瀀愀搀搀椀渀最ⴀ爀椀最栀琀㨀㄀攀洀㬀 紀 .c012 { vertical-align:bottom;text-align:right; }਀      ⸀挀 ㄀㌀ 笀 琀攀砀琀ⴀ愀氀椀最渀㨀挀攀渀琀攀爀 紀 .c014 { vertical-align:top;text-align:left;padding-right:1em;padding-left:2.8em }਀      ⸀挀 ㄀㔀 笀 洀愀爀最椀渀ⴀ琀漀瀀㨀㈀攀洀㬀洀愀爀最椀渀ⴀ戀漀琀琀漀洀㨀 ⸀ 攀洀㬀 紀 .c016 { text-indent:0;margin-top:0.0em;margin-bottom:0.0em; }਀      ⸀挀 ㄀㜀 笀 瘀攀爀琀椀挀愀氀ⴀ愀氀椀最渀㨀琀漀瀀㬀琀攀砀琀ⴀ愀氀椀最渀㨀爀椀最栀琀㬀瀀愀搀搀椀渀最ⴀ爀椀最栀琀㨀㄀攀洀㬀 紀 .c018 { text-align:left;padding-right:1em;padding-left:3.5em }਀      ⸀挀 ㄀㤀 笀 瘀攀爀琀椀挀愀氀ⴀ愀氀椀最渀㨀戀漀琀琀漀洀㬀琀攀砀琀ⴀ愀氀椀最渀㨀氀攀昀琀㬀 紀 .c020 { text-align:right; 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}਀      ⸀挀 ㌀㘀 笀 洀愀爀最椀渀ⴀ氀攀昀琀㨀㈀⸀㜀㠀─㬀洀愀爀最椀渀ⴀ琀漀瀀㨀㈀攀洀㬀洀愀爀最椀渀ⴀ戀漀琀琀漀洀㨀 ⸀㔀攀洀㬀 紀 .c037 { margin-left:2.78%;margin-top:0.5em;margin-bottom:0.5em; }਀      ⸀渀昀ⴀ挀攀渀琀攀爀 笀 琀攀砀琀ⴀ愀氀椀最渀㨀挀攀渀琀攀爀㬀 紀 .nf-center-c0 { text-align:left;margin:0.5em 0; }਀      ⸀渀昀ⴀ挀攀渀琀攀爀ⴀ挀㄀ 笀 琀攀砀琀ⴀ愀氀椀最渀㨀氀攀昀琀㬀洀愀爀最椀渀㨀㄀攀洀  㬀 紀 p.drop-capa0_2_0_7 { text-indent:-0.2em; }਀      瀀⸀搀爀漀瀀ⴀ挀愀瀀愀 开㈀开 开㠀 笀 琀攀砀琀ⴀ椀渀搀攀渀琀㨀ⴀ ⸀㈀攀洀㬀 紀 p.drop-capa0_2_0_9 { text-indent:-0.2em; }਀      瀀⸀搀爀漀瀀ⴀ挀愀瀀愀 开㌀开 开㜀 笀 琀攀砀琀ⴀ椀渀搀攀渀琀㨀ⴀ ⸀㌀攀洀㬀 紀 p.drop-capa0_3_0_8 { text-indent:-0.3em; }਀      瀀⸀搀爀漀瀀ⴀ挀愀瀀愀 开㔀开 开㤀 笀 琀攀砀琀ⴀ椀渀搀攀渀琀㨀ⴀ ⸀㔀攀洀㬀 紀 p.drop-capa0_6_0_7 { text-indent:-0.6em; }਀      瀀⸀搀爀漀瀀ⴀ挀愀瀀愀 开㜀开 开㜀 笀 琀攀砀琀ⴀ椀渀搀攀渀琀㨀ⴀ ⸀㜀攀洀㬀 紀 p.drop-capa0_7_0_8 { text-indent:-0.7em; }਀      瀀⸀搀爀漀瀀ⴀ挀愀瀀愀 开㠀开 开㠀 笀 琀攀砀琀ⴀ椀渀搀攀渀琀㨀ⴀ ⸀㠀攀洀㬀 紀 p.drop-capa0_2_0_7:first-letter { float:left;margin:0.1em 0.1em 0em 0em;਀              昀漀渀琀ⴀ猀椀稀攀㨀㈀㔀 ─㬀氀椀渀攀ⴀ栀攀椀最栀琀㨀 ⸀㜀攀洀㬀琀攀砀琀ⴀ椀渀搀攀渀琀㨀  紀 p.drop-capa0_2_0_8:first-letter { float:left;margin:0.1em 0.1em 0em 0em;਀              昀漀渀琀ⴀ猀椀稀攀㨀㈀㔀 ─㬀氀椀渀攀ⴀ栀攀椀最栀琀㨀 ⸀㠀攀洀㬀琀攀砀琀ⴀ椀渀搀攀渀琀㨀  紀 p.drop-capa0_2_0_9:first-letter { float:left;margin:0.1em 0.1em 0em 0em;਀              昀漀渀琀ⴀ猀椀稀攀㨀㈀㔀 ─㬀氀椀渀攀ⴀ栀攀椀最栀琀㨀 ⸀㤀攀洀㬀琀攀砀琀ⴀ椀渀搀攀渀琀㨀  紀 p.drop-capa0_3_0_7:first-letter { float:left;margin:0.1em 0.1em 0em 0em;਀              昀漀渀琀ⴀ猀椀稀攀㨀㈀㔀 ─㬀氀椀渀攀ⴀ栀攀椀最栀琀㨀 ⸀㜀攀洀㬀琀攀砀琀ⴀ椀渀搀攀渀琀㨀  紀 p.drop-capa0_3_0_8:first-letter { float:left;margin:0.1em 0.1em 0em 0em;਀              昀漀渀琀ⴀ猀椀稀攀㨀㈀㔀 ─㬀氀椀渀攀ⴀ栀攀椀最栀琀㨀 ⸀㠀攀洀㬀琀攀砀琀ⴀ椀渀搀攀渀琀㨀  紀 p.drop-capa0_5_0_9:first-letter { float:left;margin:0.1em 0.1em 0em 0em;਀              昀漀渀琀ⴀ猀椀稀攀㨀㈀㔀 ─㬀氀椀渀攀ⴀ栀攀椀最栀琀㨀 ⸀㤀攀洀㬀琀攀砀琀ⴀ椀渀搀攀渀琀㨀  紀 p.drop-capa0_6_0_7:first-letter { float:left;margin:0.1em 0.1em 0em 0em;਀              昀漀渀琀ⴀ猀椀稀攀㨀㈀㔀 ─㬀氀椀渀攀ⴀ栀攀椀最栀琀㨀 ⸀㜀攀洀㬀琀攀砀琀ⴀ椀渀搀攀渀琀㨀  紀 p.drop-capa0_7_0_7:first-letter { float:left;margin:0.1em 0.1em 0em 0em;਀              昀漀渀琀ⴀ猀椀稀攀㨀㈀㔀 ─㬀氀椀渀攀ⴀ栀攀椀最栀琀㨀 ⸀㜀攀洀㬀琀攀砀琀ⴀ椀渀搀攀渀琀㨀  紀 p.drop-capa0_7_0_8:first-letter { float:left;margin:0.1em 0.1em 0em 0em;਀              昀漀渀琀ⴀ猀椀稀攀㨀㈀㔀 ─㬀氀椀渀攀ⴀ栀攀椀最栀琀㨀 ⸀㠀攀洀㬀琀攀砀琀ⴀ椀渀搀攀渀琀㨀  紀 p.drop-capa0_8_0_8:first-letter { float:left;margin:0.1em 0.1em 0em 0em;਀              昀漀渀琀ⴀ猀椀稀攀㨀㈀㔀 ─㬀氀椀渀攀ⴀ栀攀椀最栀琀㨀 ⸀㠀攀洀㬀琀攀砀琀ⴀ椀渀搀攀渀琀㨀  紀 @media handheld {਀        瀀⸀搀爀漀瀀ⴀ挀愀瀀愀 开㈀开 开㜀 笀 琀攀砀琀ⴀ椀渀搀攀渀琀㨀  紀 p.drop-capa0_2_0_8 { text-indent:0 }਀        瀀⸀搀爀漀瀀ⴀ挀愀瀀愀 开㈀开 开㤀 笀 琀攀砀琀ⴀ椀渀搀攀渀琀㨀  紀 p.drop-capa0_3_0_7 { text-indent:0 }਀        瀀⸀搀爀漀瀀ⴀ挀愀瀀愀 开㌀开 开㠀 笀 琀攀砀琀ⴀ椀渀搀攀渀琀㨀  紀 p.drop-capa0_5_0_9 { text-indent:0 }਀        瀀⸀搀爀漀瀀ⴀ挀愀瀀愀 开㘀开 开㜀 笀 琀攀砀琀ⴀ椀渀搀攀渀琀㨀  紀 p.drop-capa0_7_0_7 { text-indent:0 }਀        瀀⸀搀爀漀瀀ⴀ挀愀瀀愀 开㜀开 开㠀 笀 琀攀砀琀ⴀ椀渀搀攀渀琀㨀  紀 p.drop-capa0_8_0_8 { text-indent:0 }਀        瀀⸀搀爀漀瀀ⴀ挀愀瀀愀 开㈀开 开㜀㨀昀椀爀猀琀ⴀ氀攀琀琀攀爀 笀 昀氀漀愀琀㨀渀漀渀攀㬀洀愀爀最椀渀㨀 㬀昀漀渀琀ⴀ猀椀稀攀㨀㄀  ─㬀 紀 p.drop-capa0_2_0_8:first-letter { float:none;margin:0;font-size:100%; }਀        瀀⸀搀爀漀瀀ⴀ挀愀瀀愀 开㈀开 开㤀㨀昀椀爀猀琀ⴀ氀攀琀琀攀爀 笀 昀氀漀愀琀㨀渀漀渀攀㬀洀愀爀最椀渀㨀 㬀昀漀渀琀ⴀ猀椀稀攀㨀㄀  ─㬀 紀 p.drop-capa0_3_0_7:first-letter { float:none;margin:0;font-size:100%; }਀        瀀⸀搀爀漀瀀ⴀ挀愀瀀愀 开㌀开 开㠀㨀昀椀爀猀琀ⴀ氀攀琀琀攀爀 笀 昀氀漀愀琀㨀渀漀渀攀㬀洀愀爀最椀渀㨀 㬀昀漀渀琀ⴀ猀椀稀攀㨀㄀  ─㬀 紀 p.drop-capa0_5_0_9:first-letter { float:none;margin:0;font-size:100%; }਀        瀀⸀搀爀漀瀀ⴀ挀愀瀀愀 开㘀开 开㜀㨀昀椀爀猀琀ⴀ氀攀琀琀攀爀 笀 昀氀漀愀琀㨀渀漀渀攀㬀洀愀爀最椀渀㨀 㬀昀漀渀琀ⴀ猀椀稀攀㨀㄀  ─㬀 紀 p.drop-capa0_7_0_7:first-letter { float:none;margin:0;font-size:100%; }਀        瀀⸀搀爀漀瀀ⴀ挀愀瀀愀 开㜀开 开㠀㨀昀椀爀猀琀ⴀ氀攀琀琀攀爀 笀 昀氀漀愀琀㨀渀漀渀攀㬀洀愀爀最椀渀㨀 㬀昀漀渀琀ⴀ猀椀稀攀㨀㄀  ─㬀 紀 p.drop-capa0_8_0_8:first-letter { float:none;margin:0;font-size:100%; }਀      紀 ਀  㰀⼀栀攀愀搀㸀 ਀ ਀㰀琀爀 愀氀椀最渀㴀∀挀攀渀琀攀爀∀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀
਀㰀瀀⸀椀洀最挀攀渀琀攀爀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀∀⸀⸀⼀椀渀搀攀砀⸀栀琀洀∀㸀㰀椀洀最 猀爀挀㴀∀⸀⸀⼀椀洀愀最攀猀⼀戀愀渀渀攀爀猀⼀洀愀爀琀椀愀渀开琀椀洀攀开㈀愀⸀最椀昀∀ 眀椀搀琀栀㴀∀㘀㜀㔀∀ 栀攀椀最栀琀㴀∀㠀 ∀ 戀漀爀搀攀爀㴀∀ ∀㸀㰀⼀愀㸀
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The Project Gutenberg EBook of Mars and its Canals, by Percival Lowell਀
This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere in the United States and most਀漀琀栀攀爀 瀀愀爀琀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 眀漀爀氀搀 愀琀 渀漀 挀漀猀琀 愀渀搀 眀椀琀栀 愀氀洀漀猀琀 渀漀 爀攀猀琀爀椀挀琀椀漀渀猀
whatsoever.  You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of਀琀栀攀 倀爀漀樀攀挀琀 䜀甀琀攀渀戀攀爀最 䰀椀挀攀渀猀攀 椀渀挀氀甀搀攀搀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀椀猀 攀䈀漀漀欀 漀爀 漀渀氀椀渀攀 愀琀
www.gutenberg.org.  If you are not located in the United States, you'll have਀琀漀 挀栀攀挀欀 琀栀攀 氀愀眀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 挀漀甀渀琀爀礀 眀栀攀爀攀 礀漀甀 愀爀攀 氀漀挀愀琀攀搀 戀攀昀漀爀攀 甀猀椀渀最 琀栀椀猀 攀戀漀漀欀⸀
਀吀椀琀氀攀㨀 䴀愀爀猀 愀渀搀 椀琀猀 䌀愀渀愀氀猀
਀䄀甀琀栀漀爀㨀 倀攀爀挀椀瘀愀氀 䰀漀眀攀氀氀
਀刀攀氀攀愀猀攀 䐀愀琀攀㨀 伀挀琀漀戀攀爀 ㄀Ⰰ ㈀ ㄀㐀 嬀䔀䈀漀漀欀 ⌀㐀㜀 ㄀㔀崀
਀䰀愀渀最甀愀最攀㨀 䔀渀最氀椀猀栀
਀䌀栀愀爀愀挀琀攀爀 猀攀琀 攀渀挀漀搀椀渀最㨀 唀吀䘀ⴀ㠀
਀⨀⨀⨀ 匀吀䄀刀吀 伀䘀 吀䠀䤀匀 倀刀伀䨀䔀䌀吀 䜀唀吀䔀一䈀䔀刀䜀 䔀䈀伀伀䬀 䴀䄀刀匀 䄀一䐀 䤀吀匀 䌀䄀一䄀䰀匀 ⨀⨀⨀
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Produced by Chris Curnow, Sonya Schermann, and the Online਀䐀椀猀琀爀椀戀甀琀攀搀 倀爀漀漀昀爀攀愀搀椀渀最 吀攀愀洀 愀琀 栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀瀀最搀瀀⸀渀攀琀 ⠀吀栀椀猀
file was produced from images generously made available਀戀礀 吀栀攀 䤀渀琀攀爀渀攀琀 䄀爀挀栀椀瘀攀⤀
਀䐀愀爀椀愀渀 搀愀琀攀猀 椀渀猀攀爀琀攀搀 戀礀 吀栀漀洀愀猀 䜀愀渀最愀氀攀
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਀㰀⼀瀀爀攀㸀
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਀  㰀栀㄀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀   ✀㸀䴀䄀刀匀 䄀一䐀 䤀吀匀 䌀䄀一䄀䰀匀㰀⼀栀㄀㸀
਀㰀栀爀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀戀✀ ⼀㸀 ਀㰀搀椀瘀 椀搀㴀✀昀爀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀昀椀最挀攀渀琀攀爀✀㸀
਀㰀椀洀最 猀爀挀㴀✀椀洀愀最攀猀⼀椀开昀爀漀渀琀椀猀⸀樀瀀最✀ 愀氀琀㴀✀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀椀最  ㄀✀ ⼀㸀

Mars’ Hill

਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀
਀㰀栀爀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀戀✀ ⼀㸀 ਀㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀昀ⴀ挀攀渀琀攀爀ⴀ挀 ✀㸀
਀    㰀搀椀瘀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀砀砀氀愀爀最攀✀㸀䴀䄀刀匀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀
AND ITS CANALS
਀    㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  ㌀✀㸀䈀夀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀
PERCIVAL LOWELL
਀  㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀
਀  㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀氀椀渀攀最爀漀甀瀀✀㸀
਀      㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀氀椀渀攀 椀渀㈀✀㸀䐀䤀刀䔀䌀吀伀刀 伀䘀 吀䠀䔀 伀䈀匀䔀刀嘀䄀吀伀刀夀 䄀吀 䘀䰀䄀䜀匀吀䄀䘀䘀Ⰰ 䄀刀䤀娀伀一䄀㬀 一伀一ⴀ刀䔀匀䤀䐀䔀一吀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀
PROFESSOR OF ASTRONOMY AT THE MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF
਀      㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀氀椀渀攀 椀渀㐀✀㸀吀䔀䌀䠀一伀䰀伀䜀夀㬀 䘀䔀䰀䰀伀圀 伀䘀 吀䠀䔀 䄀䴀䔀刀䤀䌀䄀一 䄀䌀䄀䐀䔀䴀夀 伀䘀 䄀刀吀匀 䄀一䐀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀
SCIENCES; MEMBRE DE LA SOCIÉTÉ ASTRONOMIQUE DE FRANCE;
਀      㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀氀椀渀攀 椀渀㘀✀㸀䴀䔀䴀䈀䔀刀 伀䘀 吀䠀䔀 䄀匀吀刀伀一伀䴀䤀䌀䄀䰀 䄀一䐀 䄀匀吀刀伀倀䠀夀匀䤀䌀䄀䰀 匀伀䌀䤀䔀吀夀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀
OF AMERICA; MITGLIED DER ASTRONOMISCHEN GESELLSCHAFT;
਀      㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀氀椀渀攀 椀渀㠀✀㸀䴀䔀䴀䈀刀䔀 䐀䔀 䰀䄀 匀伀䌀䤀준吀준 䈀䔀䰀䜀䔀 䐀ᤀ䄠匀吀刀伀一伀䴀䤀䔀㬀 䠀伀一伀刀䄀刀夀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀
MEMBER OF THE SOCIEDAD ASTRONOMICA DE MEXICO;
਀      㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀氀椀渀攀 椀渀㄀ ✀㸀䨀䄀一匀匀䔀一 䴀䔀䐀䄀䰀䤀匀吀 伀䘀 吀䠀䔀 匀伀䌀䤀준吀준 䄀匀吀刀伀一伀䴀䤀儀唀䔀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀
DE FRANCE, 1904, FOR RESEARCHES ON MARS;
਀      㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀氀椀渀攀 椀渀㄀㈀✀㸀䔀吀䌀⸀Ⰰ 䔀吀䌀⸀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀
਀  㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀
਀㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀昀ⴀ挀攀渀琀攀爀 挀  㐀✀   㸀
ILLUSTRATED
਀  㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀
਀㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀昀ⴀ挀攀渀琀攀爀 挀  㐀✀   㸀
New York
਀    㰀搀椀瘀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀氀愀爀最攀✀㸀吀䠀䔀 䴀䄀䌀䴀䤀䰀䰀䄀一 䌀伀䴀倀䄀一夀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀
LONDON: MACMILLAN & CO., Ltd.
਀    㰀搀椀瘀㸀㄀㤀 㘀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀
All rights reserved
਀  㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀
਀㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀昀ⴀ挀攀渀琀攀爀 挀  ㄀✀   㸀
Copyright, 1906,
਀    㰀搀椀瘀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀䈀礀 吀䠀䔀 䴀䄀䌀䴀䤀䰀䰀䄀一 䌀伀䴀倀䄀一夀⸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀
਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀 ਀㰀栀爀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㔀✀ ⼀㸀 ਀㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀昀ⴀ挀攀渀琀攀爀ⴀ挀 ✀㸀
਀    㰀搀椀瘀㸀匀攀琀 甀瀀 愀渀搀 攀氀攀挀琀爀漀琀礀瀀攀搀⸀ 倀甀戀氀椀猀栀攀搀 䐀攀挀攀洀戀攀爀Ⰰ ㄀㤀 㘀⸀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀
਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀 ਀㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀昀ⴀ挀攀渀琀攀爀ⴀ挀 ✀㸀
਀    㰀搀椀瘀㸀一漀爀眀漀漀搀 倀爀攀猀猀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀
J. S. Cushing & Co.—Berwick & Smith Co.
਀    㰀搀椀瘀㸀一漀爀眀漀漀搀Ⰰ 䴀愀猀猀⸀Ⰰ 唀⸀匀⸀䄀⸀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀
਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀 ਀㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀戀戀✀㸀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀
਀㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀昀ⴀ挀攀渀琀攀爀 挀  ㄀✀   㸀
To
਀    㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  ㈀✀㸀䜀⸀ 嘀⸀ 匀䌀䠀䤀䄀倀䄀刀䔀䰀䰀䤀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀
THE COLUMBUS OF A NEW PLANETARY WORLD
਀    㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  ㈀✀㸀吀䠀䤀匀 䤀一嘀䔀匀吀䤀䜀䄀吀䤀伀一 唀倀伀一 䤀吀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀
IS APPRECIATIVELY
਀    㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  ㈀✀㸀䤀一匀䌀刀䤀䈀䔀䐀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀
਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀 ਀㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀栀愀瀀琀攀爀✀㸀 ਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开瘀椀椀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开瘀椀椀✀㸀瘀椀椀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀

PREFACE

਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㜀✀ 㸀䔀氀攀瘀攀渀 礀攀愀爀猀 栀愀瘀攀 攀氀愀瀀猀攀搀 猀椀渀挀攀 琀栀攀 眀爀椀琀攀爀ᤀ猠 昀椀爀猀琀 work on Mars was published in which were recorded਀琀栀攀 昀愀挀琀猀 最氀攀愀渀攀搀 椀渀 栀椀猀 爀攀猀攀愀爀挀栀 甀瀀 琀漀 琀栀愀琀 琀椀洀攀 and in which was set forth a theory of their explanation.਀䌀漀渀琀椀渀甀攀搀 眀漀爀欀 椀渀 琀栀攀 椀渀琀攀爀瘀愀氀 栀愀猀 挀漀渀昀椀爀洀攀搀 the conclusions there stated; sometimes in quite਀甀渀攀砀瀀攀挀琀攀搀 眀愀礀猀⸀ 䘀椀瘀攀 琀椀洀攀猀 搀甀爀椀渀最 琀栀愀琀 瀀攀爀椀漀搀 Mars has approached the earth within suitable scanning਀搀椀猀琀愀渀挀攀 愀渀搀 戀攀攀渀 猀甀戀樀攀挀琀攀搀 琀漀 挀愀爀攀昀甀氀 愀渀搀 prolonged scrutiny. Familiarity with the subject,਀椀洀瀀爀漀瘀攀搀 琀攀氀攀猀挀漀瀀椀挀 洀攀愀渀猀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 氀漀渀最ⴀ挀漀渀琀椀渀甀攀搀 琀爀愀椀渀椀渀最 have all combined to increased efficiency in the਀瀀爀漀挀甀爀椀渀最 漀昀 搀愀琀愀 愀渀搀 琀漀 爀攀猀甀氀琀猀 眀栀椀挀栀 栀愀瘀攀 戀攀攀渀 proportionate. A mass of new material has thus਀戀攀攀渀 挀漀氀氀攀挀琀攀搀Ⰰ᐀猠漀洀攀 漀昀 椀琀 愀氀漀渀最 漀氀搀 氀椀渀攀猀Ⰰ 猀漀洀攀 漀昀 it in lines that are themselves new,—and both have਀氀攀搀 琀漀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 漀甀琀挀漀洀攀⸀ 䤀渀 愀搀搀椀琀椀漀渀 琀漀 琀栀甀猀 瀀甀猀栀椀渀最 inquiry into advanced portions of the subject,਀猀琀甀搀礀 栀愀猀 戀攀攀渀 猀瀀攀渀琀 椀渀 椀渀瘀攀猀琀椀最愀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 爀攀愀氀椀琀礀 of the phenomena upon which so much is based, and਀椀渀 琀攀猀琀椀渀最 攀瘀攀爀礀 琀栀攀漀爀礀 眀栀椀挀栀 栀愀猀 戀攀攀渀 猀甀最最攀猀琀攀搀 琀漀 viii਀愀挀挀漀甀渀琀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀洀⸀ 䘀爀漀洀 搀椀瀀氀漀瀀椀愀 琀漀 漀瀀琀椀挀愀氀 椀渀琀攀爀昀攀爀攀渀挀攀Ⰰ each of these has been examined and found਀椀渀挀漀洀瀀愀琀椀戀氀攀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀愀琀椀漀渀猀⸀ 吀栀攀 瀀栀攀渀漀洀攀渀愀 are all they have been stated to be, and more. Each਀猀琀攀瀀 昀漀爀眀愀爀搀 椀渀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀愀琀椀漀渀 栀愀猀 挀漀渀昀椀爀洀攀搀 琀栀攀 最攀渀甀椀渀攀渀攀猀猀 of those that went before.

To set forth science in a popular, that is, in a਀最攀渀攀爀愀氀氀礀 甀渀搀攀爀猀琀愀渀搀愀戀氀攀Ⰰ 昀漀爀洀 椀猀 愀猀 漀戀氀椀最愀琀漀爀礀 愀猀 琀漀 present it in a more technical manner. If men are਀琀漀 戀攀渀攀昀椀琀 戀礀 椀琀Ⰰ 椀琀 洀甀猀琀 戀攀 攀砀瀀爀攀猀猀攀搀 琀漀 琀栀攀椀爀 挀漀洀瀀爀攀栀攀渀猀椀漀渀⸀ To do this should be feasible for him਀眀栀漀 椀猀 洀愀猀琀攀爀 漀昀 栀椀猀 猀甀戀樀攀挀琀 愀渀搀 椀猀 戀漀琀栀 琀栀攀 戀攀猀琀 test of, and the best training to, that post. Especially਀瘀椀琀愀氀 椀猀 椀琀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 攀砀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀 猀栀漀甀氀搀 戀攀 搀漀渀攀 at first hand; for to describe what a man has himself਀搀椀猀挀漀瘀攀爀攀搀 挀漀洀攀猀 愀猀 渀攀愀爀 愀猀 瀀漀猀猀椀戀氀攀 琀漀 洀愀欀椀渀最 a reader the co-discoverer of it. Not only are thus਀攀猀挀愀瀀攀搀 琀栀攀 洀椀猀琀愀欀攀渀 最氀漀猀猀攀猀 漀昀 猀攀挀漀渀搀ⴀ栀愀渀搀 欀渀漀眀氀攀搀最攀Ⰰ but an aroma of actuality, which cannot be਀昀椀氀琀攀爀攀搀 琀栀爀漀甀最栀 愀渀漀琀栀攀爀 洀椀渀搀 眀椀琀栀漀甀琀 猀攀渀猀椀戀氀攀 攀瘀愀瀀漀爀愀琀椀漀渀Ⰰ clings to the account of the pioneer. Nor਀椀猀 椀琀 猀漀 栀愀爀搀 琀漀 洀愀欀攀 愀渀礀 眀攀氀氀ⴀ最爀愀猀瀀攀搀 洀愀琀琀攀爀 挀漀洀瀀爀攀栀攀渀猀椀戀氀攀 to a man of good general intelligence as਀椀猀 挀漀洀洀漀渀氀礀 猀甀瀀瀀漀猀攀搀⸀ 吀栀攀 眀栀漀氀攀 漀戀樀攀挀琀 漀昀 猀挀椀攀渀挀攀 is to synthesize, and so simplify; and did we but਀欀渀漀眀 琀栀攀 甀琀琀攀爀洀漀猀琀 漀昀 愀 猀甀戀樀攀挀琀 眀攀 挀漀甀氀搀 洀愀欀攀 椀琀 singularly clear. Meanwhile technical phraseology,਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开椀砀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开椀砀✀㸀椀砀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 useful as shorthand to the cult, becomes meaningless਀樀愀爀最漀渀 琀漀 琀栀攀 甀渀椀渀椀琀椀愀琀攀 愀渀搀 椀猀 瀀愀爀愀搀攀搀 洀漀猀琀 戀礀 琀栀攀 least profound. But worse still for their employ਀猀礀洀戀漀氀猀 琀攀渀搀 琀漀 昀椀挀琀椀琀椀漀甀猀 甀渀搀攀爀猀琀愀渀搀椀渀最⸀ 䘀漀爀洀甀氀 are the anæsthetics of thought, not its stimulants;਀愀渀搀 琀漀 洀愀欀攀 愀渀礀 漀渀攀 琀栀椀渀欀 椀猀 昀愀爀 戀攀琀琀攀爀 眀漀爀琀栀 眀栀椀氀攀 than cramming him with ill-considered, and therefore਀椀渀搀椀最攀猀琀椀戀氀攀Ⰰ 氀攀愀爀渀椀渀最⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䔀瘀攀渀 琀漀 琀栀攀 琀攀挀栀渀椀挀愀氀 猀琀甀搀攀渀琀Ⰰ 愀 瀀漀瀀甀氀愀爀 戀漀漀欀Ⰰ 椀昀 well done, may yield most valuable results. For nothing਀椀渀 愀渀礀 戀爀愀渀挀栀 漀昀 猀挀椀攀渀挀攀 椀猀 猀漀 氀椀琀琀氀攀 欀渀漀眀渀 愀猀 椀琀猀 articulation,—how the skeleton of it is put together,਀愀渀搀 眀栀愀琀 洀愀礀 戀攀 琀栀攀 洀漀搀攀 漀昀 愀琀琀愀挀栀洀攀渀琀 漀昀 椀琀猀 muscles.

xi਀  㰀栀㈀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㘀✀㸀䌀伀一吀䔀一吀匀㰀⼀栀㈀㸀
਀ ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㌀✀ 挀漀氀猀瀀愀渀㴀✀㌀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀瀀㄀✀㸀倀䄀刀吀 䤀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㌀✀ 挀漀氀猀瀀愀渀㴀✀㌀✀㸀一䄀吀唀刀䄀䰀 䘀䔀䄀吀唀刀䔀匀㰀⼀琀搀㸀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀伀渀 䔀砀瀀氀漀爀愀琀椀漀渀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀䄀 䐀攀瀀愀爀琀甀爀攀ⴀ瀀漀椀渀琀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀䄀 䈀椀爀搀ᤀ猠ⴀ攀礀攀 嘀椀攀眀 漀昀 倀愀猀琀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 䐀椀猀挀漀瘀攀爀礀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀吀栀攀 倀漀氀愀爀 䌀愀瀀猀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀䈀攀栀愀瘀椀漀爀 漀昀 琀栀攀 倀漀氀愀爀 䌀愀瀀猀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 倀漀氀愀爀 䔀砀瀀攀搀椀琀椀漀渀猀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀圀栀椀琀攀 匀瀀漀琀猀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀䌀氀椀洀愀琀攀 愀渀搀 圀攀愀琀栀攀爀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀䴀漀甀渀琀愀椀渀猀 愀渀搀 䌀氀漀甀搀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀吀栀攀 䈀氀甀攀ⴀ最爀攀攀渀 䄀爀攀愀猀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀嘀攀最攀琀愀琀椀漀渀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀吀攀爀爀愀焀甀攀漀甀猀渀攀猀猀 愀渀搀 吀攀爀爀攀猀琀爀椀愀氀椀琀礀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀吀栀攀 刀攀搀搀椀猀栀ⴀ漀挀栀爀攀 吀爀愀挀琀猀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀匀甀洀洀愀爀礀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀㰀琀搀㸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀㰀⼀琀搀㸀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀㰀琀搀㸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀㰀⼀琀搀㸀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀㰀琀搀㸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀㰀⼀琀搀㸀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀ ✀㸀堀嘀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㈀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀挀栀㄀㔀✀㸀㄀㜀㌀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀㰀琀搀㸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀㰀⼀琀搀㸀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀ ✀㸀堀嘀䤀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㈀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀挀栀㄀㘀✀㸀㄀㠀㐀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀㰀琀搀㸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀㰀⼀琀搀㸀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀ ✀㸀堀嘀䤀䤀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㈀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀挀栀㄀㜀✀㸀㄀㤀㈀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀㰀琀搀㸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀㰀⼀琀搀㸀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㐀✀㸀䤀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㈀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀挀栀㄀㜀瀀㄀✀㸀㄀㤀㘀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀㰀琀搀㸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀㰀⼀琀搀㸀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㐀✀㸀䤀䤀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㈀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀挀栀㄀㜀瀀㈀✀㸀㈀ ㄀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀㰀琀搀㸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀㰀⼀琀搀㸀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㐀✀㸀䤀䤀䤀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㈀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀挀栀㄀㜀瀀㌀✀㸀㈀ ㈀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀㰀琀搀㸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀㰀⼀琀搀㸀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀吀栀攀 䐀漀甀戀氀攀 䌀愀渀愀氀猀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀䌀愀渀愀氀猀 椀渀 琀栀攀 䐀愀爀欀 刀攀最椀漀渀猀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀伀愀猀攀猀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀䌀愀爀攀琀猀 漀渀 琀栀攀 䈀漀爀搀攀爀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 䜀爀攀愀琀 䐀椀愀瀀栀爀愀最洀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀吀栀攀 䌀愀渀愀氀猀 倀栀漀琀漀最爀愀瀀栀攀搀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀㰀琀搀㸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀㰀⼀琀搀㸀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀㰀琀搀㸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀㰀⼀琀搀㸀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀㰀琀搀㸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀㰀⼀琀搀㸀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀ ✀㸀堀堀䤀䤀䤀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㈀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀挀栀㈀㌀✀㸀㈀㠀㄀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀㰀琀搀㸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀㰀⼀琀搀㸀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀ ✀㸀堀堀䤀嘀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㈀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀挀栀㈀㐀✀㸀㌀ 㐀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀㰀琀搀㸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀㰀⼀琀搀㸀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀ ✀㸀堀堀嘀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㈀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀挀栀㈀㔀✀㸀㌀㄀㌀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀㰀琀搀㸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀㰀⼀琀搀㸀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀ ✀㸀堀堀嘀䤀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㈀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀挀栀㈀㘀✀㸀㌀㈀㔀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀㰀琀搀㸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀㰀⼀琀搀㸀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀ ✀㸀堀堀嘀䤀䤀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㈀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀挀栀㈀㜀✀㸀㌀㌀ 㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀㰀琀搀㸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀㰀⼀琀搀㸀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㌀✀ 挀漀氀猀瀀愀渀㴀✀㌀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀瀀㐀✀㸀倀䄀刀吀 䤀嘀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㌀✀ 挀漀氀猀瀀愀渀㴀✀㌀✀㸀䔀堀倀䰀䄀一䄀吀䤀伀一㰀⼀琀搀㸀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀䌀漀渀猀琀椀琀甀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 䌀愀渀愀氀猀 愀渀搀 伀愀猀攀猀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀䰀椀昀攀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀䔀瘀椀搀攀渀挀攀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀吀栀攀 䠀甀猀戀愀渀搀椀渀最 漀昀 圀愀琀攀爀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀䌀漀渀挀氀甀猀椀漀渀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀㰀琀搀㸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀㰀⼀琀搀㸀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀ ✀㸀䤀一䐀䔀堀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㈀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀砀✀㸀㌀㠀㔀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀愀戀氀攀㸀 ਀㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀栀愀瀀琀攀爀✀㸀 ਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开砀椀椀椀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开砀椀椀椀✀㸀砀椀椀椀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀 ਀㰀琀愀戀氀攀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀琀挀✀ 椀搀㴀✀氀漀椀✀ 猀甀洀洀愀爀礀㴀✀䰀椀猀琀 漀昀 䤀氀氀甀猀琀爀愀琀椀漀渀猀✀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀✀ 挀漀氀猀瀀愀渀㴀✀㌀✀㸀倀䰀䄀吀䔀匀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀昀爀✀㸀㰀椀㸀䘀爀漀渀琀椀猀瀀椀攀挀攀㰀⼀椀㸀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀倀䄀䜀䔀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀开  㠀昀瀀✀㸀㠀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀开 ㄀㠀昀瀀✀㸀㄀㠀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀氀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀䈀攀攀爀 愀渀搀 䴀愀攀搀氀攀爀⸀ ㄀㠀㐀  嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㈀㈀崀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀䤀䤀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀开 ㈀㘀昀瀀开㈀✀㸀㈀㘀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀氀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀䘀氀愀洀洀愀爀椀漀渀 ⠀刀猀甀洀⤀⸀ ㄀㠀㜀㘀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㐀㄀崀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀䤀嘀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀开 ㈀㜀昀瀀开㈀✀㸀㈀㜀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀氀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀匀挀栀椀愀瀀愀爀攀氀氀椀⸀ ㄀㠀㜀㜀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㐀㈀崀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀嘀䤀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀开 ㈀㠀昀瀀开㈀✀㸀㈀㠀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀氀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀匀挀栀椀愀瀀愀爀攀氀氀椀⸀ ㄀㠀㠀㄀ 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㐀㐀崀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀嘀䤀䤀䤀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀开 ㈀㤀昀瀀开㈀✀㸀㈀㤀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀氀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀䰀漀眀攀氀氀⸀ ㄀㠀㤀㐀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㄀崀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀堀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀开 ㌀ 昀瀀开㈀✀㸀㌀ 㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀氀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀䰀漀眀攀氀氀⸀ ㄀㤀 ㄀ 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㔀崀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀堀䤀䤀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀开 ㌀㄀昀瀀开㈀✀㸀㌀㄀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀开 㐀㈀昀瀀✀㸀㐀㈀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀开 㐀㐀昀瀀✀㸀㐀㐀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀开㄀㈀ 昀瀀✀㸀㄀㈀ 㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀开㄀㈀㈀昀瀀✀㸀㄀㈀㈀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀开㄀㈀㐀昀瀀✀㸀㄀㈀㐀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀开㄀㈀㘀昀瀀✀㸀㄀㈀㘀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀开㌀㠀㐀昀瀀✀㸀㌀㠀㐀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀氀✀ 挀漀氀猀瀀愀渀㴀✀㈀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀匀漀甀琀栀 倀漀氀愀爀 䌀愀瀀 椀渀 眀椀渀琀攀爀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀氀✀ 挀漀氀猀瀀愀渀㴀✀㈀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀䠀攀氀氀愀猀 椀渀 眀椀渀琀攀爀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀㸀
xiv
਀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀开戀开 㔀㤀开㈀✀㸀㔀㤀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀开戀开 㘀㐀✀㸀㘀㐀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀开戀开 㘀㔀✀㸀㘀㔀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀开戀开 㜀 ✀㸀㜀 㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀开戀开 㜀㈀✀㸀㜀㈀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀开戀开 㜀㔀✀㸀㜀㔀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀开戀开 㜀㠀✀㸀㜀㠀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀开戀开㄀ ㄀✀㸀㄀ ㄀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀开戀开㄀㄀㜀✀㸀㄀㄀㜀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀开戀开㄀㌀㈀✀㸀㄀㌀㈀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀开戀开㄀㌀㐀✀㸀㄀㌀㐀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀开戀开㄀㌀㔀✀㸀㄀㌀㔀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀开戀开㄀㌀㘀✀㸀㄀㌀㘀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀开戀开㄀㌀㜀✀㸀㄀㌀㜀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀开戀开㄀㔀㘀✀㸀㄀㔀㘀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀开戀开㄀㔀㜀✀㸀㄀㔀㜀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀开戀开㄀㠀㌀✀㸀㄀㠀㌀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀开戀开㈀ 㘀✀㸀㈀ 㘀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀开戀开㈀ 㜀✀㸀㈀ 㜀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀开戀开㈀㄀㤀✀㸀㈀㄀㤀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀开戀开㈀㈀㠀✀㸀㈀㈀㠀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀开戀开㈀㈀㤀✀㸀㈀㈀㤀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀氀✀ 挀漀氀猀瀀愀渀㴀✀㈀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀吀栀攀 倀爀漀瀀漀渀琀椀猀Ⰰ ㄀㤀 㔀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㜀崀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀氀✀ 挀漀氀猀瀀愀渀㴀✀㈀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀䘀漀渀猀 䤀洀洀漀爀琀愀氀椀猀Ⰰ 䨀甀渀攀 ㄀㤀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㜀 䜀攀洀椀渀椀 ㄀㌀崀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀氀✀ 挀漀氀猀瀀愀渀㴀✀㈀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀唀琀漀瀀椀愀 刀攀最椀漀⸀ ㄀㤀 ㌀ 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㘀崀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀氀✀ 挀漀氀猀瀀愀渀㴀✀㈀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀䄀猀挀爀愀攀甀猀 䰀甀挀甀猀 愀渀搀 䜀椀最愀猀⸀ 䴀愀爀挀栀 ㈀Ⰰ ㄀㤀 ㌀ 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㘀 䴀椀渀愀 ㈀崀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀氀✀ 挀漀氀猀瀀愀渀㴀✀㈀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀倀攀挀甀氀椀愀爀 愀猀猀漀挀椀愀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 䰀甀挀椀 䤀猀洀攀渀椀椀 眀椀琀栀 搀漀甀戀氀攀 canals਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀开戀开㈀㘀 ✀㸀㈀㘀 㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀开戀开㈀㘀㈀✀㸀㈀㘀㈀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀开戀开㈀㠀㔀开㄀✀㸀㈀㠀㔀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀氀✀ 挀漀氀猀瀀愀渀㴀✀㈀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀匀栀漀眀椀渀最 猀攀愀猀漀渀愀氀 挀栀愀渀最攀⸀ 䤀䤀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀氀✀ 挀漀氀猀瀀愀渀㴀✀㈀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀䴀攀愀渀 䌀愀渀愀氀 䌀愀爀琀漀甀挀栀攀猀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀氀✀ 挀漀氀猀瀀愀渀㴀✀㈀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀匀栀漀眀椀渀最 搀攀瘀攀氀漀瀀洀攀渀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 䈀爀漀渀琀攀猀㨀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀昀猀猀✀㸀䤀⸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀开戀开㌀ 㘀✀㸀㌀ 㘀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀氀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀䴀愀爀挀栀 ㌀ 㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀昀猀猀✀㸀䤀䤀䤀⸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀开戀开㌀ 㜀开㈀✀㸀㌀ 㜀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀氀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀䴀愀礀 㐀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀昀猀猀✀㸀嘀⸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀开戀开㌀ 㠀开㈀✀㸀㌀ 㠀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀氀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀䨀甀氀礀 ㄀㠀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀氀✀ 挀漀氀猀瀀愀渀㴀✀㈀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀䌀愀爀琀漀甀挀栀攀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 䈀爀漀渀琀攀猀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀氀✀ 挀漀氀猀瀀愀渀㴀✀㈀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀䄀洀攀渀琀栀攀猀 愀氀漀渀攀 椀渀 䘀攀戀爀甀愀爀礀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀氀✀ 挀漀氀猀瀀愀渀㴀✀㈀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀䄀洀攀渀琀栀攀猀 昀攀攀戀氀攀爀 愀渀搀 猀琀椀氀氀 愀氀漀渀攀 椀渀 䴀愀爀挀栀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀氀✀ 挀漀氀猀瀀愀渀㴀✀㈀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀䄀瀀瀀攀愀爀愀渀挀攀 漀昀 吀栀漀琀栀 眀椀琀栀 吀爀椀琀漀渀 愀渀搀 挀甀爀瘀攀搀 一攀瀀攀渀琀栀攀猀⸀ Amenthes vanished, April 20਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀开戀开㌀㈀ ✀㸀㌀㈀ 㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀开戀开㌀㈀㄀✀㸀㌀㈀㄀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀开戀开㌀㈀㈀✀㸀㌀㈀㈀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀开戀开㌀㈀㌀✀㸀㌀㈀㌀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀开戀开㌀㐀㈀✀㸀㌀㐀㈀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀开戀开㌀㐀㌀✀㸀㌀㐀㌀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀愀戀氀攀㸀 ਀㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀栀愀瀀琀攀爀✀㸀 ਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀✀㸀㄀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀

PART I

NATURAL FEATURES

਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀 ਀㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀昀ⴀ挀攀渀琀攀爀ⴀ挀 ✀㸀
਀    㰀搀椀瘀㸀 3਀䴀䄀刀匀 䄀一䐀 䤀吀匀 䌀䄀一䄀䰀匀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀
਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀 ਀㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀栀愀瀀琀攀爀✀㸀

CHAPTER I

ON EXPLORATION

਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀搀爀漀瀀ⴀ挀愀瀀愀 开㈀开 开㠀 挀 ㄀㔀✀     㸀䘀爀漀洀 琀椀洀攀 椀洀洀攀洀漀爀椀愀氀 琀爀愀瘀攀氀 愀渀搀 搀椀猀挀漀瘀攀爀礀 have called with strange insistence to him who,਀眀漀渀搀攀爀椀渀最 漀渀 琀栀攀 眀漀爀氀搀Ⰰ 昀攀氀琀 愀搀瘀攀渀琀甀爀攀 椀渀 栀椀猀 瘀攀椀渀猀⸀ The leaving familiar sights and faces to push forth into਀琀栀攀 甀渀欀渀漀眀渀 栀愀猀 眀椀琀栀 洀愀最渀攀琀椀挀 昀漀爀挀攀 搀爀愀眀渀 琀栀攀 戀漀氀搀 to great endeavor and fired the thought of those who਀猀琀愀礀攀搀 愀琀 栀漀洀攀⸀ 匀瀀甀爀 琀漀 攀渀琀攀爀瀀爀椀猀攀 猀椀渀挀攀 洀愀渀 昀椀爀猀琀 was, this spirit has urged him over the habitable globe.਀䰀椀渀欀攀搀 椀渀 瀀愀爀琀 琀漀 洀攀爀攀 洀愀琀琀攀爀 漀昀 猀甀瀀瀀漀爀琀 椀琀 氀攀搀 琀栀攀 more daring of the Aryans to quit the shade of their਀戀攀攀挀栀 琀爀攀攀猀Ⰰ 爀攀瀀漀猀攀昀甀氀 愀猀 琀栀愀琀 甀洀戀爀愀最攀 洀愀礀 栀愀瘀攀 戀攀攀渀Ⰰ and wander into Central Asia, so to perplex philologists਀椀渀琀漀 戀攀氀椀攀瘀椀渀最 琀栀攀洀 琀漀 栀愀瘀攀 漀爀椀最椀渀愀琀攀搀 琀栀攀爀攀㬀 it lured Columbus across the waste of waters and਀挀愀甀猀攀搀 栀椀猀 猀漀渀 琀漀 栀愀瘀攀 挀愀爀瘀攀搀 甀瀀漀渀 栀椀猀 琀漀洀戀 琀栀愀琀 ringing couplet of which the simple grandeur still਀猀琀椀爀猀 琀栀攀 戀氀漀漀搀㨀᐀㰠⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀氀最ⴀ挀漀渀琀愀椀渀攀爀ⴀ戀✀㸀
਀    㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀最爀漀甀瀀✀㸀
Á Castilla y á Leon
਀      㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀氀椀渀攀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀一甀攀瘀漀 洀漀渀搀漀 搀椀 䌀漀氀漀渀㬀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀
਀    㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀最爀漀甀瀀✀㸀
(To Castile and Leon beyond the wave
਀      㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀氀椀渀攀✀㸀䄀渀漀琀栀攀爀 眀漀爀氀搀 䌀漀氀甀洀戀甀猀 最愀瘀攀㬀⤀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀 ਀

਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㐀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㐀✀㸀㐀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 it drove the early voyagers into the heart of the vast਀眀椀氀搀攀爀渀攀猀猀Ⰰ 琀栀攀爀攀 琀漀 攀渀搀甀爀攀 愀氀氀 栀愀爀搀猀栀椀瀀 猀漀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀礀 might come where their kind had never stood before;਀愀渀搀 渀漀眀 椀琀 瀀漀椀渀琀猀 洀愀渀 琀漀 琀栀攀 瀀漀氀攀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀匀漀洀攀琀栀椀渀最 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀攀氀昀猀愀洀攀 猀瀀椀爀椀琀 昀椀渀搀猀 愀 昀愀爀琀栀攀爀 field today outside the confines of our traversable਀攀愀爀琀栀⸀ 匀挀椀攀渀挀攀 眀栀椀挀栀 栀愀猀 挀愀甀猀攀搀 琀栀攀 眀漀爀氀搀 琀漀 猀栀爀椀渀欀 and dwindle has been no less busy bringing near what਀椀渀 琀栀攀 瀀愀猀琀 猀攀攀洀攀搀 椀渀愀挀挀攀猀猀椀戀氀礀 爀攀洀漀琀攀⸀ 䈀攀礀漀渀搀 漀甀爀 earth man’s penetration has found it possible to pierce,਀愀渀搀 椀渀 椀琀猀 眀椀搀攀渀椀渀最 挀椀爀挀氀攀 漀昀 爀攀猀攀愀爀挀栀 栀愀猀 氀愀琀琀攀爀氀礀 戀攀攀渀 made aware of another world of strange enticement਀愀挀爀漀猀猀 琀栀攀 搀攀瀀琀栀猀 漀昀 猀瀀愀挀攀⸀ 倀氀愀渀攀琀愀爀礀 搀椀猀琀愀渀挀攀猀Ⰰ 渀漀琀 mundane ones, are here concerned, and the globe to be਀攀砀瀀氀漀爀攀搀Ⰰ 琀栀漀甀最栀 愀欀椀渀 琀漀Ⰰ 椀猀 礀攀琀 瘀攀爀礀 搀椀昀昀攀爀攀渀琀 昀爀漀洀Ⰰ our own. This other world is the planet Mars.਀匀甀渀搀攀爀攀搀 昀爀漀洀 甀猀 戀礀 琀栀攀 漀挀攀愀渀 漀昀 攀琀栀攀爀Ⰰ 愀 昀攀氀氀漀眀ⴀ洀攀洀戀攀爀 of our own community of matter there makes਀椀琀猀 挀椀爀挀甀椀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀甀渀 甀瀀漀渀 眀栀漀猀攀 昀愀挀攀 昀攀愀琀甀爀攀猀 猀栀漀眀 which stamp it as cognate to that on which we live.਀䤀渀 猀瀀椀琀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 洀椀氀氀椀漀渀猀 漀昀 洀椀氀攀猀 漀昀 椀渀琀攀爀瘀攀渀椀渀最 洀愀琀琀攀爀氀攀猀猀 void, upon it markings can be made out that਀搀椀猀琀愀渀琀氀礀 爀攀猀攀洀戀氀攀 漀甀爀 攀愀爀琀栀ᤀ猠 琀漀瀀漀最爀愀瀀栀礀 愀渀搀 最爀漀眀 increasingly suggestive as vision shapes them better;਀愀渀搀 礀攀琀 愀洀漀渀最 琀栀攀 猀攀攀洀椀渀最氀礀 昀愀洀椀氀椀愀爀 爀攀瘀攀愀氀 愀猀瀀攀挀琀猀 which are completely strange. But more than this:਀漀瘀攀爀 琀栀攀 昀愀挀攀 漀昀 椀琀 猀眀攀攀瀀 挀栀愀渀最攀猀 琀栀愀琀 猀栀漀眀 椀琀 琀漀 戀攀 5਀渀漀琀 愀 搀攀愀搀 戀甀琀 愀 氀椀瘀椀渀最 眀漀爀氀搀Ⰰ 氀椀欀攀 漀甀爀猀 椀渀 琀栀椀猀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 luring curiosity by details unknown here to further਀攀砀瀀氀漀爀愀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 椀琀猀 甀渀昀愀洀椀氀椀愀爀 最爀漀甀渀搀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀吀漀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀攀 䴀愀爀猀 椀猀 琀漀 攀洀戀愀爀欀 甀瀀漀渀 琀栀椀猀 攀渀琀攀爀瀀爀椀猀攀㬀 not in body but in mind. Though parted by a gulf਀洀漀爀攀 椀洀瀀愀猀猀愀戀氀攀 琀栀愀渀 愀渀礀 猀攀愀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 琀攀氀攀猀挀漀瀀攀 氀攀琀猀 甀猀 traverse what otherwise had been barred and lands us਀愀琀 氀愀猀琀 愀戀漀瘀攀 琀栀攀 猀栀漀爀攀猀 眀攀 眀攀渀琀 昀漀爀琀栀 琀漀 猀攀攀欀⸀ 刀攀愀氀 the journey is, though incorporeal in kind. Since the਀猀攀攀椀渀最 猀琀爀愀渀最攀 猀椀最栀琀猀 椀猀 琀栀攀 攀猀猀攀渀挀攀 漀昀 愀氀氀 昀愀爀 眀愀渀搀攀爀椀渀最猀Ⰰ it is as truly travel so the eye arrive as if the body਀欀攀瀀琀 椀琀 挀漀洀瀀愀渀礀⸀ 䤀渀搀攀攀搀Ⰰ 猀椀最栀琀 椀猀 漀甀爀 漀渀氀礀 昀愀爀 瘀椀愀琀椀挀 sense. Touch and taste both hang on contact, smell਀猀琀愀渀搀猀 椀渀搀攀戀琀攀搀 琀漀 琀栀攀 渀攀愀爀 愀渀搀 攀瘀攀渀 栀攀愀爀椀渀最 眀愀椀琀猀 漀渀 ponderable matter where sound soon dissipates away;਀漀渀氀礀 猀椀最栀琀 猀漀愀爀猀 甀渀琀爀愀洀洀攀氀攀搀 漀昀 琀栀攀 最爀漀猀猀攀爀 愀搀樀甀渀挀琀 漀昀 the flesh to penetrate what were otherwise unfathomable਀猀瀀愀挀攀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀圀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 瘀漀礀愀最攀爀 琀栀甀猀 昀椀渀搀猀 栀椀洀猀攀氀昀 攀渀瘀椀猀愀最椀渀最 shares by that very fact in the expansion of the sense਀琀栀愀琀 戀爀漀甀最栀琀 栀椀洀 琀栀攀爀攀⸀ 一漀 氀漀渀最攀爀 琀椀攀搀 戀礀 洀攀愀渀猀 漀昀 transport to seas his sails may compass or lands his਀昀攀攀琀 洀愀礀 琀爀攀愀搀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 琀爀愀瘀攀氀攀爀 爀攀愀挀栀攀猀 愀 最漀愀氀 爀攀洀漀瘀攀搀 椀渀 kind from his own habitat. He proves to have adventured,਀渀漀琀 椀渀琀漀 甀渀欀渀漀眀渀 瀀愀爀琀猀 漀昀 愀 欀渀漀眀渀 眀漀爀氀搀Ⰰ but into one new to him in its entirety. In extent਀愀氀漀渀攀 栀攀 猀甀爀瘀攀礀猀 眀栀愀琀 搀眀愀爀昀猀 琀栀攀 攀砀瀀氀漀爀攀爀ᤀ猠 挀漀渀焀甀攀猀琀猀 6਀漀渀 䔀愀爀琀栀⸀ 䈀甀琀 猀椀稀攀 椀猀 琀栀攀 氀攀愀猀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀甀爀瀀爀椀猀攀猀 琀栀攀爀攀 in store for him. What confronts his gaze finds commonly਀渀漀 挀漀甀渀琀攀爀瀀愀爀琀 漀渀 䔀愀爀琀栀⸀ 䠀椀猀 瀀爀攀瘀椀漀甀猀 欀渀漀眀氀攀搀最攀 stands him in scant stead. For he faces what is਀猀漀 爀攀洀漀瘀攀搀 昀爀漀洀 攀瘀攀爀礀 搀愀礀 攀砀瀀攀爀椀攀渀挀攀 琀栀愀琀 愀渀愀氀漀最礀 渀漀 longer offers itself with safety as a guide. He must਀戀甀椀氀搀 甀瀀 渀攀眀 挀漀渀挀攀瀀琀椀漀渀猀 昀爀漀洀 昀爀攀猀栀 搀愀琀愀 愀渀搀 猀氀漀眀氀礀 proceed to deduce the meaning they may contain.਀匀挀椀攀渀挀攀 愀氀漀渀攀 挀愀渀 栀攀氀瀀 栀椀洀 琀漀 椀渀琀攀爀瀀爀攀琀愀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 眀栀愀琀 he finds, and above all must he wean himself from਀栀甀洀愀渀 瀀爀攀樀甀搀椀挀攀 愀渀搀 攀愀爀琀栀戀漀甀渀搀 氀椀洀椀琀愀琀椀漀渀⸀ 䘀漀爀 栀攀 deals here with ultramundane things. With just਀攀渀漀甀最栀 漀昀 挀漀猀洀漀最漀渀礀 椀渀 挀漀洀洀漀渀 琀漀 洀愀欀攀 搀攀挀椀瀀栀攀爀洀攀渀琀 not despairable this world is yet so different਀昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 漀渀攀 栀攀 瀀攀爀猀漀渀愀氀氀礀 欀渀漀眀猀 愀猀 琀漀 眀栀攀琀 挀甀爀椀漀猀椀琀礀 at every turn. He is permitted to perceive what਀瀀椀焀甀攀猀 椀渀焀甀椀爀礀 愀渀搀 戀礀 瀀愀琀椀攀渀琀 愀搀搀椀渀最 漀昀 瀀漀椀渀琀 琀漀 瀀漀椀渀琀 promises at last a rational result.

Like mundane exploration, it is arduous too; ad਀愀猀琀爀愀 瀀攀爀 愀猀瀀攀爀愀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀椀㸀 椀猀 栀攀爀攀 氀椀琀攀爀愀氀氀礀 琀爀甀攀⸀ 䘀漀爀 椀琀 椀猀 愀 journey not devoid of hardship and discomfort by the਀眀愀礀⸀ 䤀琀猀 猀琀愀爀琀椀渀最ⴀ瀀漀椀渀琀 瀀爀攀氀甀搀攀猀 愀猀 洀甀挀栀⸀ 吀漀 最攀琀 conditions proper for his work the explorer must forego਀琀栀攀 栀愀甀渀琀猀 漀昀 洀攀渀 愀渀搀 攀瘀攀渀 琀栀漀猀攀 琀攀爀爀攀猀琀爀椀愀氀 猀瀀漀琀猀 昀漀甀渀搀 by them most habitable. Astronomy now demands਀戀漀搀椀氀礀 愀戀猀琀爀愀挀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 椀琀猀 搀攀瘀漀琀攀攀⸀ 䤀琀猀 搀攀椀琀椀攀猀 愀爀攀 最漀搀猀 that veil themselves amid man-crowded marts and਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㜀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㜀✀㸀㜀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 impose withdrawal and seclusion for the prosecution of਀琀栀攀椀爀 挀甀氀琀 愀猀 洀甀挀栀 愀猀 愀渀礀 眀漀爀猀栀椀瀀攀搀 昀漀爀 漀琀栀攀爀 爀攀愀猀漀渀 in more primeval times. To see into the beyond requires਀瀀甀爀椀琀礀㬀 椀渀 琀栀攀 洀攀搀椀甀洀 渀漀眀 愀猀 昀漀爀洀攀爀氀礀 椀渀 琀栀攀 man. As little air as may be and that only of the਀戀攀猀琀 椀猀 漀戀氀椀最愀琀漀爀礀 琀漀 栀椀猀 攀渀琀攀爀瀀爀椀猀攀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 猀攀挀甀爀椀渀最 椀琀 makes him perforce a hermit from his kind. He must਀愀戀愀渀搀漀渀 挀椀琀椀攀猀 愀渀搀 昀漀爀攀最漀 瀀氀愀椀渀猀⸀ 伀渀氀礀 椀渀 瀀氀愀挀攀猀 爀愀椀猀攀搀 above and aloof from men can he profitably pursue਀栀椀猀 猀攀愀爀挀栀Ⰰ 瀀氀愀挀攀猀 眀栀攀爀攀 渀愀琀甀爀攀 渀攀瘀攀爀 洀攀愀渀琀 栀椀洀 琀漀 dwell and admonishes him of the fact by sundry਀栀椀渀琀猀 漀昀 愀 洀漀爀攀 漀爀 氀攀猀猀 搀椀猀琀爀攀猀猀椀渀最 挀栀愀爀愀挀琀攀爀⸀ 吀漀 stand a mile and a half nearer the stars is not to਀猀琀愀渀搀 椀洀洀甀渀攀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀吀栀甀猀 椀琀 挀漀洀攀猀 愀戀漀甀琀 琀栀愀琀 琀漀搀愀礀 戀攀猀椀搀攀猀 椀琀猀 琀攀洀瀀氀攀猀 erected in cities, monasteries in the wilds are being਀搀攀搀椀挀愀琀攀搀 琀漀 愀猀琀爀漀渀漀洀礀 愀猀 椀渀 琀栀攀 瀀愀猀琀 琀漀 昀愀椀琀栀㬀 洀漀渀愀猀琀攀爀椀攀猀 made to commune with its spirit, as temples਀愀爀攀 琀漀 挀漀洀洀甀渀椀挀愀琀攀 琀栀攀 氀攀琀琀攀爀 漀昀 椀琀猀 氀愀眀⸀ 倀椀漀渀攀攀爀猀 椀渀 such profession, those already in existence are but the਀瀀爀攀挀甀爀猀漀爀猀 漀昀 洀愀渀礀 礀攀琀 琀漀 挀漀洀攀 愀猀 猀挀椀攀渀挀攀 猀栀愀氀氀 洀漀爀攀 and more recognize their need. Advance in knowledge਀搀攀洀愀渀搀猀 眀栀愀琀 琀栀攀礀 愀氀漀渀攀 挀愀渀 最椀瘀攀⸀ 倀爀椀洀椀琀椀瘀攀Ⰰ too, they must be as befits the still austere sincerity਀漀昀 愀 挀甀氀琀Ⰰ 椀渀 眀栀椀挀栀 琀栀攀 猀椀洀瀀氀攀猀琀 猀琀爀甀挀琀甀爀攀猀 愀爀攀 昀漀甀渀搀 to be the best.

Still the very wildness of the life their devotee is਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㠀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㠀✀㸀㠀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 forced to lead has in it a certain fittingness for his post਀椀渀 椀琀猀 瀀爀椀洀攀瘀愀氀 搀攀琀愀挀栀洀攀渀琀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 琀漀漀 攀愀爀琀栀戀漀甀渀搀Ⰰ in concept as in circumstance. Withdrawn from contact਀眀椀琀栀 栀椀猀 欀椀渀搀Ⰰ 栀攀 椀猀 戀礀 琀栀愀琀 洀甀挀栀 爀愀椀猀攀搀 愀戀漀瘀攀 human prejudice and limitation. To sally forth into਀琀栀攀 甀渀琀爀漀搀 眀椀氀搀攀爀渀攀猀猀 椀渀 琀栀攀 挀漀氀搀 愀渀搀 搀愀爀欀 漀昀 愀 winter’s small hours of the morning, with the snow feet਀搀攀攀瀀 甀瀀漀渀 琀栀攀 最爀漀甀渀搀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 昀爀漀猀琀礀 猀琀愀爀猀 昀漀爀 洀甀琀攀 companionship, is almost to forget one’s self a man਀昀漀爀 琀栀攀 猀漀氀攀洀渀 愀眀攀 漀昀 漀渀攀ᤀ猠 猀甀爀爀漀甀渀搀椀渀最猀⸀ 䘀椀琀琀椀渀最 portal to communion with another world, it is through਀猀甀挀栀 愀瘀攀渀甀攀 漀渀攀 攀渀琀攀爀猀 漀渀 栀椀猀 焀甀攀猀琀 眀栀攀爀攀 琀栀攀 挀漀洀洀漀渀 and familiar no longer jostle the unknown and਀琀栀攀 猀琀爀愀渀最攀⸀ 一漀爀 椀猀 琀栀攀 猀琀椀氀氀渀攀猀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀琀愀爀猀 椀渀瘀愀搀攀搀 when some long unearthly howl, like the wail of a lost਀猀漀甀氀Ⰰ 戀爀攀愀欀猀 琀栀攀 猀氀甀洀戀攀爀 漀昀 琀栀攀 洀攀猀愀 昀漀爀攀猀琀Ⰰ 洀愀爀欀椀渀最 the prowling presence of a stray coyote. Gone as it਀挀愀洀攀Ⰰ 椀琀 搀椀攀猀 椀渀 琀栀攀 搀椀猀琀愀渀挀攀 漀渀 琀栀攀 愀椀爀 琀栀愀琀 最愀瘀攀 椀琀 birth; and the gloom of the pines swallows up one’s਀瘀愀椀渀 瀀攀攀爀椀渀最 愀昀琀攀爀 猀漀洀攀琀栀椀渀最 瀀愀氀瀀愀戀氀攀Ⰰ 琀栀攀椀爀 琀漀瀀猀 愀氀漀渀攀 decipherable in dark silhouette against the sky. From਀愀洀椀搀 猀甀爀爀漀甀渀搀椀渀最猀 琀栀愀琀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀椀爀 栀攀椀最栀琀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀椀爀 intenancy fringe the absolute silence of space the਀漀戀猀攀爀瘀攀爀 洀甀猀琀 猀攀琀 昀漀爀琀栀 眀栀漀 瀀甀爀瀀漀猀攀猀 琀漀 挀爀漀猀猀 椀琀 琀漀 another planetary world.

਀㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀椀挀  ㈀✀㸀 ਀㰀瀀㸀㰀椀㸀吀栀攀 䠀攀爀洀椀琀愀最攀㰀⼀椀㸀㰀⼀瀀㸀
਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䈀甀琀 琀栀攀 椀猀漀氀愀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 栀椀猀 樀漀甀爀渀攀礀 椀猀 渀漀琀 愀氀眀愀礀猀 猀漀 昀漀爀戀椀搀搀椀渀最⸀ His coming back is no less girt with grandeur਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㤀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㤀✀㸀㤀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 of a different though equally detached a kind. Even਀戀攀昀漀爀攀 琀栀攀 猀琀愀爀猀 戀攀最椀渀 琀漀 搀椀洀 椀渀 眀愀爀渀椀渀最 琀漀 栀椀洀 琀漀 爀攀琀甀爀渀Ⰰ a faint suffusion as of half-suspected light creeps਀椀渀琀漀 琀栀攀 戀漀爀搀攀爀 漀昀 琀栀攀 攀愀猀琀攀爀渀 猀欀礀⸀ 䄀最愀椀渀猀琀 椀琀Ⰰ 愀氀漀渀最 the far pine-clad horizon, mesa after mesa in shaggy਀氀椀渀攀猀 漀昀 猀攀渀琀椀渀攀氀椀渀最 攀愀爀琀栀Ⰰ 猀琀愀渀搀猀 昀漀爀琀栀 搀愀爀欀 洀愀爀猀栀愀氀攀搀 in the gloom, informed with prescience of what is soon਀琀漀 挀漀洀攀⸀ 䤀洀瀀攀爀挀攀瀀琀椀戀氀礀 琀栀攀 瀀愀氀氀漀爀 最爀漀眀猀Ⰰ 戀氀愀渀挀栀椀渀最 the face of night and one by one extinguishing the stars.਀匀氀漀眀氀礀 琀栀攀渀 椀琀 琀愀欀攀猀 漀渀 挀漀氀漀爀Ⰰ 琀椀渀最攀椀渀最 攀瘀攀爀 猀漀 昀愀椀渀琀氀礀 to a flush that swells and deepens as the minutes pass.਀伀渀攀 栀愀搀 猀愀椀搀 琀栀攀 猀欀礀 氀愀礀 搀爀攀愀洀椀渀最 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀甀渀 椀渀 瀀愀氀攀 imagery at first that gathers force and feeling till the਀搀爀攀愀洀攀爀 琀甀爀渀猀 琀栀甀猀 爀漀猀礀 爀攀搀 椀渀 猀氀甀洀戀攀爀椀渀最 猀甀瀀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀 of reality. Then the blush dies out. The crimson fades਀琀漀 瀀椀渀欀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 瀀椀渀欀 琀漀 愀猀栀攀猀⸀ 吀栀攀 猀琀愀爀猀 栀愀瘀攀 搀椀猀愀瀀瀀攀愀爀攀搀 and yet it is not day. It is the supreme moment of the਀搀愀眀渀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 栀甀猀栀 眀椀琀栀 眀栀椀挀栀 琀栀攀 䔀愀爀琀栀 愀眀愀椀琀猀 椀琀猀 昀甀氀氀 awakening. For now again the color gathers in the east,਀渀漀琀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 椀洀瀀愀氀瀀愀戀氀攀 猀甀昀昀甀猀椀漀渀 椀琀 栀愀搀 戀攀昀漀爀攀 戀甀琀 nearer and more vivid. No longer reflectively remote,਀爀愀礀猀 椀洀洀椀渀攀渀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀甀渀 猀琀爀椀欀攀 琀栀攀 甀瀀瀀攀爀 愀椀爀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 洀漀猀琀 adventurously refrangible turning the underside of a਀昀攀眀 猀琀爀愀礀 挀氀漀甀搀猀 椀渀琀漀 昀氀愀洀攀ⴀ栀甀攀搀 戀愀爀猀 漀昀 最氀漀眀椀渀最 洀攀琀愀氀⸀ They burn thus in the silent east first red, then orange,਀愀渀搀 琀栀攀渀 最漀氀搀Ⰰ 攀愀挀栀 猀瀀攀挀琀爀愀氀 琀椀渀琀 椀渀 瀀爀椀猀洀愀琀椀挀 爀攀瘀攀氀愀琀椀漀渀 coming to join the next till in a sudden਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀ ✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀ ✀㸀㄀ 㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 blinding burst of splendor the solar disk tops the਀栀漀爀椀稀漀渀ᤀ猠 爀椀洀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀一漀琀 氀攀猀猀 椀洀瀀爀攀猀猀椀瘀攀 椀猀 琀栀攀 樀漀甀爀渀攀礀 眀栀攀渀 琀栀攀 愀昀琀攀爀渀漀漀渀 watch has replaced the morning vigil by the drawing of਀琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀 渀攀愀爀攀爀 琀漀 琀栀攀 猀甀渀⸀ 䰀漀猀琀 椀渀 琀栀攀 戀爀椀氀氀椀愀渀挀攀 漀昀 the dazzling sky, the planet lies hid from the senses’਀猀攀愀爀挀栀⸀ 吀栀攀 焀甀攀猀琀 眀攀爀攀 栀漀瀀攀氀攀猀猀 搀椀搀 渀漀琀 琀栀攀 洀椀渀搀 最甀椀搀攀 the telescope to its goal. To theory alone is it visible਀猀琀椀氀氀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 猀漀 琀漀 椀琀猀 瀀爀攀搀椀挀琀攀搀 瀀氀愀挀攀 琀栀攀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀攀爀 猀攀琀猀 栀椀猀 circles, and punctual to the prophecy the planet swings਀椀渀琀漀 琀栀攀 昀椀攀氀搀 漀昀 瘀椀攀眀⸀ 伀渀攀 洀甀猀琀 戀攀 搀甀氀氀攀搀 戀礀 氀漀渀最 routine to such mastery of mind not to have the act਀椀琀猀攀氀昀 挀氀漀琀栀攀 眀椀琀栀 愀 猀攀渀猀攀 漀昀 挀栀愀爀洀攀搀 眀椀琀栀搀爀愀眀愀氀 琀栀攀 object of his quest.

So much and more there are of traveler’s glimpses਀戀礀 琀栀攀 眀愀礀Ⰰ 挀漀洀瀀攀渀猀愀琀椀漀渀 琀栀愀琀 漀昀昀猀攀琀猀 琀栀攀 昀爀攀焀甀攀渀琀 搀椀猀挀漀洀昀漀爀琀Ⰰ and even balking of his purpose by inopportune਀挀氀漀甀搀⸀ 䘀漀爀 琀栀攀 戀攀猀琀 漀昀 瀀氀愀挀攀猀 椀猀 渀漀琀 瀀攀爀昀攀挀琀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 愀 storm will sometimes rob him of a region he wished to਀猀攀攀⸀ 䠀攀 洀甀猀琀 氀攀愀爀渀 琀漀 眀愀椀琀 甀瀀漀渀 栀椀猀 漀瀀瀀漀爀琀甀渀椀琀椀攀猀 愀渀搀 then no less to wait for mankind’s acceptance of his਀爀攀猀甀氀琀猀㬀 昀漀爀 椀渀 挀漀洀洀漀渀 眀椀琀栀 洀漀猀琀 攀砀瀀氀漀爀攀爀猀 栀攀 眀椀氀氀 encounter on his return that final penalty of penetration,਀琀栀攀 挀攀爀琀愀椀渀琀礀 愀琀 昀椀爀猀琀 漀昀 戀攀椀渀最 搀椀猀戀攀氀椀攀瘀攀搀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䤀渀 猀甀挀栀 爀攀猀瀀攀挀琀 栀攀 眀椀氀氀 戀攀 攀瘀攀渀 眀漀爀猀攀 漀昀昀 琀栀愀渀 眀攀爀攀 琀栀攀 other world discoverers of the fifteenth and sixteenth਀挀攀渀琀甀爀椀攀猀⸀ 䘀漀爀 琀栀攀礀 愀琀 氀攀愀猀琀 挀漀甀氀搀 漀昀昀攀爀 洀愀琀攀爀椀愀氀 瀀爀漀漀昀 11਀漀昀 琀栀椀渀最猀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀礀 栀愀搀 猀攀攀渀⸀ 䐀甀洀戀 䤀渀搀椀愀渀猀 愀渀搀 最漀氀搀 spoke more convincingly than the lips of the great navigators.਀吀漀 愀猀琀爀漀渀漀洀礀Ⰰ 琀漀漀Ⰰ 琀栀愀琀 漀琀栀攀爀 眀漀爀氀搀 眀愀猀 搀甀攀⸀ Without a knowledge of the earth’s shape and size got਀昀爀漀洀 䘀爀愀渀挀椀猀挀漀 漀昀 倀椀猀愀Ⰰ 䌀漀氀甀洀戀甀猀 栀愀搀 渀攀瘀攀爀 愀搀瘀攀渀琀甀爀攀搀 himself upon the deep. But more than this, an astronomer਀椀琀 眀愀猀Ⰰ 椀渀 琀栀攀 瀀攀爀猀漀渀 漀昀 䄀洀攀爀椀挀甀猀 嘀攀猀瀀甀挀椀甀猀Ⰰ who first discovered the new world, by recognizing it਀愀猀 猀甀挀栀㬀 䌀漀氀甀洀戀甀猀 渀攀瘀攀爀 搀爀攀愀洀椀渀最 栀攀 栀愀搀 氀椀最栀琀攀搀 甀瀀漀渀 a world that was new. Nor does it impair one jot or਀琀椀琀琀氀攀 漀昀 栀椀猀 最氀漀爀礀 琀栀愀琀 栀攀 欀渀攀眀 椀琀 渀漀琀⸀ 一漀琀栀椀渀最 挀愀渀 deprive him of the imperishable fame of launching਀昀漀爀琀栀 椀渀琀漀 琀栀攀 瘀漀椀搀 椀渀 栀漀瀀攀 漀昀 愀 戀攀礀漀渀搀Ⰰ 琀栀漀甀最栀 栀攀 found not what he sought but something stranger still.

So, curiously, has it been with the trans-etherian.਀吀漀 匀挀栀椀愀瀀愀爀攀氀氀椀 琀栀攀 爀攀瀀甀戀氀椀挀 漀昀 猀挀椀攀渀挀攀 漀眀攀猀 愀 渀攀眀 愀渀搀 vast domain. His genius first detected those strange਀渀攀眀 洀愀爀欀椀渀最猀 漀渀 琀栀攀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 搀椀猀欀 眀栀椀挀栀 栀愀瘀攀 瀀爀漀瘀攀搀 the portal to all that has since been seen, and his courage਀椀渀 琀栀攀 昀愀挀攀 漀昀 甀渀椀瘀攀爀猀愀氀 挀漀渀搀攀洀渀愀琀椀漀渀 氀攀搀 琀漀 攀砀瀀氀漀爀愀琀椀漀渀 of them. He made there voyage after voyage,਀洀甀挀栀 愀猀 䌀漀氀甀洀戀甀猀 搀椀搀 漀渀 䔀愀爀琀栀Ⰰ 眀椀琀栀 攀瘀攀渀 氀攀猀猀 漀昀 爀攀挀漀最渀椀琀椀漀渀 from home. As with Columbus, too, the full਀椀洀瀀漀爀琀 漀昀 栀椀猀 最爀攀愀琀 搀椀猀挀漀瘀攀爀礀 氀愀礀 栀椀搀 攀瘀攀渀 琀漀 栀椀洀 愀渀搀 only by discoveries since is gradually resulting in recognition਀漀昀 愀渀漀琀栀攀爀 猀攀渀琀椀攀渀琀 眀漀爀氀搀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀栀愀瀀琀攀爀✀㸀 ਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㈀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㈀✀㸀㄀㈀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀

CHAPTER II

A DEPARTURE-POINT

਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀搀爀漀瀀ⴀ挀愀瀀愀 开㠀开 开㠀 挀 ㄀㔀✀     㸀䄀猀 琀栀攀 挀栀愀爀愀挀琀攀爀 漀昀 琀栀攀 琀爀愀瘀攀氀 椀猀 搀椀猀琀椀渀挀琀椀瘀攀Ⰰ 猀漀 琀栀攀 outcome of the voyage is unique. If he choose his਀搀攀瀀愀爀琀甀爀攀ⴀ瀀漀椀渀琀 愀爀椀最栀琀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀攀爀 眀椀氀氀 戀攀 瘀漀甀挀栀猀愀昀攀搀 an experience without parallel on Earth. To select਀琀栀椀猀 猀攀琀琀椀渀最ⴀ漀甀琀 猀琀愀琀椀漀渀 椀猀 琀栀攀 昀椀爀猀琀 猀琀攀瀀 椀渀 琀栀攀 樀漀甀爀渀攀礀 upon which everything depends. For it is essential਀琀漀 瘀椀猀甀愀氀 愀爀爀椀瘀愀氀 琀栀愀琀 愀 搀攀瀀愀爀琀甀爀攀ⴀ瀀漀椀渀琀 戀攀 琀愀欀攀渀 眀栀攀爀攀 definition is at its best. Now, so far as our present਀欀渀漀眀氀攀搀最攀 最漀攀猀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 挀漀渀搀椀琀椀漀渀猀 洀漀猀琀 挀漀渀搀甀挀椀瘀攀 琀漀 good seeing turn out to lie in one or other of the two਀最爀攀愀琀 搀攀猀攀爀琀 戀攀氀琀猀 琀栀愀琀 最椀爀搀氀攀 琀栀攀 最氀漀戀攀⸀ 䴀愀渀礀 漀昀 甀猀 are unaware of the existence of such belts and yet they਀愀爀攀 愀洀漀渀最 琀栀攀 洀漀猀琀 猀琀爀椀欀椀渀最 昀攀愀琀甀爀攀猀 漀昀 瀀栀礀猀椀挀愀氀 最攀漀最爀愀瀀栀礀⸀ Could we get off our globe and view it from਀眀椀琀栀漀甀琀 眀攀 猀栀漀甀氀搀 洀愀爀欀 琀眀漀 猀愀猀栀ⴀ氀椀欀攀 戀愀渀搀猀 漀昀 挀漀甀渀琀爀礀Ⰰ to the poleward side of either tropic, where the surface਀椀琀猀攀氀昀 氀愀礀 瀀愀琀攀渀琀氀礀 攀砀瀀漀猀攀搀⸀ 唀渀挀氀漀琀栀攀搀 漀昀 瘀攀爀搀甀爀攀 themselves they would stand forth doubly clear by contrast.਀䘀漀爀 攀氀猀攀眀栀攀爀攀 挀氀漀甀搀 眀漀甀氀搀 栀椀搀攀 琀漀 愀 最爀攀愀琀攀爀 漀爀 less extent the actual configuration of the Earth’s਀琀漀瀀漀最爀愀瀀栀礀 琀漀 愀渀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀攀爀 猀挀愀渀渀椀渀最 椀琀 昀爀漀洀 猀瀀愀挀攀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀 13਀伀渀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀猀攀 猀愀猀栀ⴀ氀椀欀攀 戀攀氀琀猀 漀昀 搀攀猀攀爀琀 爀甀渀猀 琀栀爀漀甀最栀 southern California, Arizona, New Mexico, the Sahara,਀䄀爀愀戀椀愀 倀攀琀爀愀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 䐀攀猀攀爀琀 漀昀 䜀漀戀椀㬀 琀栀攀 漀琀栀攀爀 traverses Peru, the South African veldt, and Western਀䄀甀猀琀爀愀氀椀愀⸀ 吀栀攀礀 愀爀攀 搀攀猀攀爀琀 戀攀挀愀甀猀攀 椀渀 琀栀攀洀 爀愀椀渀 椀猀 rare; and even clouds seldom form. In a twofold਀眀愀礀 琀栀攀礀 挀漀渀搀甀挀攀 琀漀 愀猀琀爀漀渀漀洀椀挀 攀渀搀猀⸀ 䄀戀猀攀渀挀攀 漀昀 rain makes primarily for clear skies and secondarily਀昀漀爀 猀琀攀愀搀礀 愀椀爀㬀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 漀渀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀猀攀 挀漀渀搀椀琀椀漀渀猀 椀猀 渀漀 less vital to sight than the other. Water vapor is a਀最爀攀愀琀 甀瀀猀攀琀琀攀爀 漀昀 愀琀洀漀猀瀀栀攀爀椀挀 攀焀甀椀氀椀戀爀椀甀洀 愀渀搀 挀漀洀洀漀琀椀漀渀 in the air the spoiler of definition. Thus from਀琀栀攀 挀氀漀甀搀氀攀猀猀渀攀猀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀椀爀 猀欀椀攀猀 洀愀渀 昀椀渀搀猀 椀渀 琀栀攀洀 洀漀猀琀 chance of uninterrupted communion with the stars,਀眀栀椀氀攀 戀礀 猀甀椀琀愀戀氀礀 挀栀漀漀猀椀渀最 栀椀猀 猀瀀漀琀 栀攀 栀攀爀攀 漀戀琀愀椀渀猀 愀猀 well that prime desideratum for planetary work, as਀渀攀愀爀 愀 栀攀愀瘀攀渀氀礀 攀焀甀愀渀椀洀椀琀礀 椀渀 琀栀攀 愀椀爀 挀甀爀爀攀渀琀猀 漀瘀攀爀 his head as is practically possible.

From the fact that these regions are desert they are਀氀攀猀猀 昀爀攀焀甀攀渀琀攀搀 漀昀 洀愀渀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀攀爀 椀猀 琀栀甀猀 瀀攀爀昀漀爀挀攀 isolated by the nature of the case, the regions best਀愀搀愀瀀琀攀搀 琀漀 洀愀渀欀椀渀搀 戀攀椀渀最 琀栀攀 氀攀愀猀琀 猀甀椀琀攀搀 琀漀 愀猀琀爀漀渀漀洀椀挀 observations. In addition to what nature has thus਀搀漀渀攀 椀渀 琀栀攀 洀愀琀琀攀爀Ⰰ 栀甀洀愀渀椀琀礀 栀愀猀 昀甀爀琀栀攀爀 搀椀昀昀攀爀攀渀琀椀愀琀攀搀 the two classes of sights by processes of its own contriving.਀一漀琀 漀渀氀礀 椀猀 挀椀瘀椀氀椀稀攀搀 洀愀渀 愀挀琀椀瘀攀氀礀 攀渀最愀最攀搀 椀渀 搀攀昀愀挀椀渀最 such part of the Earth’s surface as he comes in਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㐀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㐀✀㸀㄀㐀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 contact with, he is equally busy blotting out his sky.਀䤀渀 琀栀攀 氀愀琀琀攀爀 甀渀挀漀洀洀攀渀搀愀戀氀攀 瀀甀爀猀甀椀琀 栀攀 栀愀猀 椀渀 琀栀攀 氀愀猀琀 quarter of a century made surprising progress. With a਀猀甀挀挀攀猀猀 漀渀氀礀 琀漀漀 甀渀搀攀猀椀爀愀戀氀攀 栀椀猀 栀愀戀椀琀愀琀 栀愀猀 最爀愀搀甀愀氀氀礀 become canopied by a welkin of his own fashioning,਀眀栀椀挀栀 栀愀猀 爀攀渀搀攀爀攀搀 椀琀 氀愀爀最攀氀礀 甀渀昀椀琀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀 洀漀爀攀 搀攀氀椀挀愀琀攀 kinds of astronomic work. Smoke from multiplying਀昀愀挀琀漀爀椀攀猀 戀礀 爀椀猀椀渀最 椀渀琀漀 琀栀攀 愀椀爀 愀渀搀 昀漀爀洀椀渀最 琀栀攀 渀甀挀氀攀甀猀 about which cloud collects has joined with electric਀氀椀最栀琀椀渀最 琀漀 栀攀氀瀀 瀀甀琀 漀甀琀 琀栀攀 猀琀愀爀猀⸀ 吀栀攀猀攀 挀漀渀挀漀洀椀琀愀渀琀猀 of advancing civilization have succeeded above the਀搀爀攀愀洀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 洀漀猀琀 攀愀爀琀栀ⴀ挀攀渀琀爀攀搀 椀渀 猀栀甀琀琀椀渀最 漀昀昀 猀椀最栀琀 of the beyond so that today few city-bred children਀栀愀瘀攀 愀渀礀 挀漀渀挀攀瀀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 最氀漀爀椀攀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 栀攀愀瘀攀渀猀 which made of the Chaldean shepherds astronomers in਀猀瀀椀琀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀洀猀攀氀瘀攀猀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀吀栀攀 漀氀搀 眀漀爀氀搀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 渀攀眀 愀爀攀 愀氀椀欀攀 愀昀昀攀挀琀攀搀 戀礀 such obliteration. Long ago London took the lead਀眀椀琀栀 昀漀最猀 瀀爀漀瘀攀爀戀椀愀氀 眀栀漀氀氀礀 搀甀攀 琀漀 猀洀漀欀攀Ⰰ 昀椀渀攀 瀀愀爀琀椀挀氀攀猀 of solid matter in suspension making these points਀漀昀 挀漀渀搀攀渀猀愀琀椀漀渀 愀戀漀甀琀 眀栀椀挀栀 眀愀琀攀爀 瘀愀瀀漀爀 最愀琀栀攀爀猀 琀漀 form cloud. With the increase of smoke-emitting਀挀栀椀洀渀攀礀猀 漀瘀攀爀 琀栀攀 眀漀爀氀搀 漀琀栀攀爀 挀攀渀琀爀攀猀 漀昀 瀀漀瀀甀氀愀琀椀漀渀 have followed suit till today Europe and eastern North਀䄀洀攀爀椀挀愀 瘀椀攀 眀椀琀栀 攀愀挀栀 漀琀栀攀爀 愀猀 琀漀 眀栀椀挀栀 猀欀礀 猀栀愀氀氀 戀攀 the most obliterate. Even when the obscuration is not਀瀀愀琀攀渀琀 琀漀 琀栀攀 氀愀礀洀愀渀 椀琀 椀猀 攀瘀椀搀攀渀琀 琀漀 琀栀攀 洀攀琀攀漀爀漀氀漀最椀猀琀 15਀漀爀 愀猀琀爀漀渀漀洀攀爀⸀ 䈀礀 愀 挀攀爀琀愀椀渀 搀椀洀洀椀渀最 漀昀 琀栀攀 戀氀甀攀Ⰰ smoke or dust reveals its presence high up aloft as਀琀攀氀氀琀愀氀攀氀礀 愀猀 椀昀 琀栀攀 琀栀椀渀最 椀琀猀攀氀昀 眀攀爀攀 瘀椀猀椀戀氀攀⸀ 匀漀洀攀 琀椀洀攀 since the writer had occasion to traverse Germany in਀猀甀洀洀攀爀 昀爀漀洀 䜀琀琀椀渀最攀渀 琀漀 䌀漀氀漀最渀攀 愀渀搀 椀渀 猀漀 搀漀椀渀最 眀愀猀 impressed by a cloudiness of the sky he felt sure had not਀攀砀椀猀琀攀搀 眀栀攀渀 栀攀 欀渀攀眀 椀琀 愀猀 愀 戀漀礀⸀ 䘀漀爀 琀栀攀 挀栀愀渀最攀 was too startling and extensive to be wholly laid to the਀猀挀漀爀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 戀爀椀最栀琀攀爀 爀攀洀攀洀戀爀愀渀挀攀猀 漀昀 礀漀甀琀栀⸀ 伀渀 reaching Cologne he mentioned his suspicion to Klein,਀漀渀氀礀 琀漀 昀椀渀搀 栀椀猀 漀眀渀 椀渀昀攀爀攀渀挀攀 挀漀爀爀漀戀漀爀愀琀攀搀㬀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀愀琀椀漀渀猀 made twenty years ago being impracticable today.਀吀眀漀 礀攀愀爀猀 氀愀琀攀爀 椀渀 䴀椀氀愀渀 䌀攀氀漀爀椀愀 琀漀氀搀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 猀琀漀爀礀Ⰰ the study of Mars having ceased to be possible there for਀氀椀欀攀 挀愀甀猀攀⸀ 䘀愀挀琀漀爀礀 猀洀漀欀攀 愀渀搀 攀氀攀挀琀爀椀挀 氀椀最栀琀猀 栀愀搀 挀漀洀戀椀渀攀搀 to veil the planet at about the time Schiaparelli਀最愀瘀攀 甀瀀 栀椀猀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀愀琀椀漀渀猀 戀攀挀愀甀猀攀 漀昀 昀愀椀氀椀渀最 猀椀最栀琀⸀ 圀椀琀栀 a certain poetic fitness the sky had itself been blotted਀樀甀猀琀 愀琀 琀栀攀 琀椀洀攀 琀栀攀 洀愀猀琀攀爀ᤀ猠 攀礀攀 栀愀搀 搀椀洀洀攀搀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䄀洀攀爀椀挀愀 椀猀 渀漀琀 戀攀栀椀渀搀 椀渀 琀栀椀猀 爀愀挀攀 昀漀爀 猀欀礀 攀砀琀椀渀挀琀椀漀渀⸀ In the neighborhood of its great cities and spreading into਀琀栀攀 挀漀甀渀琀爀礀 爀漀甀渀搀 愀戀漀甀琀 琀栀攀 栀攀愀瘀攀渀猀 栀愀瘀攀 挀攀愀猀攀搀 琀漀 戀攀 favorable to research. Not till we pass beyond the਀䴀椀猀猀漀甀爀椀 搀漀 琀栀攀 猀琀愀爀猀 猀栀椀渀攀 漀甀琀 愀猀 琀栀攀礀 猀栀漀渀攀 戀攀昀漀爀攀 琀栀攀 white man came.

Few astronomers even fully appreciate how much this਀洀攀愀渀猀Ⰰ 猀漀 甀猀攀搀 搀漀攀猀 洀愀渀 最攀琀 琀漀 猀氀漀眀氀礀 挀栀愀渀最椀渀最 挀漀渀搀椀琀椀漀渀猀⸀ 16਀䤀琀 愀洀漀甀渀琀猀Ⰰ 椀渀搀攀攀搀Ⰰ 戀攀琀眀攀攀渀 圀愀猀栀椀渀最琀漀渀 愀渀搀 Arizona to a whole magnitude in the stars which may਀戀攀 猀攀攀渀⸀ 䄀琀 琀栀攀 一愀瘀愀氀 伀戀猀攀爀瘀愀琀漀爀礀 漀昀 琀栀攀 昀漀爀洀攀爀 sixty-four stars were mapped in a region where with a਀猀氀椀最栀琀氀礀 猀洀愀氀氀攀爀 最氀愀猀猀 漀渀攀 栀甀渀搀爀攀搀 愀渀搀 猀攀瘀攀渀琀礀ⴀ琀眀漀 眀攀爀攀 charted at Flagstaff.

Besides their immediate use as observing stations਀琀栀攀猀攀 搀攀猀攀爀琀 戀攀氀琀猀 瀀漀猀猀攀猀猀 洀攀搀椀愀琀攀 椀渀琀攀爀攀猀琀 漀渀 琀栀攀椀爀 漀眀渀 account in a branch of the very study their cloudlessness਀栀攀氀瀀猀 琀漀 瀀爀漀洀漀琀攀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 戀爀愀渀挀栀 栀攀爀攀 挀漀渀猀椀搀攀爀攀搀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 study of the planet Mars. They help explain what they਀瀀攀爀洀椀琀 琀漀 戀攀 瘀椀猀椀戀氀攀⸀ 䘀漀爀 椀渀 琀栀攀 瀀栀礀猀椀挀愀氀 栀椀猀琀漀爀礀 漀昀 琀栀攀 Earth’s development they are among the latest phenomena਀愀渀搀 洀愀爀欀 琀栀攀 戀攀最椀渀渀椀渀最 漀昀 琀栀愀琀 猀琀愀最攀 漀昀 眀漀爀氀搀 evolution into which Mars is already well advanced.਀吀栀攀礀 愀爀攀 猀礀洀瀀琀漀洀愀琀椀挀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀愀猀猀椀渀最 漀昀 愀 琀攀爀爀愀焀甀攀漀甀猀 globe into a purely terrestrial one. Desertism, the state਀椀渀琀漀 眀栀椀挀栀 攀瘀攀爀礀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀愀爀礀 戀漀搀礀 洀甀猀琀 攀瘀攀渀琀甀愀氀氀礀 挀漀洀攀 and for which, therefore, it becomes necessary to coin a਀眀漀爀搀Ⰰ 栀愀猀 琀栀攀爀攀 洀愀搀攀 椀琀猀 昀椀爀猀琀 愀瀀瀀攀愀爀愀渀挀攀 甀瀀漀渀 琀栀攀 Earth. Standing as it does for the approach of age਀椀渀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀愀爀礀 攀砀椀猀琀攀渀挀攀Ⰰ 椀琀 洀愀礀 戀攀 氀椀欀攀渀攀搀 琀漀 琀栀攀 昀椀爀猀琀 gray hairs in man. Or better still it corresponds to਀攀愀爀氀礀 愀甀琀甀洀渀愀氀 昀爀漀猀琀 椀渀 琀栀攀 瀀愀猀猀愀最攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀攀愀猀漀渀猀⸀ For the beginning to age in a planet means not decrepitude਀椀渀 椀琀猀 椀渀栀愀戀椀琀愀渀琀猀 戀甀琀 琀栀攀 瘀攀爀礀 洀愀琀甀爀椀渀最 漀昀 琀栀椀猀 its fruit. Evolution of mind in its denizens continues਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㜀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㜀✀㸀㄀㜀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 long after desolation in their habitat has set in.਀䤀渀搀攀攀搀Ⰰ 愀搀瘀愀渀挀攀 椀渀 戀爀愀椀渀ⴀ瀀漀眀攀爀 猀攀爀椀漀甀猀氀礀 搀攀瘀攀氀漀瀀猀 only when material conditions cease to be bodily propitious਀愀渀搀 琀栀攀 氀漀猀猀 漀昀 挀漀爀瀀漀爀攀愀氀 昀愀挀椀氀椀琀椀攀猀 爀攀渀搀攀爀猀 椀琀猀 acquisition necessary to life.

The resemblance, distant but distinctive, of the climatic਀挀漀渀搀椀琀椀漀渀猀 渀攀挀攀猀猀愀爀礀 漀渀 攀愀爀琀栀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀 戀攀猀琀 猀挀愀渀渀椀渀最 of Mars with those which prove to be actually existent਀漀渀 琀栀愀琀 漀琀栀攀爀 眀漀爀氀搀 栀愀猀 愀 戀攀愀爀椀渀最 漀渀 琀栀攀 猀甀戀樀攀挀琀 worth considerable attention. It helps directly to an਀甀渀搀攀爀猀琀愀渀搀椀渀最 愀渀搀 椀渀琀攀爀瀀爀攀琀愀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 猀琀愀琀攀 of things. Though partial only, the features and traits਀漀昀 漀甀爀 愀爀椀搀 稀漀渀攀猀 愀爀攀 猀甀昀昀椀挀椀攀渀琀氀礀 氀椀欀攀 眀栀愀琀 瀀爀攀瘀愀椀氀猀 漀渀 Mars to make them in some sort exponent of physical਀挀漀渀搀椀琀椀漀渀猀 愀渀搀 愀挀琀椀漀渀 琀栀攀爀攀⸀ 䴀甀挀栀 琀栀愀琀 椀猀 栀愀爀搀 漀昀 appreciation in a low, humid land shows itself an everyday਀瀀漀猀猀椀戀椀氀椀琀礀 椀渀 愀 栀椀最栀 愀渀搀 搀爀礀 漀渀攀⸀ 吀栀攀 琀攀爀爀椀戀氀攀 necessity of water to all forms of life, animal or vegetal,਀猀漀 琀栀愀琀 椀渀 琀栀攀 猀椀洀瀀氀攀 琀栀漀甀最栀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 愀戀漀爀椀最椀渀攀猀 爀愀椀渀 椀猀 the only god worth great propitiation upon the due਀漀戀猀攀爀瘀愀渀挀攀 漀昀 眀栀椀挀栀 攀瘀攀爀礀琀栀椀渀最 搀攀瀀攀渀搀猀Ⰰ 戀爀椀渀最猀 琀漀 漀渀攀 a deeper realization of what is really vital and what but਀愀挀挀攀猀猀漀爀礀 愀琀 戀攀猀琀⸀ 伀渀攀 戀攀最椀渀猀 琀漀 挀漀渀挀攀椀瘀攀 眀栀愀琀 洀甀猀琀 be the controlling principle of a world where water is਀漀渀氀礀 眀椀琀栀 搀椀昀昀椀挀甀氀琀礀 琀漀 戀攀 栀愀搀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 爀愀椀渀 甀渀欀渀漀眀渀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䈀甀琀 椀渀 愀搀搀椀琀椀漀渀 琀漀 琀栀攀 昀甀渀搀愀洀攀渀琀愀氀 椀洀瀀漀爀琀愀渀挀攀 漀昀 water, the relative irrelevancy of some other conditions਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㠀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㠀✀㸀㄀㠀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 usually deemed indispensable to organic existence਀琀栀攀爀攀 昀椀渀搀 椀氀氀甀猀琀爀愀琀椀漀渀 琀漀漀⸀ 伀渀 琀栀攀 栀椀最栀 瀀氀愀琀攀愀甀 漀昀 northern Arizona and on the still higher volcanic cones਀琀栀愀琀 爀椀猀攀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀洀 愀猀 愀 戀愀猀攀 椀渀琀漀 渀漀眀 搀椀猀椀渀琀攀最爀愀琀椀渀最 peaks, the thin cold air proves no bar to life. To the਀昀愀甀渀愀 琀栀攀爀攀 愀椀爀 椀猀 愀 瘀攀爀礀 猀攀挀漀渀搀愀爀礀 挀漀渀猀椀搀攀爀愀琀椀漀渀 琀漀 water, and because the latter is scarce in the lowlands਀愀渀搀 洀漀爀攀 愀戀甀渀搀愀渀琀 栀椀最栀攀爀 甀瀀Ⰰ 愀渀椀洀愀氀猀 愀猀挀攀渀搀 愀昀琀攀爀 椀琀Ⰰ making their home at unusual elevations with no discomfort਀琀漀 琀栀攀洀猀攀氀瘀攀猀⸀ 䐀攀攀爀 爀愀渀最攀 琀漀 栀攀椀最栀琀猀 眀栀攀爀攀 the barometric pressure is but three fifths that of their਀最攀渀攀爀椀挀 栀愀戀椀琀愀琀⸀ 䈀攀愀爀 搀漀 琀栀攀 氀椀欀攀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 戀爀漀眀渀 戀攀愀爀 漀昀 northern American sea-level being here met with two਀洀椀氀攀猀 愀戀漀瘀攀 椀琀⸀ 一漀爀 椀猀 攀椀琀栀攀爀 愀渀椀洀愀氀 愀 搀攀瀀愀甀瀀攀爀愀琀攀 form. Man himself contrives to live in comfort and਀瀀爀漀瀀愀最愀琀攀 栀椀猀 欀椀渀搀 眀栀攀爀攀 愀琀 昀椀爀猀琀 栀攀 昀椀渀搀猀 椀琀 栀愀爀搀 琀漀 breathe. Nor are these valiant exceptions; as Merriam਀栀愀猀 愀戀氀礀 猀栀漀眀渀 椀渀 栀椀猀 愀挀挀漀甀渀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 匀愀渀 䘀爀愀渀挀椀猀挀漀 peak region for the Smithsonian Institution—a most interesting਀爀攀瀀漀爀琀Ⰰ 戀礀 琀栀攀 眀愀礀᐀琠栀攀 漀琀栀攀爀 愀渀椀洀愀氀猀 愀爀攀 equally adaptive to the zones of more northern latitudes਀漀渀 琀栀攀 䄀洀攀爀椀挀愀渀 挀漀渀琀椀渀攀渀琀Ⰰ 稀漀渀攀猀 瀀愀爀愀氀氀攀氀攀搀 椀渀 their flora and fauna by the zones of altitude up this਀瀀攀愀欀⸀ 䄀氀氀 眀栀椀挀栀 猀栀漀眀猀 琀栀愀琀 瀀愀甀挀椀琀礀 漀昀 愀椀爀 椀猀 渀漀琀栀椀渀最 like the barrier to life we ordinarily suppose and is not਀昀漀爀 愀渀 椀渀猀琀愀渀琀 琀漀 戀攀 挀漀洀瀀愀爀攀搀 眀椀琀栀 搀攀愀爀琀栀 漀昀 眀愀琀攀爀⸀ If in a comparatively short time an animal or plant਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㤀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㤀✀㸀㄀㤀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 accustomed to thirty inches of barometric pressure can਀挀漀渀琀爀椀瘀攀 琀漀 猀甀戀猀椀猀琀 猀攀渀猀椀戀氀礀 甀渀挀栀愀渀最攀搀 愀琀 攀椀最栀琀攀攀渀Ⰰ 椀琀 would be rash to set limits to what time may not do.਀䄀渀搀 琀栀椀猀 琀栀攀 洀漀爀攀 昀漀爀 愀渀漀琀栀攀爀 椀渀猀琀爀甀挀琀椀瘀攀 昀愀挀琀 搀椀猀挀漀瘀攀爀攀搀 in this region by Merriam: that the existence of਀愀 猀瀀攀挀椀攀猀 眀愀猀 搀攀琀攀爀洀椀渀攀搀 渀漀琀 戀礀 琀栀攀 洀攀愀渀 琀攀洀瀀攀爀愀琀甀爀攀 of its habitat but by the maximum temperature਀搀甀爀椀渀最 琀栀攀 琀椀洀攀 漀昀 瀀爀漀挀爀攀愀琀椀漀渀⸀ 䄀 猀栀漀爀琀 眀愀爀洀 猀攀愀猀漀渀 in summer alone decides whether the species shall਀猀甀爀瘀椀瘀攀 愀渀搀 昀氀漀甀爀椀猀栀㬀 琀栀愀琀 椀琀 栀愀猀 愀昀琀攀爀眀愀爀搀 琀漀 栀椀戀攀爀渀愀琀攀 for six months at a time does not in the least਀渀攀最愀琀椀瘀攀 琀栀攀 爀攀猀甀氀琀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀搀椀瘀 椀搀㴀✀椀开 ㄀㠀昀瀀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀昀椀最挀攀渀琀攀爀✀㸀

਀㰀椀洀最 猀爀挀㴀✀椀洀愀最攀猀⼀椀开 ㄀㠀昀瀀⸀樀瀀最✀ 愀氀琀㴀✀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀椀最  ㌀✀ ⼀㸀

The San Francisco Peaks

਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀

That the point of departure should thus prove of਀琀眀漀昀漀氀搀 椀洀瀀漀爀琀愀渀挀攀Ⰰ 猀瀀攀攀搀椀渀最 琀栀攀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀攀爀 漀渀 栀椀猀 journey and furnishing him with a vade mecum on਀愀爀爀椀瘀愀氀Ⰰ 椀猀 愀猀 挀甀爀椀漀甀猀 愀猀 漀瀀瀀漀爀琀甀渀攀⸀ 圀椀琀栀漀甀琀 猀甀挀栀 furtherance, to the bodily eye on the one hand and਀琀栀攀 洀椀渀搀ᤀ猠 攀礀攀 漀渀 琀栀攀 漀琀栀攀爀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 瘀漀礀愀最攀 眀攀爀攀 氀攀猀猀 挀漀渀挀氀甀猀椀瘀攀 in advent and less satisfactory in attent.

20਀  㰀栀㈀ 椀搀㴀✀挀栀 ㌀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㘀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀砀氀愀爀最攀✀㸀䌀䠀䄀倀吀䔀刀 䤀䤀䤀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀 㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀䄀 䈀䤀刀䐀ᤀ匠ⴀ䔀夀䔀 嘀䤀䔀圀 伀䘀 倀䄀匀吀 䴀䄀刀吀䤀䄀一 䐀䤀匀䌀伀嘀䔀刀夀㰀⼀栀㈀㸀

With Mars discovery has from the start waited on਀愀瀀瀀愀爀攀渀琀 搀椀猀欀⸀ 吀漀 琀栀椀猀 攀渀搀 攀瘀攀爀礀 漀瀀琀椀挀愀氀 愀搀瘀愀渀挀攀 has contributed from the time of Galileo’s opera-glass਀琀漀 琀栀攀 瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀 搀愀礀⸀ 䘀漀爀 愀瀀瀀愀爀攀渀琀 搀椀猀琀愀渀挀攀 猀琀愀渀搀猀 determined by the size of the eye. But although it਀椀猀 琀栀攀 琀攀氀攀猀挀漀瀀椀挀 攀礀攀 琀栀愀琀 栀愀猀 椀渀挀爀攀愀猀攀搀Ⰰ 渀漀琀 琀栀攀 搀椀猀琀愀渀挀攀 that has diminished, the effect has been kin to being਀挀愀爀爀椀攀搀 渀攀愀爀攀爀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀 愀渀搀 猀漀 琀漀 愀 猀挀愀渀渀椀渀最 漀昀 椀琀猀 搀椀猀欀 with constantly increasing particularity. Mankind has਀琀漀 愀氀氀 椀渀琀攀渀琀猀 愀渀搀 瀀甀爀瀀漀猀攀猀 戀攀攀渀 樀漀甀爀渀攀礀椀渀最 䴀愀爀猀眀愀爀搀 through the years. Any historic account of the planet,਀琀栀攀爀攀昀漀爀攀Ⰰ 戀攀挀漀洀攀猀 愀 挀栀爀漀渀椀挀氀攀 漀昀 猀攀攀洀椀渀最 戀漀搀椀氀礀 愀瀀瀀爀漀愀挀栀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀倀攀爀栀愀瀀猀 渀漀 瘀椀瘀椀搀攀爀 眀愀礀 漀昀 洀愀欀椀渀最 琀栀椀猀 攀瘀椀搀攀渀琀 愀渀搀 at the same time no better preface to the present work਀挀漀甀氀搀 戀攀 搀攀瘀椀猀攀搀 琀栀愀渀 戀礀 瀀甀琀琀椀渀最 戀攀昀漀爀攀 琀栀攀 攀礀攀 椀渀 orderly succession the maps made of Mars by the leading਀愀爀攀漀最爀愀瀀栀攀爀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀椀爀 搀愀礀Ⰰ 猀椀渀挀攀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀 昀椀爀猀琀 began to be charted sixty-five years ago. The procedure਀椀猀 愀猀 洀甀挀栀 愀猀 瀀漀猀猀椀戀氀攀 氀椀欀攀 猀琀愀渀搀椀渀最 愀琀 琀栀攀 琀攀氀攀猀挀漀瀀攀 and seeing the phenomena steadily disclose.

਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㄀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㄀✀㸀㈀㄀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 Seen thus in order the facts speak for themselves.਀吀栀攀礀 猀栀漀眀 琀栀愀琀 昀爀漀洀 昀椀爀猀琀 琀漀 氀愀猀琀 渀漀 搀漀甀戀琀 挀漀渀挀攀爀渀椀渀最 what was seen existed in the minds of those competent਀琀漀 樀甀搀最攀 戀礀 猀礀猀琀攀洀愀琀椀挀 猀琀甀搀礀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀 愀琀 昀椀爀猀琀 栀愀渀搀Ⰰ and furthermore, from their mutual corroboration, that਀琀栀椀猀 挀漀渀昀椀搀攀渀挀攀 眀愀猀 眀攀氀氀 瀀氀愀挀攀搀⸀ 䘀漀爀Ⰰ 昀愀爀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀爀攀 being any conflict of authorities in the case, those entitled਀琀漀 愀渀 漀瀀椀渀椀漀渀 椀渀 琀栀攀 洀愀琀琀攀爀 瀀爀漀瘀攀 猀椀渀最甀氀愀爀氀礀 愀琀 one.

Beginning with Maedler in 1840 the gallery of such਀瀀漀爀琀爀愀椀琀甀爀攀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀 挀漀洀瀀爀椀猀攀猀 琀栀漀猀攀 戀礀 䬀愀椀猀攀爀Ⰰ Green and Schiaparelli, continued since Schiaparelli’s਀琀椀洀攀 戀礀 琀栀攀 攀愀爀氀椀攀爀 漀渀攀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀 眀爀椀琀攀爀⸀ 吀漀 this list has been added one by Flammarion, which਀琀栀漀甀最栀 渀漀琀 猀漀氀攀氀礀 昀爀漀洀 栀椀猀 漀眀渀 眀漀爀欀 最椀瘀攀猀 猀漀 樀甀猀琀 愀 representation of what was known at the date, 1876 [Darian: 141], as਀琀漀 洀攀爀椀琀 椀渀挀氀甀猀椀漀渀⸀ 吀栀攀 爀攀洀愀爀欀愀戀氀攀 搀爀愀眀椀渀最猀 漀昀 䐀愀眀攀猀 and the excellent ones of Lockyer in 1862-1864 [Darian: 134-135] were਀渀攀瘀攀爀 挀漀洀戀椀渀攀搀 椀渀琀漀 洀愀瀀猀 戀礀 琀栀攀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀攀爀猀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 琀栀漀甀最栀 the former’s were so synthesized by Proctor in 1867 [Darian: 137],਀琀栀攀 爀攀猀甀氀琀 眀愀猀 挀漀渀昀漀爀洀攀搀 琀漀 眀栀愀琀 倀爀漀挀琀漀爀 琀栀漀甀最栀琀 漀甀最栀琀 to be and so is not really a transcript of the drawings਀琀栀攀洀猀攀氀瘀攀猀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䔀愀挀栀 漀昀 琀栀攀 洀愀瀀猀 瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀攀搀 洀愀爀欀攀搀 椀渀 椀琀猀 搀愀礀 琀栀攀 point areography had reached; and each tells its own਀猀琀漀爀礀 戀攀琀琀攀爀 琀栀愀渀 愀渀礀 愀洀漀甀渀琀 漀昀 琀攀砀琀⸀ 吀栀攀礀 愀爀攀 all made upon Mercator’s projection and omit in਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㈀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㈀✀㸀㈀㈀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 consequence the circumpolar regions. The later ones਀最椀瘀攀Ⰰ 琀漀漀Ⰰ 漀渀氀礀 猀漀 洀甀挀栀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀甀爀昀愀挀攀 愀猀 眀愀猀 猀栀漀眀渀 愀琀 the opposition they record, for Mars, being tipped now਀漀渀攀 眀愀礀Ⰰ 渀漀眀 愀渀漀琀栀攀爀Ⰰ 爀攀最愀爀搀猀 琀栀攀 攀愀爀琀栀 搀椀昀昀攀爀攀渀琀氀礀 愀挀挀漀爀搀椀渀最 to its orbital position. In comparing them,਀琀栀攀爀攀昀漀爀攀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 攀焀甀愀琀漀爀 洀甀猀琀 戀攀 琀愀欀攀渀 昀漀爀 洀攀搀椀愀氀 氀椀渀攀⸀ Mercator’s projection has been the customary one for਀瀀漀爀琀爀愀礀椀渀最 䴀愀爀猀 攀砀挀攀瀀琀 昀漀爀 猀甀挀栀 漀瀀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀猀 愀猀 挀栀椀攀昀氀礀 disclose the arctic pole. And this, too, with a certain਀瀀漀攀琀椀挀 昀椀琀渀攀猀猀⸀ 䘀漀爀 椀琀 挀漀洀攀猀 戀礀 爀椀最栀琀 漀昀 瀀爀椀漀爀椀琀礀 琀漀 delineation of a new world; seeing that Mercator was਀琀栀攀 昀椀爀猀琀 琀漀 爀攀瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀 椀渀 愀 洀愀瀀 琀栀攀 洀甀渀搀愀渀攀 渀攀眀 眀漀爀氀搀 in its entirety, by the rather important addition of਀一漀爀琀栀 䄀洀攀爀椀挀愀 琀漀 琀栀攀 猀漀甀琀栀攀爀渀 挀漀渀琀椀渀攀渀琀 愀氀爀攀愀搀礀 known, and to give the whole the title America with਀᠀䄠洀攀ᤀ†愀琀 琀栀攀 琀漀瀀 漀昀 琀栀攀 洀愀瀀 愀渀搀 ᠀爠椀挀愀ᤀ†愀琀 琀栀攀 戀漀琀琀漀洀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䤀渀 氀漀漀欀椀渀最 愀琀 琀栀攀 洀愀瀀猀 椀琀 椀猀 琀漀 戀攀 爀攀洀攀洀戀攀爀攀搀 琀栀愀琀 they are what we should call upside down, south standing਀愀琀 琀栀攀 琀漀瀀 愀渀搀 渀漀爀琀栀 愀琀 琀栀攀 戀漀琀琀漀洀⸀ 䤀渀瘀攀爀琀攀搀 琀栀攀礀 show because this is the way the telescopic observer always਀猀攀攀猀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀⸀ 吀栀攀 搀椀猀欀 眀漀甀氀搀 猀攀攀洀 甀渀渀愀琀甀爀愀氀 to astronomers were it duly righted. Just the same do਀洀攀渀 椀渀 琀栀攀 猀漀甀琀栀攀爀渀 栀攀洀椀猀瀀栀攀爀攀 氀漀漀欀 愀琀 漀甀爀 漀眀渀 䔀愀爀琀栀 topsy-turvy according to our view, the Sun being to਀琀栀攀 渀漀爀琀栀 漀昀 琀栀攀洀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 挀漀氀搀 琀漀 琀栀攀 猀漀甀琀栀⸀ 䌀攀爀琀愀椀渀 landmarks distinguishable in all the maps may serve for਀猀瀀攀挀椀昀椀挀 椀渀琀爀漀搀甀挀琀椀漀渀⸀ 吀栀攀 嘀ⴀ猀栀愀瀀攀搀 洀愀爀欀椀渀最 漀渀 琀栀攀 23਀攀焀甀愀琀漀爀 瀀漀椀渀琀椀渀最 琀漀 琀栀攀 渀漀爀琀栀 椀猀 琀栀攀 匀礀爀琀椀猀 䴀愀樀漀爀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 first marking ever made out upon the planet and drawn਀戀礀 琀栀攀 最爀攀愀琀 䠀甀礀最栀攀渀猀 椀渀 ㄀㘀㔀㤀⸀ 吀栀攀 椀猀漀氀愀琀攀搀 漀瘀愀氀 patch in latitude 26° south is the Solis Lacus, the pupil਀漀昀 琀栀攀 攀礀攀 漀昀 䴀愀爀猀㬀 眀栀椀氀攀 琀栀攀 昀漀爀欀攀搀 戀愀礀 漀渀 琀栀攀 equator, discovered by Dawes, is the Sabaeus Sinus,਀琀栀攀 搀椀瘀椀搀椀渀最 琀漀渀最甀攀 漀昀 眀栀椀挀栀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 䘀愀猀琀椀最椀甀洀 䄀爀礀渀Ⰰ has been taken for the origin of longitudes on Mars.

Twelve maps go to make the series. They are਀愀猀 昀漀氀氀漀眀猀㨀᐀㰠⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀琀愀戀氀攀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㤀✀ 猀甀洀洀愀爀礀㴀✀匀攀爀椀攀猀 漀昀 䴀愀瀀猀✀㸀

਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㈀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀䐀愀琀攀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀䴀愀瀀 漀昀 䈀攀攀爀 愀渀搀 䴀愀攀搀氀攀爀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀开 ㈀㘀昀瀀开㈀✀㸀䤀䤀⸀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㈀✀㸀㄀㠀㘀㐀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㌀㔀崀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀䴀愀瀀 漀昀 䘀氀愀洀洀愀爀椀漀渀 ⠀刀猀甀洀⤀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀开 ㈀㜀昀瀀开㈀✀㸀䤀嘀⸀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㈀✀㸀㄀㠀㜀㜀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㐀㈀崀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀䴀愀瀀 漀昀 匀挀栀椀愀瀀愀爀攀氀氀椀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀开 ㈀㠀昀瀀开㈀✀㸀嘀䤀⸀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㈀✀㸀㄀㠀㜀㤀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㐀㌀崀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀䴀愀瀀 漀昀 匀挀栀椀愀瀀愀爀攀氀氀椀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀开 ㈀㤀昀瀀开㈀✀㸀嘀䤀䤀䤀⸀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㈀✀㸀㄀㠀㠀㐀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㐀㘀崀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀䴀愀瀀 漀昀 䰀漀眀攀氀氀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀开 ㌀ 昀瀀开㈀✀㸀堀⸀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㈀✀㸀㄀㠀㤀㘀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㈀崀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀䴀愀瀀 漀昀 䰀漀眀攀氀氀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀开 ㌀㄀昀瀀开㈀✀㸀堀䤀䤀⸀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㈀✀㸀㄀㤀 㔀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㜀崀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀愀戀氀攀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䤀昀 琀栀攀猀攀 洀愀瀀猀 戀攀 挀愀爀攀昀甀氀氀礀 挀漀洀瀀愀爀攀搀 琀栀攀礀 眀椀氀氀 戀攀 found quite remarkably confirmatory each of its predecessor.਀吀漀 渀漀 漀渀攀 眀椀氀氀 琀栀攀椀爀 椀渀琀攀爀ⴀ爀攀猀攀洀戀氀愀渀挀攀 猀攀攀洀 more salient than to draughtsmen themselves. For਀渀漀渀攀 欀渀漀眀 戀攀琀琀攀爀 栀漀眀 猀甀爀瀀爀椀猀椀渀最氀礀Ⰰ 攀瘀攀渀 眀栀攀渀 琀眀漀 24਀洀攀渀 栀愀瘀攀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 琀栀椀渀最 甀渀搀攀爀 琀栀攀椀爀 瘀攀爀礀 渀漀猀攀猀 琀漀 挀漀瀀礀Ⰰ their two versions will differ. Judgment of position਀愀渀搀 漀昀 爀攀氀愀琀椀瘀攀 猀椀稀攀 椀猀 漀渀攀 挀愀甀猀攀 漀昀 瘀愀爀椀愀琀椀漀渀㬀 昀漀挀甀猀椀渀最 of the attention on different details another. What਀猀氀椀最栀琀 搀椀猀挀爀攀瀀愀渀挀椀攀猀 愀昀昀攀挀琀 琀栀攀 洀愀瀀猀 愀爀攀 琀爀愀挀攀愀戀氀攀 琀漀 these two human imperfections. Maps IV and V਀洀愀欀攀 愀 挀愀猀攀 椀渀 瀀漀椀渀琀㨀 椀琀 眀愀猀 琀漀 栀椀猀 渀攀眀ⴀ昀漀甀渀搀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 that Schiaparelli gave heed to the neglect of a due toning਀漀昀 栀椀猀 洀愀瀀㬀 眀栀椀氀攀 䜀爀攀攀渀Ⰰ 氀攀猀猀 欀攀攀渀ⴀ攀礀攀搀 戀甀琀 洀漀爀攀 artistic, missed the delicate canaliform detail to make਀愀 猀瀀攀愀欀椀渀最 瀀漀爀琀爀愀椀琀甀爀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 眀栀漀氀攀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䄀洀椀搀 琀栀攀 爀攀洀愀爀欀愀戀氀攀 挀漀渀琀椀渀甀椀琀礀 漀昀 瀀爀漀最爀攀猀猀椀漀渀 栀攀爀攀 shown, in which each map will be seen to be at once a਀爀攀瘀椀攀眀 愀渀搀 愀渀 愀搀瘀愀渀挀攀Ⰰ 眀攀 洀愀礀Ⰰ 渀攀瘀攀爀琀栀攀氀攀猀猀Ⰰ 搀椀猀琀椀渀最甀椀猀栀 three stages in the perception of the phenomena.਀吀栀甀猀 眀攀 洀愀礀 洀愀爀欀㨀᐀㰠⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀琀愀戀氀攀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㤀✀ 猀甀洀洀愀爀礀㴀✀✀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀䤀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀㄀㠀㐀 ⴀ㄀㠀㜀㜀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㈀㈀ⴀ㄀㐀㈀崀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀䄀 瀀攀爀椀漀搀 漀昀 搀攀琀攀挀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 椀渀琀攀爀猀攀挀琀椀渀最 琀栀攀 戀爀椀最栀琀 爀攀最椀漀渀猀 漀爀 氀愀渀搀猀㬀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀䤀䤀䤀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀㄀㠀㤀㈀ⴀ㄀㤀 㔀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀 ⴀ㄀㔀㜀崀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀愀戀氀攀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㘀✀ 㸀䔀愀挀栀 瀀攀爀椀漀搀 椀猀 栀攀爀攀 爀攀瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀攀搀 戀礀 昀漀甀爀 挀栀愀爀琀猀㬀 愀渀搀 each expresses the result of a more minute and intimate਀愀挀焀甀愀椀渀琀愀渀挀攀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 搀椀猀欀 琀栀愀渀 眀愀猀 瀀漀猀猀椀戀氀攀 琀漀 琀栀攀 漀渀攀 that went before. To realize, however, how accurate਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㔀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㔀✀㸀㈀㔀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 each was according to his lights it is only necessary਀琀漀 栀愀瘀攀 琀栀攀 猀攀攀椀渀最 最爀漀眀 猀琀攀愀搀椀氀礀 戀攀琀琀攀爀 猀漀洀攀 攀瘀攀渀椀渀最 as one observes. He will find himself recapitulating਀椀渀 栀椀猀 漀眀渀 瀀攀爀猀漀渀 琀栀攀 挀漀甀爀猀攀 琀愀欀攀渀 戀礀 搀椀猀挀漀瘀攀爀礀 昀漀爀 all those who went before, and in the lapse of an hour਀氀椀瘀攀 琀栀爀漀甀最栀 琀栀攀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀愀琀椀漀渀愀氀 攀砀瀀攀爀椀攀渀挀攀 漀昀 猀椀砀琀礀 years; in much the same way that the embryological਀最爀漀眀琀栀 漀昀 愀渀 椀渀搀椀瘀椀搀甀愀氀 爀攀瀀攀愀琀猀 琀栀攀 搀攀瘀攀氀漀瀀洀攀渀琀 栀椀猀琀漀爀椀挀愀氀氀礀 of the race.

Two verses of Ovid, which the poet puts into the਀洀漀甀琀栀 漀昀 倀礀琀栀愀最漀爀愀猀Ⰰ 漀甀琀氀椀渀攀 眀椀琀栀 猀漀洀攀琀栀椀渀最 氀椀欀攀 prophetic utterance the special discoveries which mark਀琀栀攀 琀栀爀攀攀 瀀攀爀椀漀搀猀 愀瀀愀爀琀⸀ 伀瘀椀搀 洀愀欀攀猀 倀礀琀栀愀最漀爀愀猀 猀愀礀 of the then world:—

਀  㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀氀椀渀攀最爀漀甀瀀✀㸀
਀      㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀氀椀渀攀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 氀愀渀最㴀∀氀愀∀ 砀洀氀㨀氀愀渀最㴀∀氀愀∀㸀嘀椀搀椀 攀最漀Ⰰ 焀甀漀搀 昀甀攀爀愀琀 焀甀漀渀搀愀洀 猀漀氀椀搀椀猀猀椀洀愀 琀攀氀氀甀猀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀
Esse fretum; vidi factas ex aequore terras;
਀    㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀
਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀 ਀㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㈀ ✀㸀᐀㰠猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀伀瘀椀搀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀Ⰰ 㰀挀椀琀攀㸀䴀攀琀愀洀漀爀瀀栀漀猀攀猀㰀⼀挀椀琀攀㸀 堀嘀Ⰰ ㈀㘀㈀⸀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀
਀  㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀氀椀渀攀最爀漀甀瀀✀㸀
਀      㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀氀椀渀攀✀㸀⠀圀栀攀爀攀 漀渀挀攀 眀愀猀 猀漀氀椀搀 最爀漀甀渀搀 䤀ᤀ瘠攀 猀攀攀渀 愀 猀琀爀愀椀琀㬀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀
Lands I’ve seen made from out the sea.)
਀    㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀
਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㘀✀ 㸀吀爀甀攀 愀猀 琀栀攀 瘀攀爀猀攀猀 愀爀攀 漀昀 䔀愀爀琀栀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 瀀漀攀琀 挀漀甀氀搀 渀漀琀 栀愀瘀攀 penned them otherwise had he meant to record the਀挀漀甀爀猀攀 漀昀 愀猀琀爀漀渀漀洀椀挀 搀攀琀攀挀琀椀漀渀 漀渀 䴀愀爀猀⸀ 䘀漀爀 琀栀攀礀 sound like a presentiment of the facts. A surface਀琀栀漀甀最栀琀 愀琀 昀椀爀猀琀 琀漀 戀攀 瀀愀爀琀 氀愀渀搀Ⰰ 瀀愀爀琀 眀愀琀攀爀㬀 琀栀攀 氀愀渀搀 next seen to be seamed with straits; and lastly the sea਀洀愀搀攀 漀甀琀 琀漀 戀攀 氀愀渀搀⸀ 匀甀挀栀 椀猀 琀栀攀 栀椀猀琀漀爀礀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀甀戀樀攀挀琀Ⰰ and words could not have summed it more succinctly.਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㘀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㘀✀㸀㈀㘀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 “Vidi ego, quod fuerat quondam solidissima਀琀攀氀氀甀猀 攀猀猀攀 昀爀攀琀甀洀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀ᴀ†爀椀渀最猀 氀椀欀攀 匀挀栀椀愀瀀愀爀攀氀氀椀ᤀ猠 漀眀渀 愀渀渀漀甀渀挀攀洀攀渀琀 of the discovery of the ‘canals.’ Indeed,਀䤀 瘀攀渀琀甀爀攀 琀漀 戀攀氀椀攀瘀攀 栀攀 眀漀甀氀搀 栀愀瘀攀 洀愀搀攀 椀琀 栀愀搀 栀攀 chanced to recall the verse. So “vidi factas ex਀愀攀焀甀漀爀攀 琀攀爀爀愀猀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀ᴀ†琀攀氀氀猀 眀栀愀琀 栀愀猀 猀椀渀挀攀 戀攀攀渀 氀攀愀爀渀攀搀 漀昀 the character of the seas.

Of the three periods the first was that of the main or਀昀甀渀搀愀洀攀渀琀愀氀 洀愀爀欀椀渀最猀 漀渀氀礀⸀ 䤀琀 挀愀洀攀 椀渀 眀椀琀栀 䈀攀攀爀 and Maedler, the inaugurators of areography. That਀琀栀攀礀 瀀氀愀渀渀攀搀 愀渀搀 攀砀攀挀甀琀攀搀 琀栀攀椀爀 猀甀爀瘀攀礀 眀椀琀栀 戀甀琀 愀 four-inch glass shows that there is always room for਀最攀渀椀甀猀 愀琀 琀栀攀 琀漀瀀 漀昀 愀渀礀 瀀爀漀昀攀猀猀椀漀渀 愀渀搀 琀栀愀琀 椀渀猀琀爀甀洀攀渀琀猀 are not for everything in its instrumentality. Up to਀琀栀攀椀爀 搀愀礀 琀栀攀 爀攀愀氀椀琀礀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀ᤀ猠 昀攀愀琀甀爀攀猀 栀愀搀 戀攀攀渀 questioned by some people in spite of having been਀挀攀爀琀愀椀渀氀礀 猀攀攀渀 愀渀搀 搀爀愀眀渀 戀礀 䠀甀礀最栀攀渀猀 愀渀搀 漀琀栀攀爀猀⸀ Beer and Maedler’s labors proved them permanent਀昀愀挀琀猀 戀攀礀漀渀搀 琀栀攀 瀀漀猀猀椀戀椀氀椀琀礀 漀昀 搀椀猀瀀甀琀攀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀吀栀攀 猀攀挀漀渀搀 瀀攀爀椀漀搀 眀愀猀 琀栀攀 瀀攀爀椀漀搀 漀昀 琀栀攀 搀椀猀挀漀瘀攀爀礀 漀昀 the now famous canals,—a new era in the study of਀䴀愀爀猀 漀瀀攀渀攀搀 戀礀 匀挀栀椀愀瀀愀爀攀氀氀椀 椀渀 ㄀㠀㜀㜀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㐀㈀崀 ⠀䴀愀瀀 㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀开 ㈀㠀昀瀀开㄀✀㸀嘀㰀⼀愀㸀⤀⸀ 唀渀猀甀猀瀀椀挀椀漀甀猀 of what he was to stumble on, he seized the਀琀栀攀渀 昀愀瘀漀爀愀戀氀攀 漀瀀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀 琀漀 洀愀欀攀Ⰰ 愀猀 栀攀 瀀甀琀 椀琀Ⰰ 愀 geodetic survey of the planet’s surface. He hoped this਀甀渀搀攀爀琀愀欀椀渀最 昀攀愀猀椀戀氀攀 琀漀 琀栀攀 愀挀挀甀爀愀挀礀 漀昀 洀椀挀爀漀洀攀琀爀椀挀 measurement. His hopes did not belie him. He਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㜀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㜀✀㸀㈀㜀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 found that it was possible to measure his positions with਀猀甀昀昀椀挀椀攀渀琀 攀砀愀挀琀渀攀猀猀 琀漀 洀愀欀攀 愀 猀欀攀氀攀琀漀渀 洀愀瀀 漀渀 眀栀椀挀栀 to embody the markings in detail—and thus to give਀栀椀猀 洀愀瀀 瘀攀爀琀攀戀爀愀琀攀 猀甀瀀瀀漀爀琀⸀ 䈀甀琀 椀渀 琀栀攀 挀漀甀爀猀攀 漀昀 栀椀猀 work he became aware of hitherto unrecognized ligaments਀挀漀渀渀攀挀琀椀渀最 琀栀攀 猀攀愀猀 眀椀琀栀 漀渀攀 愀渀漀琀栀攀爀⸀ 䤀渀猀琀攀愀搀 of displaying a broad unity of face the bright areas਀愀瀀瀀攀愀爀攀搀 琀漀 戀攀 戀甀琀 最爀漀甀渀搀眀漀爀欀 昀漀爀 猀琀爀攀愀欀猀⸀ 吀栀攀 streaks traversed them in all directions, tesselating the਀挀漀渀琀椀渀攀渀琀猀 椀渀琀漀 愀 琀椀氀攀眀漀爀欀 漀昀 椀猀氀愀渀搀猀⸀ 匀甀挀栀 洀漀猀愀椀挀 眀愀猀 not only new, but the fashion of the thing was of a਀渀攀眀 漀爀搀攀爀 漀爀 欀椀渀搀⸀ 匀琀爀愀椀琀猀Ⰰ 栀漀眀攀瘀攀爀Ⰰ 匀挀栀椀愀瀀愀爀攀氀氀椀 挀漀渀猀椀搀攀爀攀搀 them and gave them the name canali, or channels.਀䠀漀眀 甀渀昀愀洀椀氀椀愀爀 愀渀搀 猀攀攀洀椀渀最氀礀 椀洀瀀漀猀猀椀戀氀攀 琀栀攀 new detail was is best evidenced by the prompt and਀甀渀愀渀椀洀漀甀猀 搀椀猀戀攀氀椀攀昀 眀椀琀栀 眀栀椀挀栀 椀琀 眀愀猀 洀攀琀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀搀椀瘀 椀搀㴀✀椀开 ㈀㘀昀瀀开㄀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀昀椀最挀攀渀琀攀爀✀㸀

਀㰀椀洀最 猀爀挀㴀✀椀洀愀最攀猀⼀椀开 ㈀㘀昀瀀开㄀⸀樀瀀最✀ 愀氀琀㴀✀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀椀最  㐀✀ ⼀㸀

Map I. Beer and Maedler, 1840.

਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀
਀㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀搀椀瘀ⴀ㐀  ✀㸀 ਀㰀瀀㸀䴀愀瀀 䤀䤀⸀ 䬀愀椀猀攀爀Ⰰ ㄀㠀㘀㐀⸀㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀⠀䘀爀漀洀 䘀氀愀洀洀愀爀椀漀渀ᤀ猠 㰀挀椀琀攀㸀䴀愀爀猀㰀⼀挀椀琀攀㸀⸀⤀㰀⼀瀀㸀
਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀 ਀㰀搀椀瘀 椀搀㴀✀椀开 ㈀㜀昀瀀开㄀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀昀椀最挀攀渀琀攀爀✀㸀
਀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀椀洀愀最攀猀⼀椀开 ㈀㜀昀瀀开㄀ⴀ氀⸀樀瀀最✀㸀㰀椀洀最 猀爀挀㴀✀椀洀愀最攀猀⼀椀开 ㈀㜀昀瀀开㄀⸀樀瀀最✀ 愀氀琀㴀✀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀椀洀最ⴀ㐀  ✀ ⼀㸀㰀⼀愀㸀

Map III. Résumé by Flammarion, 1876 [Darian: 141].
(From Flammarion’s Mars.)

਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀
਀㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀搀椀瘀ⴀ㐀  ✀㸀 ਀㰀瀀㸀䴀愀瀀 䤀嘀⸀ 䜀爀攀攀渀Ⰰ ㄀㠀㜀㜀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㐀㈀崀⸀㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀⠀䘀爀漀洀 䘀氀愀洀洀愀爀椀漀渀ᤀ猠 㰀挀椀琀攀㸀䴀愀爀猀㰀⼀挀椀琀攀㸀⸀⤀㰀⼀瀀㸀
਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀唀渀洀漀瘀攀搀 戀礀 琀栀攀 甀渀椀瘀攀爀猀愀氀 猀挀攀瀀琀椀挀椀猀洀 眀栀椀挀栀 爀攀眀愀爀搀攀搀 what was to prove an epoch-making discovery, Schiaparelli਀眀攀渀琀 漀渀Ⰰ 椀渀 琀栀攀 樀甀搀最洀攀渀琀 漀昀 栀椀猀 挀爀椀琀椀挀猀Ⰰ 昀爀漀洀 戀愀搀 to worse—for in 1879 [Darian: 143] (Map VI) he took up again his਀猀挀爀甀琀椀渀礀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀 琀漀 琀栀攀 搀攀琀攀挀琀椀渀最 漀昀 礀攀琀 洀漀爀攀 瀀愀爀琀椀挀甀氀愀爀椀琀礀⸀ He re-observed most of his old canals and਀搀椀猀挀漀瘀攀爀攀搀 栀愀氀昀 愀猀 洀愀渀礀 洀漀爀攀㬀 愀渀搀 愀猀 栀椀猀 洀愀瀀 猀栀漀眀猀 he perceived an increased regularity in his lines.

In 1881-1882 [Darian: 144-145] (Map VII) he attacked the planet again਀愀渀搀 眀椀琀栀 爀攀猀甀氀琀猀 礀攀琀 昀甀爀琀栀攀爀 漀甀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 挀漀洀洀漀渀⸀ 䠀椀猀 lines were still there with more beside. If they had਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㠀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㠀✀㸀㈀㠀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 looked strange before, they now appeared positively਀甀渀渀愀琀甀爀愀氀⸀ 一漀琀 挀漀渀琀攀渀琀 眀椀琀栀 愀 爀攀最甀氀愀爀椀琀礀 眀栀椀挀栀 seemed to the sceptics to preclude their being facts, he਀洀甀猀琀 渀攀攀搀猀 猀攀攀 琀栀攀洀 渀漀眀 椀渀 搀甀瀀氀椀挀愀琀攀⸀ 吀漀 琀栀攀 攀礀攀猀 漀昀 disbelief this was the crowning stroke of factitiousness.

In consequence no end of adverse criticism was਀栀攀愀瀀攀搀 甀瀀漀渀 栀椀猀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀愀琀椀漀渀猀 戀礀 琀栀漀猀攀 眀栀漀 挀漀甀氀搀 渀漀琀 see. But curiously enough,—what did not attract਀愀琀琀攀渀琀椀漀渀Ⰰ᐀琠栀攀 戀氀椀渀搀渀攀猀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 挀爀椀琀椀挀猀 眀愀猀 愀猀 洀甀挀栀 mental as bodily. For they failed to perceive that਀琀栀攀 瘀攀爀礀 甀渀渀愀琀甀爀愀氀渀攀猀猀 眀栀椀挀栀 猀攀攀洀攀搀 琀漀 琀栀攀洀 琀漀 搀椀猀挀爀攀搀椀琀 his observations really proved their genuineness.਀䠀椀猀 搀椀猀挀漀瘀攀爀椀攀猀 眀攀爀攀 猀漀 愀洀愀稀椀渀最 琀栀愀琀 愀渀礀 挀栀愀渀最攀 椀渀 strangeness simply went to confirm the universal scepticism਀愀渀搀 挀氀漀甀搀攀搀 氀漀最椀挀⸀ 夀攀琀 瀀爀漀瀀攀爀氀礀 瘀椀攀眀攀搀Ⰰ 愀 pregnant deduction stands forth quite clearly on a਀猀琀甀搀礀 漀昀 琀栀攀 洀愀瀀猀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀搀椀瘀 椀搀㴀✀椀开 ㈀㠀昀瀀开㄀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀昀椀最挀攀渀琀攀爀✀㸀

਀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀椀洀愀最攀猀⼀椀开 ㈀㠀昀瀀开㄀ⴀ氀⸀樀瀀最✀㸀㰀椀洀最 猀爀挀㴀✀椀洀愀最攀猀⼀椀开 ㈀㠀昀瀀开㄀⸀樀瀀最✀ 愀氀琀㴀✀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀椀洀最ⴀ㐀  ✀ ⼀㸀㰀⼀愀㸀

Map V. Schiaparelli, 1877 [Darian: 142].
(From Schiaparelli’s Memoria.)

਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀
਀㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀搀椀瘀ⴀ㐀  ✀㸀 ਀㰀瀀㸀䴀愀瀀 嘀䤀⸀ 匀挀栀椀愀瀀愀爀攀氀氀椀Ⰰ ㄀㠀㜀㤀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㐀㌀崀⸀㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀⠀䘀爀漀洀 匀挀栀椀愀瀀愀爀攀氀氀椀ᤀ猠 㰀挀椀琀攀㸀䴀攀洀漀爀椀愀㰀⼀挀椀琀攀㸀⸀⤀㰀⼀瀀㸀
਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀 ਀㰀搀椀瘀 椀搀㴀✀椀开 ㈀㤀昀瀀开㄀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀昀椀最挀攀渀琀攀爀✀㸀
਀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀椀洀愀最攀猀⼀椀开 ㈀㤀昀瀀开㄀ⴀ氀⸀樀瀀最✀㸀㰀椀洀最 猀爀挀㴀✀椀洀愀最攀猀⼀椀开 ㈀㤀昀瀀开㄀⸀樀瀀最✀ 愀氀琀㴀✀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀椀洀最ⴀ㐀  ✀ ⼀㸀㰀⼀愀㸀

Map VII. Schiaparelli, 1881 [Darian: 144].
(From Schiaparelli’s Memoria.)

਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀
਀㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀搀椀瘀ⴀ㐀  ✀㸀 ਀㰀瀀㸀䴀愀瀀 嘀䤀䤀䤀⸀ 匀挀栀椀愀瀀愀爀攀氀氀椀Ⰰ ㄀㠀㠀㐀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㐀㘀崀⸀㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀⠀䘀爀漀洀 匀挀栀椀愀瀀愀爀攀氀氀椀ᤀ猠 㰀挀椀琀攀㸀䴀攀洀漀爀椀愀㰀⼀挀椀琀攀㸀⸀⤀㰀⼀瀀㸀
਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀伀渀 挀漀洀瀀愀爀椀渀最 洀愀瀀猀 㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀开 ㈀㠀昀瀀开㄀✀㸀嘀㰀⼀愀㸀Ⰰ 㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀开 ㈀㠀昀瀀开㈀✀㸀嘀䤀㰀⼀愀㸀 愀渀搀 㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀椀开 ㈀㤀昀瀀开㄀✀㸀嘀䤀䤀㰀⼀愀㸀 愀渀 攀礀攀 搀甀氀礀 directed is struck by a difference in the aspect of the਀氀椀渀攀猀⸀ 䤀渀 栀椀猀 昀椀爀猀琀 洀愀瀀 琀栀攀 ᠀挠愀渀愀氀猀ᤀ†愀爀攀 搀攀瀀椀挀琀攀搀 猀椀洀瀀氀礀 as narrow winding streaks, hardly even roughly਀爀攀最甀氀愀爀 愀渀搀 戀礀 渀漀 洀攀愀渀猀 猀甀挀栀 搀攀瀀愀爀琀甀爀攀猀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 plausible as to lie without the communicatory pale.਀䤀渀搀攀攀搀Ⰰ 琀漀 愀 洀漀搀攀爀渀 爀攀愀搀攀爀 瀀爀攀瀀愀爀攀搀 戀攀昀漀爀攀栀愀渀搀 昀漀爀 geometric construction they will probably appear no਀᠀挠愀渀愀氀猀ᤀ†愀琀 愀氀氀⸀ 䌀攀爀琀愀椀渀氀礀 琀栀攀 瀀爀椀挀攀 漀昀 愀挀挀攀瀀琀愀渀挀攀 眀愀猀 not a large one to pay. But like that of the Sibylline਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㤀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㤀✀㸀㈀㤀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 Books it increased with putting off. What he offered਀琀栀攀 瀀甀戀氀椀挀 椀渀 ㄀㠀㜀㤀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㐀㌀崀 眀愀猀 洀甀挀栀 洀漀爀攀 搀攀愀爀氀礀 琀漀 戀攀 戀漀甀最栀琀⸀ The lines were straighter, narrower, and in every way਀氀攀猀猀 渀愀琀甀爀愀氀 琀栀愀渀 琀栀攀礀 栀愀搀 猀攀攀洀攀搀 琀眀漀 礀攀愀爀猀 戀攀昀漀爀攀⸀ In 1881-1882 [Darian: 144-145] they progressed still more in unaccountability.਀吀栀攀礀 栀愀搀 渀漀眀 戀攀挀漀洀攀 爀攀最甀氀愀爀 爀甀氀攀 愀渀搀 挀漀洀瀀愀猀猀 lines, as straight, as even, and as precise as any਀搀爀愀甀最栀琀猀洀愀渀 挀漀甀氀搀 眀椀猀栀 愀渀搀 焀甀椀琀攀 眀栀愀琀 愀猀琀爀漀渀漀洀椀挀 faith did not desire. Having thus donned the character,਀琀栀攀礀 渀攀瘀攀爀洀漀爀攀 瀀甀琀 椀琀 漀昀昀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀一漀眀Ⰰ 琀栀椀猀 挀甀爀椀漀甀猀 攀瘀漀氀甀琀椀漀渀 椀渀 搀攀瀀椀挀琀椀漀渀 瀀漀椀渀琀猀Ⰰ rightly viewed, to an absence of design. It shows that਀匀挀栀椀愀瀀愀爀攀氀氀椀 猀琀愀爀琀攀搀 眀椀琀栀 渀漀 瀀爀攀挀漀渀挀攀椀瘀攀搀 椀搀攀愀 漀渀 琀栀攀 subject. On the contrary, it is clear that he shared to਀戀攀最椀渀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 瀀爀攀瘀愀椀氀椀渀最 栀攀猀椀琀愀渀挀礀 琀漀 愀挀挀攀瀀琀 愀渀礀琀栀椀渀最 out of the ordinary. Nor did he overcome his reluctance਀攀砀挀攀瀀琀 愀猀 戀礀 搀攀最爀攀攀猀 栀攀 眀愀猀 挀漀洀瀀攀氀氀攀搀⸀ 䘀漀爀 琀栀攀 canals did not change their characteristics from one਀漀瀀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀 琀漀 愀渀漀琀栀攀爀㬀 琀栀攀 攀礀攀 椀琀 眀愀猀 琀栀愀琀 氀攀愀爀渀攀搀 琀漀 distinguish what it saw, and the brain made better਀爀攀瀀漀爀琀 愀猀 椀琀 最爀攀眀 昀愀洀椀氀椀愀爀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 洀攀猀猀愀最攀猀 猀攀渀琀 椀琀⸀ In other words, it is patent from these successive maps਀琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 最攀漀洀攀琀爀椀挀愀氀 挀栀愀爀愀挀琀攀爀 漀昀 琀栀攀 ᠀挠愀渀愀氀猀ᤀ†眀愀猀 forced upon Schiaparelli by the things themselves,਀椀渀猀琀攀愀搀 漀昀 戀攀椀渀最Ⰰ 愀猀 栀椀猀 挀爀椀琀椀挀猀 琀漀漀欀 昀漀爀 最爀愀渀琀攀搀Ⰰ 昀漀椀猀琀攀搀 on them by him. We have since seen the regularity਀漀昀 琀栀攀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 猀漀 甀渀搀攀渀椀愀戀氀礀 琀栀愀琀 眀攀 愀爀攀 渀漀琀 渀漀眀 椀渀 渀攀攀搀 30਀漀昀 猀甀挀栀 椀渀昀攀爀攀渀琀椀愀氀 猀甀瀀瀀漀爀琀 琀漀 栀攀氀瀀 甀猀 琀漀 琀栀攀 琀爀甀琀栀㬀 戀甀琀 too late, as it is, to be of controversial moment the deduction਀椀猀 渀漀渀攀 琀栀攀 氀攀猀猀 漀昀 猀漀洀攀 挀漀爀爀漀戀漀爀愀琀漀爀礀 昀漀爀挀攀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀圀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 琀栀椀爀搀 瀀攀爀椀漀搀 攀渀琀攀爀猀 眀栀愀琀 栀愀猀 戀攀攀渀 搀漀渀攀 猀椀渀挀攀 Schiaparelli’s time. For that master was obliged,਀昀爀漀洀 昀愀椀氀椀渀最 猀椀最栀琀Ⰰ 琀漀 挀氀漀猀攀 栀椀猀 眀漀爀欀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 漀瀀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀 of 1890 [Darian: 149]. In 1892 [Darian: 150] W. H. Pickering at Arequipa was the਀挀栀椀攀昀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀攀爀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀 愀渀搀 洀愀搀攀 琀眀漀 椀洀瀀漀爀琀愀渀琀 discoveries: one was the detection of small round spots਀猀挀愀琀琀攀爀攀搀 漀瘀攀爀 琀栀攀 猀甀爀昀愀挀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀 愀渀搀 挀漀渀渀攀挀琀攀搀 with the canal system; the other the perception of਀眀栀愀琀 猀攀攀洀攀搀 琀漀 栀椀洀 洀漀爀攀 漀爀 氀攀猀猀 椀爀爀攀最甀氀愀爀 氀椀渀攀猀 琀爀愀瘀攀爀猀椀渀最 the Mare Erythraeum. Both were notable detections.਀吀栀攀 昀椀爀猀琀 猀攀琀 漀昀 瀀栀攀渀漀洀攀渀愀 栀攀 挀愀氀氀攀搀 氀愀欀攀猀Ⰰ the second river-systems, sometimes schematically਀᠀挠愀渀愀氀猀Ⰰᤀ†戀甀琀 眀椀琀栀漀甀琀 挀漀洀洀椀琀琀椀渀最 栀椀洀猀攀氀昀 琀漀 挀愀渀愀氀椀昀漀爀洀 characteristics as his drawings make clear. The same਀瀀栀攀渀漀洀攀渀愀 眀攀爀攀 猀攀攀渀 愀琀 琀栀愀琀 漀瀀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀 愀琀 琀栀攀 䰀椀挀欀Ⰰ by Schaeberle, Barnard and others, and called streaks.਀吀栀攀猀攀 搀椀猀挀漀瘀攀爀椀攀猀 琀漀漀欀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 㰀椀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 氀愀渀最㴀∀氀愀∀ 砀洀氀㨀氀愀渀最㴀∀氀愀∀㸀洀愀爀椀愀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀椀㸀 琀栀攀椀爀 猀甀瀀瀀漀猀攀搀 character of seas—a most important event in਀欀渀漀眀氀攀搀最攀 漀昀 䴀愀爀猀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀搀椀瘀 椀搀㴀✀椀开 ㌀ 昀瀀开㄀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀昀椀最挀攀渀琀攀爀✀㸀
਀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀椀洀愀最攀猀⼀椀开 ㌀ 昀瀀开㄀ⴀ氀⸀樀瀀最✀㸀㰀椀洀最 猀爀挀㴀✀椀洀愀最攀猀⼀椀开 ㌀ 昀瀀开㄀⸀樀瀀最✀ 愀氀琀㴀✀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀椀最  㔀✀ ⼀㸀㰀⼀愀㸀

Map IX. Lowell, 1894 [Darian: 151].

਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀
਀㰀搀椀瘀 椀搀㴀✀椀开 ㌀ 昀瀀开㈀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀昀椀最挀攀渀琀攀爀✀㸀
਀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀椀洀愀最攀猀⼀椀开 ㌀ 昀瀀开㈀ⴀ氀⸀樀瀀最✀㸀㰀椀洀最 猀爀挀㴀✀椀洀愀最攀猀⼀椀开 ㌀ 昀瀀开㈀⸀樀瀀最✀ 愀氀琀㴀✀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀椀最  㘀✀ ⼀㸀㰀⼀愀㸀

Map X. Lowell, 1896 [Darian: 152].

਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀
਀㰀搀椀瘀 椀搀㴀✀椀开 ㌀㄀昀瀀开㄀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀昀椀最挀攀渀琀攀爀✀㸀
਀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀椀洀愀最攀猀⼀椀开 ㌀㄀昀瀀开㄀ⴀ氀⸀樀瀀最✀㸀㰀椀洀最 猀爀挀㴀✀椀洀愀最攀猀⼀椀开 ㌀㄀昀瀀开㄀⸀樀瀀最✀ 愀氀琀㴀✀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀椀最  㜀✀ ⼀㸀㰀⼀愀㸀

Map XI. Lowell, 1901 [Darian: 155].

਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀
਀㰀搀椀瘀 椀搀㴀✀椀开 ㌀㄀昀瀀开㈀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀昀椀最挀攀渀琀攀爀✀㸀
਀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀椀洀愀最攀猀⼀椀开 ㌀㄀昀瀀开㈀ⴀ氀⸀樀瀀最✀㸀㰀椀洀最 猀爀挀㴀✀椀洀愀最攀猀⼀椀开 ㌀㄀昀瀀开㈀⸀樀瀀最✀ 愀氀琀㴀✀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀椀最  㠀✀ ⼀㸀㰀⼀愀㸀

Map XII. Lowell, 1905 [Darian: 157].

਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀

The next advance was the detection at Flagstaff਀椀渀 ㄀㠀㤀㐀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㄀崀 漀昀 琀栀攀椀爀 挀愀渀愀氀椀昀漀爀洀 挀栀愀爀愀挀琀攀爀椀猀琀椀挀猀 戀礀 洀礀 琀栀攀渀 assistant Mr. Douglass, who in place of the irregular਀猀琀爀攀愀欀猀 愀渀搀 爀椀瘀攀爀ⴀ猀礀猀琀攀洀猀 漀昀 栀椀猀 瀀爀攀搀攀挀攀猀猀漀爀猀 found the seas to be crossed by lines as regular and਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㌀㄀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㌀㄀✀㸀㌀㄀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 as regularly connected as the canals in the light਀爀攀最椀漀渀猀⸀ 吀漀 栀椀洀 琀栀攀礀 愀瀀瀀攀愀爀攀搀 戀爀漀愀搀 愀渀搀 椀氀氀 defined, but so habitually did to him the canals in the਀氀椀最栀琀 愀爀攀愀猀Ⰰ 眀栀椀氀攀 昀漀爀 搀椀爀攀挀琀渀攀猀猀 愀渀搀 甀渀椀昀漀爀洀椀琀礀 琀栀攀 漀渀攀 set showed as geometrically perfect as the other. All਀琀栀攀 搀愀爀欀 㰀椀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 氀愀渀最㴀∀氀愀∀ 砀洀氀㨀氀愀渀最㴀∀氀愀∀㸀洀愀爀椀愀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀椀㸀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀漀甀琀栀攀爀渀 栀攀洀椀猀瀀栀攀爀攀 栀攀 昀漀甀渀搀 琀漀 be laced with them and that they formed a network਀漀瘀攀爀 琀栀攀 搀愀爀欀 爀攀最椀漀渀猀Ⰰ 挀漀甀渀琀攀爀瀀愀爀琀椀渀最 琀栀愀琀 漀瘀攀爀 琀栀攀 light. Still more significant was the fact that their਀瀀漀椀渀琀猀 漀昀 搀攀瀀愀爀琀甀爀攀 挀漀椀渀挀椀搀攀搀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 瀀漀椀渀琀猀 漀昀 愀爀爀椀瘀愀氀 of the bright-region canals, so that the two connected਀琀漀 昀漀爀洀 椀渀 椀琀猀 攀渀琀椀爀攀琀礀 愀 猀椀渀最氀攀 猀礀猀琀攀洀⸀ 䄀昀琀攀爀 琀栀攀 瀀甀戀氀椀挀愀琀椀漀渀 of his results (Lowell Observatory Annals,਀嘀漀氀甀洀攀 䤀Ⰰ ㄀㠀㤀㔀⤀ 匀挀栀椀愀瀀愀爀攀氀氀椀 椀搀攀渀琀椀昀椀攀搀 猀漀洀攀 漀昀 琀栀漀猀攀 in the Syrtis with what he had himself seen there in਀㄀㠀㠀㠀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㐀㠀崀 ⠀㰀挀椀琀攀㸀䴀攀洀漀爀椀愀㰀⼀挀椀琀攀㸀Ⰰ 嘀䤀Ⰰ ㄀㠀㤀㤀⤀Ⰰ 琀栀漀甀最栀 栀椀猀 漀眀渀 栀愀搀 渀漀琀 戀攀攀渀 sufficiently well seen of him to impress him as canals.

Of other additions to our knowledge since made by਀琀栀攀 眀爀椀琀攀爀 琀栀攀 瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀 戀漀漀欀 琀爀攀愀琀猀㬀 愀猀 愀氀猀漀 漀昀 琀栀攀 theory they originally suggested to him and which his਀氀愀琀攀爀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀愀琀椀漀渀猀 栀愀瘀攀 漀渀氀礀 最漀渀攀 琀漀 挀漀渀昀椀爀洀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀栀愀瀀琀攀爀✀㸀 ਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㌀㈀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㌀㈀✀㸀㌀㈀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀

CHAPTER IV

THE POLAR CAPS

਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀搀爀漀瀀ⴀ挀愀瀀愀 开㜀开 开㜀 挀 ㄀㔀✀     㸀䄀氀洀漀猀琀 愀猀 猀漀漀渀 愀猀 洀愀最渀椀昀椀挀愀琀椀漀渀 最椀瘀攀猀 䴀愀爀猀 愀 disk that disk shows markings, white spots crowning਀愀 最氀漀戀攀 猀瀀爀攀愀搀 眀椀琀栀 戀氀甀攀ⴀ最爀攀攀渀 瀀愀琀挀栀攀猀 漀渀 愀渀 漀爀愀渀最攀 ground. The smallest telescope is capable of this far-off਀爀攀瘀攀氀愀琀椀漀渀㬀 眀栀椀氀攀 眀椀琀栀 椀渀挀爀攀愀猀攀搀 瀀漀眀攀爀 琀栀攀 瀀椀挀琀甀爀攀 grows steadily more articulate and full. With a two਀愀渀搀 愀 焀甀愀爀琀攀爀 椀渀挀栀 最氀愀猀猀 琀栀攀 眀爀椀琀攀爀 猀愀眀 琀栀攀洀 琀栀椀爀琀礀ⴀ昀椀瘀攀 years ago.

After the assurance that markings exist the next਀琀栀椀渀最 琀漀 愀爀爀攀猀琀 愀琀琀攀渀琀椀漀渀 椀猀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀猀攀 洀愀爀欀椀渀最猀 洀漀瘀攀⸀ The patches of color first made out by the observer are਀猀栀漀爀琀氀礀 昀漀甀渀搀 戀礀 栀椀洀 琀漀 栀愀瘀攀 猀栀椀昀琀攀搀 椀渀 瀀氀愀挀攀 甀瀀漀渀 琀栀攀 planet. And this not through mistake on his part but਀琀栀爀漀甀最栀 洀攀琀栀漀搀 椀渀 琀栀攀 瀀栀攀渀漀洀攀渀愀㬀 昀漀爀 愀氀氀 搀漀 椀琀 愀氀椀欀攀⸀ In orderly rotation the features make their appearance਀甀瀀漀渀 琀栀攀 戀漀搀礀ᤀ猠 爀椀最栀琀栀愀渀搀 氀椀洀戀 ⠀椀渀 琀栀攀 琀攀氀攀猀挀漀瀀椀挀 image), travel across the central meridian of the disk਀愀渀搀 瘀愀渀椀猀栀 漀瘀攀爀 椀琀猀 氀攀昀琀栀愀渀搀 戀漀爀搀攀爀⸀ 伀渀攀 昀漀氀氀漀眀猀 愀渀漀琀栀攀爀Ⰰ each rising, culminating and setting in its turn਀甀渀搀攀爀 琀栀攀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀攀爀ᤀ猠 最愀稀攀⸀ 䄀 挀漀渀猀琀愀渀琀氀礀 瀀爀漀最爀攀猀猀椀渀最 panorama passes majestically before his sight, new਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㌀㌀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㌀㌀✀㸀㌀㌀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 objects replacing the old with a march so steady and਀眀椀琀栀愀氀 猀漀 猀眀椀昀琀 琀栀愀琀 愀 昀攀眀 洀椀渀甀琀攀猀 眀椀氀氀 猀甀昀昀椀挀攀 琀漀 洀愀爀欀 unmistakably the fact of such procession. But for਀愀氀氀 琀栀椀猀 挀攀愀猀攀氀攀猀猀 琀甀爀渀椀渀最 甀渀搀攀爀 栀椀猀 最愀稀攀Ⰰ 愀昀琀攀爀 愀 挀攀爀琀愀椀渀 lapse of time it is evident that the same features are਀戀攀椀渀最 猀栀漀眀渀 栀椀洀 漀瘀攀爀 愀最愀椀渀⸀ 圀椀琀栀 猀甀挀栀 爀攀挀漀最渀椀琀椀漀渀 of recurrence comes the first advance toward acquaintance਀眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 眀漀爀氀搀⸀ 䘀漀爀 琀栀愀琀 椀渀 愀氀氀 琀栀攀椀爀 journeying their configuration alters not, proves them਀瀀攀爀洀愀渀攀渀琀 椀渀 瀀氀愀挀攀Ⰰ 瀀愀爀琀 愀渀搀 瀀愀爀挀攀氀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀漀氀椀搀 猀甀爀昀愀挀攀 of that other globe. This surface, then, lies exposed਀琀漀 瘀椀攀眀 愀渀搀 戀礀 椀琀猀 琀甀爀渀椀渀最 猀栀漀眀猀 椀琀猀攀氀昀 猀甀戀樀攀挀琀Ⰰ 氀椀欀攀 our earth, to the vicissitudes of day and night.

In such self-exposure Mars differs from all the four਀最爀攀愀琀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀猀Ⰰ 䨀甀瀀椀琀攀爀Ⰰ 匀愀琀甀爀渀Ⰰ 唀爀愀渀甀猀 愀渀搀 一攀瀀琀甀渀攀⸀ Features, indeed, are apparent on the first two of these਀最氀漀戀攀猀 愀渀搀 搀椀洀氀礀 漀渀 琀栀攀 漀琀栀攀爀 琀眀漀 愀猀 眀攀氀氀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 琀栀攀礀 氀愀挀欀 the stability of the Martian markings. They are forever਀攀砀挀栀愀渀最椀渀最 瀀氀愀挀攀⸀ 䤀渀 琀栀攀 挀愀猀攀 漀昀 䨀甀瀀椀琀攀爀 眀栀愀琀 眀攀 猀攀攀 椀猀 undoubtedly a cloud-envelop through which occasional਀最氀椀洀瀀猀攀猀 洀愀礀 瀀漀猀猀椀戀氀礀 戀攀 挀愀甀最栀琀 漀昀 愀 挀栀愀漀琀椀挀 渀甀挀氀攀甀猀 below. With Saturn it is the same; and the evidence਀椀猀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 氀椀欀攀 椀猀 琀爀甀攀 漀昀 唀爀愀渀甀猀 愀渀搀 一攀瀀琀甀渀攀⸀ 圀栀愀琀 goes on under their great cloud canopies we can only surmise.਀圀椀琀栀 䴀愀爀猀Ⰰ 栀漀眀攀瘀攀爀Ⰰ 眀攀 愀爀攀 渀漀琀 氀攀昀琀 琀漀 椀洀愀最椀渀愀琀椀漀渀 in the matter but so far as our means permit can਀愀挀琀甀愀氀氀礀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀攀 眀栀愀琀 琀栀攀爀攀 琀愀欀攀猀 瀀氀愀挀攀⸀ 䔀砀挀攀瀀琀 昀漀爀 34਀搀椀猀琀愀渀挀攀Ⰰ 眀栀椀挀栀Ⰰ 琀栀爀漀甀最栀 猀挀椀攀渀挀攀Ⰰ 礀攀愀爀 戀礀 礀攀愀爀 最爀漀眀猀 less, it is as if we hovered above the planet in a balloon,਀眀椀琀栀 椀琀猀 瘀愀爀椀漀甀猀 昀攀愀琀甀爀攀猀 猀瀀爀攀愀搀 漀甀琀 琀漀 漀甀爀 最愀稀攀 below.

Attention shows these areographic features to be on਀栀愀渀搀 眀椀琀栀 瀀甀渀挀琀甀愀氀 瀀爀攀挀椀猀椀漀渀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀椀爀 琀爀愀瘀攀爀猀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 disk once every twenty-four hours and thirty-seven਀洀椀渀甀琀攀猀⸀ 䘀漀爀 漀瘀攀爀 琀眀漀 栀甀渀搀爀攀搀 礀攀愀爀猀 琀栀椀猀 栀愀猀 戀攀攀渀 the case, their untiring revolutions having been watched਀猀漀 眀攀氀氀 琀栀愀琀 眀攀 欀渀漀眀 琀栀攀 琀椀洀攀 琀栀攀礀 琀愀欀攀 琀漀 琀栀攀 渀椀挀攀琀礀 of a couple of hundredths of a second. We thus become਀瀀漀猀猀攀猀猀攀搀 漀昀 愀 欀渀漀眀氀攀搀最攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 氀攀渀最琀栀 漀昀 琀栀攀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 day and it is not a little interesting to find that it very਀挀氀漀猀攀氀礀 挀漀甀渀琀攀爀瀀愀爀琀猀 椀渀 搀甀爀愀琀椀漀渀 漀甀爀 漀眀渀Ⰰ 戀攀椀渀最 漀渀氀礀 one thirty-fifth the longer of the two. We also find਀昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 挀漀甀爀猀攀 琀栀攀 洀愀爀欀椀渀最猀 瀀甀爀猀甀攀 琀栀攀 愀砀椀猀 愀戀漀甀琀 which they turn; and just as the period of the rotation਀琀攀氀氀猀 甀猀 琀栀攀 氀攀渀最琀栀 漀昀 琀栀攀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 搀愀礀 猀漀 琀栀攀 琀椀氀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 axis, taken in connection with the form of the orbit,਀搀攀琀攀爀洀椀渀攀猀 琀栀攀 挀栀愀爀愀挀琀攀爀 漀昀 琀栀攀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 猀攀愀猀漀渀猀⸀ 䠀攀爀攀 again we confront a curious resemblance in the circumstances਀漀昀 琀栀攀 琀眀漀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀猀Ⰰ 昀漀爀 琀栀攀 琀椀氀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 攀焀甀愀琀漀爀 to the plane of the orbit is with Mars almost precisely਀眀栀愀琀 椀琀 椀猀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀 䔀愀爀琀栀⸀ 吀栀攀 洀漀爀攀 挀愀爀攀昀甀氀氀礀 琀栀攀 琀眀漀 愀爀攀 measured the closer the similitude becomes. Sir William਀䠀攀爀猀挀栀攀氀 洀愀搀攀 琀栀攀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 ㈀㠀뀀Ⰰ 匀挀栀椀愀瀀愀爀攀氀氀椀 爀攀搀甀挀攀搀 this to 25°, and later determination by the writer਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㌀㔀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㌀㔀✀㸀㌀㔀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 puts it nearer 24°. The latter is the one now adopted਀椀渀 琀栀攀 䈀爀椀琀椀猀栀 一愀甀琀椀挀愀氀 䄀氀洀愀渀愀挀 昀漀爀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀攀爀猀 漀昀 the planet. This is a very close parallelism indeed;਀猀漀 琀栀愀琀 椀渀 最攀渀攀爀愀氀 挀栀愀爀愀挀琀攀爀 琀栀攀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 猀攀愀猀漀渀猀 are nearly the counterpart of ours. In length, however,਀琀栀攀礀 搀椀昀昀攀爀㬀 昀椀爀猀琀 戀攀挀愀甀猀攀 琀栀攀 礀攀愀爀 漀昀 䴀愀爀猀 椀猀 almost double the length of the terrestrial one and਀猀攀挀漀渀搀氀礀 戀攀挀愀甀猀攀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 最爀攀愀琀攀爀 攀氀氀椀瀀琀椀挀椀琀礀 漀昀 䴀愀爀猀ᤀ orbit the seasons are more unequal than is the case with਀甀猀Ⰰ 猀漀洀攀 戀攀椀渀最 爀甀渀 琀栀爀漀甀最栀 眀椀琀栀 最爀攀愀琀 栀愀猀琀攀Ⰰ 漀琀栀攀爀猀 being lingered on a disproportionate time. It is usual਀漀渀 琀栀攀 䔀愀爀琀栀 琀漀 挀漀渀猀椀搀攀爀 猀瀀爀椀渀最 愀猀 琀栀攀 瀀攀爀椀漀搀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 vernal equinox, about March 21, to the summer solstice,਀愀戀漀甀琀 䨀甀渀攀 ㈀ 㬀 猀甀洀洀攀爀 愀猀 氀愀猀琀椀渀最 琀栀攀渀挀攀 琀漀 琀栀攀 愀甀琀甀洀渀愀氀 equinox; autumn from this latter date, about਀匀攀瀀琀攀洀戀攀爀 ㈀ Ⰰ 琀漀 琀栀攀 眀椀渀琀攀爀 猀漀氀猀琀椀挀攀 漀渀 䐀攀挀攀洀戀攀爀 ㈀㄀㬀 and winter from that point on to the next spring਀攀焀甀椀渀漀砀 愀最愀椀渀⸀ 伀渀 琀栀椀猀 搀椀瘀椀猀椀漀渀 漀甀爀 猀攀愀猀漀渀猀 椀渀 琀栀攀 northern hemisphere last respectively: spring, 91 days;਀猀甀洀洀攀爀Ⰰ 㤀㈀ 搀愀礀猀㬀 愀甀琀甀洀渀Ⰰ 㤀㈀ 搀愀礀猀㬀 愀渀搀 眀椀渀琀攀爀Ⰰ 㤀  days. On Mars these become, reckoned in our days:਀猀瀀爀椀渀最Ⰰ ㄀㤀㤀 搀愀礀猀㬀 猀甀洀洀攀爀 ㄀㠀㌀ 搀愀礀猀㬀 愀甀琀甀洀渀Ⰰ ㄀㐀㜀 days; and winter, 158 days. If we had counted them਀椀渀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 搀愀礀猀 琀栀攀礀 眀漀甀氀搀 栀愀瘀攀 琀漀琀愀氀攀搀 愀戀漀甀琀 漀渀攀 thirty-fifth less in number each.

In its days and seasons, then, Mars is wonderfully਀氀椀欀攀 琀栀攀 䔀愀爀琀栀㬀 攀砀挀攀瀀琀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀 氀攀渀最琀栀 漀昀 琀栀攀 礀攀愀爀 眀攀 36਀猀栀漀甀氀搀 栀愀爀搀氀礀 欀渀漀眀 琀栀攀 搀椀昀昀攀爀攀渀挀攀 椀渀 爀攀挀欀漀渀椀渀最 漀昀 琀椀洀攀 could we some morning wake up there instead of here.਀伀渀氀礀 椀渀 漀渀攀 爀攀愀氀氀礀 甀渀椀洀瀀漀爀琀愀渀琀 爀攀猀瀀攀挀琀 猀栀漀甀氀搀 眀攀 昀攀攀氀 strange; in months we should find ourselves turned਀琀漀瀀猀礀ⴀ琀甀爀瘀礀⸀ 䈀甀琀 氀甀渀愀琀椀漀渀猀 栀愀瘀攀 渀漀琀栀椀渀最 琀漀 搀漀 眀椀琀栀 climate nor with the alternation between night and਀搀愀礀㬀 愀渀搀 椀渀 琀栀攀猀攀 琀眀漀 椀洀瀀漀爀琀愀渀琀 爀攀猀瀀攀挀琀猀 眀攀 猀栀漀甀氀搀 certainly feel at home.

Though the axis could be determined by the daily਀洀愀爀挀栀 漀昀 愀渀礀 洀愀爀欀椀渀最 愀渀搀 琀栀甀猀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀ᤀ猠 琀爀漀瀀椀挀Ⰰ temperate and polar regions marked out, the process਀椀猀 洀愀搀攀 攀愀猀椀攀爀 戀礀 琀栀攀 瀀爀攀猀攀渀挀攀 漀昀 眀栀椀琀攀 瀀愀琀挀栀攀猀 挀漀瘀攀爀椀渀最 the planet’s poles and known, in consequence,਀愀猀 琀栀攀 瀀漀氀愀爀 挀愀瀀猀⸀ 䤀琀 椀猀 昀爀漀洀 洀攀愀猀甀爀攀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀愀琀挀栀攀猀 that the position of the Martian poles has actually਀戀攀攀渀 搀攀琀攀爀洀椀渀攀搀⸀ 吀栀攀猀攀 瀀漀氀愀爀 挀愀瀀猀 愀爀攀 攀砀愀挀琀氀礀 愀渀愀氀漀最漀甀猀 in general position to those which bonnet our own਀䔀愀爀琀栀⸀ 吀栀攀礀 爀攀瀀爀漀搀甀挀攀 琀栀攀 愀瀀瀀攀愀爀愀渀挀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 椀挀攀 愀渀搀 snow of our arctic and antarctic regions seen from space,਀椀渀 愀 瘀攀爀礀 爀攀洀愀爀欀愀戀氀攀 洀愀渀渀攀爀⸀ 䤀渀 琀爀甀琀栀 琀栀攀礀 愀爀攀 琀栀椀渀最猀 of note in more ways than one and would claim precedence਀漀渀 洀愀渀礀 挀漀甀渀琀猀⸀ 倀爀椀漀爀椀琀礀 漀昀 爀攀挀漀最渀椀琀椀漀渀Ⰰ 栀漀眀攀瘀攀爀Ⰰ alone entitles them to premier consideration.਀䄀洀漀渀最 琀栀攀 瘀攀爀礀 昀椀爀猀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 搀椀猀欀ᤀ猠 搀攀琀愀椀氀 琀漀 戀攀 洀愀搀攀 out by man, they justly demand description first.

With peculiar propriety the polar caps have thus਀琀栀攀 㰀椀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 氀愀渀最㴀∀氀愀∀ 砀洀氀㨀氀愀渀最㴀∀氀愀∀㸀瀀愀猀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀椀㸀⸀ 一漀琀 漀渀氀礀 搀漀 琀栀攀礀 猀琀愀渀搀 昀椀爀猀琀 椀渀 漀爀搀攀爀 漀昀 37਀瘀椀猀椀戀椀氀椀琀礀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 琀栀攀礀 瀀爀漀瘀攀 琀漀 漀挀挀甀瀀礀 愀 氀椀欀攀 瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀 logically when it comes to an explanation of the਀瀀氀愀渀攀琀ᤀ猠 瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀 瀀栀礀猀椀挀愀氀 猀琀愀琀攀⸀ 䤀琀 椀猀 渀漀琀 洀愀琀琀攀爀 漀昀 hazard that the most evident of all the planet’s markings਀猀栀漀甀氀搀 愀氀猀漀 戀攀 琀栀攀 洀漀猀琀 昀甀渀搀愀洀攀渀琀愀氀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 昀漀甀渀琀愀椀渀栀攀愀搀 from which everything else flows. It is of the਀攀猀猀攀渀挀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀ᤀ猠 挀漀渀搀椀琀椀漀渀 愀渀搀 昀甀爀渀椀猀栀攀猀 琀栀攀 欀攀礀 to its comprehension. The steps leading to this conclusion਀愀爀攀 愀猀 椀渀琀攀爀攀猀琀椀渀最 愀猀 琀栀攀礀 愀爀攀 挀漀最攀渀琀⸀ 吀栀攀礀 start at the polar caps’ visibility. For their size first਀爀椀瘀攀琀攀搀 洀愀渀ᤀ猠 愀琀琀攀渀琀椀漀渀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀渀 愀琀琀攀渀琀椀漀渀 琀漀 琀栀攀洀 disclosed that most vital of the characteristics of the਀瀀氀愀渀攀琀ᤀ猠 猀甀爀昀愀挀攀㨀 挀栀愀渀最攀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䨀甀猀琀 愀猀 愀氀洀漀猀琀 愀氀氀 漀昀 琀栀攀 昀攀愀琀甀爀攀猀 眀攀 渀漀琀攀 愀爀攀 瀀攀爀洀愀渀攀渀琀 in place, showing that they belong to the surface,਀猀漀 愀爀攀 琀栀攀礀 愀氀氀 椀洀瀀攀爀洀愀渀攀渀琀 椀渀 挀栀愀爀愀挀琀攀爀⸀ 䌀栀愀渀最攀 is the only absolutely unchanging thing except position਀愀戀漀甀琀 琀栀攀 昀攀愀琀甀爀攀猀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀 瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀猀 琀漀 瘀椀攀眀⸀ 䤀琀 was in the aspect of the polar caps that this important਀昀愀挀琀 昀椀爀猀琀 挀愀洀攀 琀漀 氀椀最栀琀⸀ 一漀琀 漀渀氀礀 搀椀搀 琀栀攀礀 琀栀甀猀 椀渀椀琀椀愀氀氀礀 instance a general law, they have turned out to make਀椀琀㬀 昀漀爀 戀礀 琀栀攀洀猀攀氀瘀攀猀 挀栀愀渀最椀渀最 琀栀攀礀 氀愀爀最攀氀礀 挀愀甀猀攀 change in all the rest. But for a long time they alone਀攀砀攀洀瀀氀椀昀椀攀搀 椀琀猀 眀漀爀欀椀渀最猀⸀ 吀漀 匀椀爀 圀椀氀氀椀愀洀 䠀攀爀猀挀栀攀氀 we owe the first study of their change in aspect. This਀攀洀椀渀攀渀琀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀攀爀 渀漀琀攀搀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀椀爀 瘀愀爀礀椀渀最 猀椀稀攀 眀愀猀 subject to a regular rhythmic wax and wane timed to਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㌀㠀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㌀㠀✀㸀㌀㠀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 the course of the seasons of the planet’s year. The਀挀愀瀀猀 椀渀挀爀攀愀猀攀搀 椀渀 琀栀攀 眀椀渀琀攀爀 漀昀 琀栀攀椀爀 栀攀洀椀猀瀀栀攀爀攀 愀渀搀 decreased in its summer and being situate in opposite਀栀攀洀椀猀瀀栀攀爀攀猀 琀栀攀礀 搀椀搀 琀栀椀猀 愀氀琀攀爀渀愀琀攀氀礀 眀椀琀栀 瀀攀渀搀甀氀甀洀ⴀ氀椀欀攀 precision. His observations were soon abundantly਀挀漀渀昀椀爀洀攀搀Ⰰ 昀漀爀 琀栀攀 瀀栀攀渀漀洀攀渀愀 琀愀欀攀 瀀氀愀挀攀 甀瀀漀渀 愀 瘀愀猀琀 scale and are thus easy of recognition. At their maximum਀猀瀀爀攀愀搀 琀栀攀 挀愀瀀猀 挀漀瘀攀爀 洀漀爀攀 琀栀愀渀 漀渀攀 栀甀渀搀爀攀搀 琀椀洀攀猀 as much ground as when they have shrunk to their਀洀椀渀椀洀甀洀⸀ 䤀渀 琀栀攀 搀攀瀀琀栀 漀昀 眀椀渀琀攀爀 琀栀攀礀 猀琀爀攀琀挀栀 漀瘀攀爀 much more than the polar zone, coming down to 60°਀愀渀搀 攀瘀攀渀 㔀 뀀 漀昀 氀愀琀椀琀甀搀攀 渀漀爀琀栀 漀爀 猀漀甀琀栀 愀猀 琀栀攀 挀愀猀攀 洀愀礀 be, thence melting till by midsummer they span only਀昀椀瘀攀 漀爀 猀椀砀 搀攀最爀攀攀猀 愀挀爀漀猀猀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䤀渀 琀栀椀猀 琀栀攀礀 戀攀愀爀 挀氀漀猀攀 愀渀愀氀漀最甀攀 琀漀 琀栀攀 戀攀栀愀瘀椀漀爀 of our own. Ours would show not otherwise were they਀瘀椀攀眀攀搀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 椀洀瀀攀爀猀漀渀愀氀 猀琀愀渀搀瀀漀椀渀琀 漀昀 猀瀀愀挀攀⸀ 嘀攀爀礀 little telescopic aid suffices to disclose the Martian polar਀瀀栀攀渀漀洀攀渀愀 椀渀 琀栀椀猀 琀栀攀椀爀 洀漀爀攀 猀愀氀椀攀渀琀 挀栀愀爀愀挀琀攀爀椀猀琀椀挀猀 and convince an observer of their likeness to those of the਀攀愀爀琀栀⸀ 䄀渀礀 漀渀攀 洀愀礀 渀漀琀攀 眀栀愀琀 椀猀 琀栀攀爀攀 最漀椀渀最 漀渀 戀礀 successive observations of the planet with a three-inch਀最氀愀猀猀⸀ 一漀爀 椀猀 琀栀攀 挀栀愀渀最攀 戀礀 愀渀礀 洀攀愀渀猀 猀氀漀眀⸀ 䄀 昀攀眀 days at the proper Martian season, or at most a couple਀漀昀 眀攀攀欀猀Ⰰ 瀀爀漀搀甀挀攀猀 挀漀渀猀瀀椀挀甀漀甀猀 愀渀搀 挀漀渀挀氀甀猀椀瘀攀 愀氀琀攀爀愀琀椀漀渀猀 in the size of these nightcaps of the planet’s਀眀椀渀琀攀爀 猀氀攀攀瀀⸀ 刀攀猀攀洀戀氀椀渀最 漀甀爀 漀眀渀 猀漀 眀攀氀氀 琀栀攀礀 眀攀爀攀 39਀攀愀爀氀礀 猀甀爀洀椀猀攀搀 琀漀 戀攀 漀昀 氀椀欀攀 挀漀渀猀琀椀琀甀琀椀漀渀 愀渀搀 挀漀洀瀀漀猀攀搀Ⰰ therefore, of ice and snow. Plausible on its face, this਀瘀椀攀眀 漀昀 琀栀攀洀 眀愀猀 最攀渀攀爀愀氀氀礀 愀搀漀瀀琀攀搀 愀渀搀 挀漀洀洀漀渀 猀攀渀猀攀 has held to it ever since. It has encountered, of course,਀漀瀀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀Ⰰ 瀀愀爀琀氀礀 昀爀漀洀 瘀攀爀礀 瀀爀漀瀀攀爀 挀漀渀猀攀爀瘀愀琀椀猀洀Ⰰ but chiefly from that earth-centred philosophy which਀栀愀猀 搀漀甀戀琀攀搀 洀漀猀琀 愀搀瘀愀渀挀攀猀 猀椀渀挀攀 䜀愀氀椀氀攀漀ᤀ猠 琀椀洀攀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 carbonic acid has been put forward by this school of਀猀挀攀瀀琀椀挀猀 琀漀 琀愀欀攀 椀琀猀 瀀氀愀挀攀⸀ 圀攀 猀栀愀氀氀 挀爀椀琀椀挀愀氀氀礀 攀砀愀洀椀渀攀 both objections; the latter first, because a certain਀瀀栀礀猀椀挀愀氀 昀愀挀琀 攀渀愀戀氀攀猀 甀猀 琀漀 搀椀猀瀀漀猀攀 漀昀 椀琀 愀琀 漀渀挀攀⸀ 䤀渀 casual appearance there is not much to choose between਀琀栀攀 爀椀瘀愀氀 挀愀渀搀椀搀愀琀攀猀 漀昀 挀漀洀洀漀渀 猀攀渀猀攀 愀渀搀 甀渀挀漀洀洀漀渀 subtlety, water and frozen carbonic acid gas, both being਀猀甀椀琀愀戀氀礀 眀栀椀琀攀 愀渀搀 戀漀琀栀 最漀椀渀最 愀渀搀 挀漀洀椀渀最 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 temperature. But, upon closer study, in one point of਀戀攀栀愀瘀椀漀爀 琀栀攀 琀眀漀 猀甀戀猀琀愀渀挀攀猀 愀挀琀 焀甀椀琀攀 甀渀氀椀欀攀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 栀愀搀 half the ingenuity been expended in testing the theory਀愀猀 椀渀 戀爀漀愀挀栀椀渀最 椀琀 琀栀椀猀 昀愀挀琀 栀愀搀 挀漀洀攀 琀漀 氀椀最栀琀 琀漀 琀栀攀 suggestors as it did upon examination to the writer਀愀渀搀 栀愀搀 猀攀爀瘀攀搀 愀猀 愀 琀漀甀挀栀猀琀漀渀攀 椀渀 琀栀攀 挀愀猀攀⸀ 䄀琀 瀀爀攀猀猀甀爀攀猀 of anything like one atmosphere or less carbonic਀愀挀椀搀 瀀愀猀猀攀猀 愀琀 漀渀挀攀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 猀漀氀椀搀 琀漀 琀栀攀 最愀猀攀漀甀猀 猀琀愀琀攀⸀ Water, on the other hand, lingers in the intermediate਀猀琀愀最攀 漀昀 愀 氀椀焀甀椀搀⸀ 一漀眀Ⰰ 愀猀 琀栀攀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 挀愀瀀 洀攀氀琀猀 椀琀 shows surrounded by a deep blue band which accompanies਀椀琀 椀渀 椀琀猀 爀攀琀爀攀愀琀Ⰰ 猀栀爀椀渀欀椀渀最 琀漀 欀攀攀瀀 瀀愀挀攀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 40਀猀栀爀椀渀欀愀最攀 椀渀 琀栀攀 挀愀瀀⸀ 吀栀椀猀 椀猀 挀氀攀愀爀氀礀 琀栀攀 瀀爀漀搀甀挀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 disintegration since it waits so studiously upon it. The਀猀甀戀猀琀愀渀挀攀 挀漀洀瀀漀猀椀渀最 琀栀攀 挀愀瀀Ⰰ 琀栀攀渀Ⰰ 搀漀攀猀 渀漀琀 瀀愀猀猀 椀渀猀琀愀渀琀愀渀攀漀甀猀氀礀 or anything like it from the solid to the਀最愀猀攀漀甀猀 挀漀渀搀椀琀椀漀渀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀吀栀椀猀 戀愀搀最攀 漀昀 戀氀甀攀 爀椀戀戀漀渀 愀戀漀甀琀 琀栀攀 洀攀氀琀椀渀最 挀愀瀀Ⰰ therefore, conclusively shows that carbonic acid is਀渀漀琀 眀栀愀琀 眀攀 猀攀攀 愀渀搀 氀攀愀瘀攀猀 甀猀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 漀渀氀礀 愀氀琀攀爀渀愀琀椀瘀攀 we know of: water.

41਀  㰀栀㈀ 椀搀㴀✀挀栀 㔀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㘀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀砀氀愀爀最攀✀㸀䌀䠀䄀倀吀䔀刀 嘀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀 㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀䈀䔀䠀䄀嘀䤀伀刀 伀䘀 吀䠀䔀 倀伀䰀䄀刀 䌀䄀倀匀㰀⼀栀㈀㸀

Assured by physical properties that our visual਀愀瀀瀀攀愀爀愀渀挀攀猀 愀爀攀 焀甀椀琀攀 挀愀瀀愀戀氀攀 漀昀 戀攀椀渀最 眀栀愀琀 琀栀攀礀 seem we pass to the phenomena of the cap itself. Like਀愀猀 愀爀攀 琀栀攀 瀀漀氀愀爀 挀愀瀀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 琀眀漀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀猀 愀琀 昀椀爀猀琀 爀攀最愀爀搀Ⰰ upon further study very notable differences soon disclose਀琀栀攀洀猀攀氀瘀攀猀 戀攀琀眀攀攀渀 琀栀攀 攀愀爀琀栀氀礀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 ones; and these serve to give us our initial hint of a਀搀椀昀昀攀爀攀渀琀 猀琀愀琀攀 漀昀 琀栀椀渀最猀 漀瘀攀爀 琀栀攀爀攀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀愀琀 眀椀琀栀 which we are conversant on Earth.

To begin with, the limits between which they fluctuate਀愀爀攀 漀甀琀 漀昀 愀氀氀 瀀爀漀瀀漀爀琀椀漀渀 最爀攀愀琀攀爀 漀渀 䴀愀爀猀⸀ 䤀琀 椀猀 not so much in their maxima that the ice-sheets of the਀琀眀漀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀猀 瘀愀爀礀⸀ 伀甀爀 漀眀渀 瀀漀氀愀爀 挀愀瀀猀 愀爀攀 洀甀挀栀 larger than we think; indeed, we live in them a good਀昀爀愀挀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 琀椀洀攀⸀ 伀甀爀 眀椀渀琀攀爀 猀渀漀眀猀 愀爀攀 椀渀 琀爀甀琀栀 nothing but part and parcel of the polar cap at that਀猀攀愀猀漀渀⸀ 一漀眀Ⰰ 椀渀 琀栀攀 渀漀爀琀栀攀爀渀 栀攀洀椀猀瀀栀攀爀攀 猀渀漀眀 挀漀瘀攀爀猀 the ground at sea-level more or less continuously down਀琀漀 㔀 뀀 漀昀 氀愀琀椀琀甀搀攀⸀ 䤀琀 猀琀爀攀琀挀栀攀猀 琀栀甀猀 昀愀爀 攀瘀攀渀 漀渀 琀栀攀 western flanks of the continents, while in the middle of਀琀栀攀洀 愀渀搀 漀渀 琀栀攀椀爀 攀愀猀琀攀爀渀 猀椀搀攀猀 椀琀 攀砀琀攀渀搀猀 琀攀渀 搀攀最爀攀攀猀 42਀昀愀爀琀栀攀爀 礀攀琀 搀甀爀椀渀最 琀栀攀 搀攀瀀琀栀 漀昀 眀椀渀琀攀爀⸀ 匀漀 琀栀愀琀 眀攀 have a polar cap which is then ninety degrees across.਀䤀渀 漀甀爀 猀漀甀琀栀攀爀渀 栀攀洀椀猀瀀栀攀爀攀 椀琀 椀猀 洀甀挀栀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 猀椀砀 months later, in the corresponding winter of its year.

On Mars at their winter maxima the polar caps extend਀漀瘀攀爀 愀 猀椀洀椀氀愀爀 猀琀爀攀琀挀栀 漀昀 氀愀琀椀琀甀搀攀⸀ 吀栀攀礀 搀漀 猀漀Ⰰ 栀漀眀攀瘀攀爀Ⰰ unequally. The southern one is considerably the਀氀愀爀最攀爀⸀ 䤀渀 ㄀㤀 ㌀Ⰰ ㄀㌀㘀 搀愀礀猀 愀昀琀攀爀 琀栀攀 眀椀渀琀攀爀 猀漀氀猀琀椀挀攀Ⰰ in the Martian calendar February 27 [Darian: 156 Rishabha 18], it came down in਀氀漀渀最椀琀甀搀攀 ㈀㈀㔀뀀 琀漀 㐀㐀뀀 漀昀 氀愀琀椀琀甀搀攀 愀渀搀 洀愀礀 戀攀 琀愀欀攀渀 琀漀 have then measured ninety-three degrees across; in਀㄀㤀 㔀Ⰰ ㄀㈀㄀ 搀愀礀猀 愀昀琀攀爀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 猀漀氀猀琀椀挀攀Ⰰ 椀琀 猀琀爀攀琀挀栀攀搀 in longitude 235° to latitude 42°, and 158 days later,਀椀渀 氀漀渀最椀琀甀搀攀 ㈀㈀㄀뀀 琀漀 氀愀琀椀琀甀搀攀 㐀㄀뀀㬀 瘀愀氀甀攀猀 眀栀椀挀栀Ⰰ 猀甀瀀瀀漀猀椀渀最 it to have been round, imply for it a diameter਀漀渀 琀栀攀猀攀 漀挀挀愀猀椀漀渀猀 漀昀 渀椀渀攀琀礀ⴀ猀椀砀 愀渀搀 渀椀渀攀琀礀ⴀ猀攀瘀攀渀 degrees. It was then February 20 and March 10 [Darian: 157 Rishabha 05 and਀䜀攀洀椀渀椀 ㄀㐀崀 爀攀猀瀀攀挀琀椀瘀攀氀礀 漀昀 琀栀攀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 礀攀愀爀⸀ 吀栀攀猀攀 搀攀琀攀爀洀椀渀愀琀椀漀渀猀 of its size at the two oppositions agree sufficiently well਀挀漀渀猀椀搀攀爀椀渀最 琀栀攀 最爀攀愀琀 琀椀氀琀 愀眀愀礀 昀爀漀洀 甀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀漀甀琀栀 pole at the time and the horizonward foreshortening਀漀昀 琀栀攀 攀搀最攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀渀漀眀⸀ 䤀琀 猀攀攀洀猀 昀爀漀洀 愀 挀漀渀猀攀渀猀甀猀 of the measures to have been some five degrees਀眀椀搀攀爀 椀渀 ㄀㤀 ㌀ 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㘀崀 琀栀愀渀 椀渀 ㄀㤀 㔀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㜀崀Ⰰ 眀栀椀挀栀 洀愀礀 洀攀愀渀 愀 挀漀氀搀攀爀 winter preceding the former date. The cap was still਀愀瀀瀀愀爀攀渀琀氀礀 眀椀琀栀漀甀琀 愀 搀愀爀欀 挀漀渀琀漀甀爀 椀渀 戀漀琀栀 礀攀愀爀猀Ⰰ showing that it had not yet begun to melt.

਀㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀搀椀瘀ⴀ㐀  ✀㸀 ਀㰀瀀㸀匀漀甀琀栀 倀漀氀愀爀 䌀愀瀀⸀㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀⠀䰀漀眀攀氀氀 伀戀猀攀爀瘀愀琀漀爀礀Ⰰ ㄀㤀 㔀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㜀崀⸀⤀㰀⼀瀀㸀
਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀 43਀䰀攀猀猀 栀愀猀 戀攀攀渀 氀攀愀爀渀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 渀漀爀琀栀攀爀渀 挀愀瀀⸀ 䤀渀 ㄀㠀㤀㘀ⴀ㄀㠀㤀㜀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㈀ⴀ㄀㔀㌀崀 when it was similarly presented skirting the other਀爀椀洀 漀昀 琀栀攀 搀椀猀欀Ⰰ 愀 最愀瀀 漀挀挀甀爀爀攀搀 椀渀 琀栀攀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀愀琀椀漀渀猀 挀漀爀爀攀猀瀀漀渀搀椀渀最 to the time by Martian months between February਀㈀㐀 愀渀搀 䴀愀爀挀栀 ㈀㈀⸀ 伀渀 琀栀攀 昀漀爀洀攀爀 搀愀琀攀 琀栀攀 挀愀瀀 came down only to latitude 55° in longitude 352°;਀漀渀 琀栀攀 猀甀戀猀攀焀甀攀渀琀 漀渀攀 愀渀搀 昀漀爀 猀攀瘀攀爀愀氀 搀愀礀猀 愀昀琀攀爀 琀栀攀 latitude of the southern limit of the snow was such as਀琀漀 椀洀瀀氀礀 愀 戀爀攀愀搀琀栀 琀漀 椀琀 漀昀 愀戀漀甀琀 攀椀最栀琀礀 搀攀最爀攀攀猀⸀ 吀栀攀 cap was now bordered by a dark line, proving that melting਀栀愀搀 愀氀爀攀愀搀礀 猀攀琀 椀渀⸀ 䤀琀 挀愀渀渀漀琀Ⰰ 栀漀眀攀瘀攀爀Ⰰ 愀琀 椀琀猀 maximum have covered much more country than this,਀椀渀 瘀椀攀眀 漀昀 椀琀猀 氀攀猀猀攀爀 攀砀琀攀渀琀 漀渀 䘀攀戀爀甀愀爀礀 ㈀㐀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䘀愀椀爀 愀猀 漀甀爀 欀渀漀眀氀攀搀最攀 渀漀眀 椀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 搀椀洀攀渀猀椀漀渀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 Martian polar caps at their maxima, we have much਀洀漀爀攀 愀挀挀甀爀愀琀攀 椀渀昀漀爀洀愀琀椀漀渀 眀椀琀栀 爀攀最愀爀搀 琀漀 琀栀攀椀爀 洀椀渀椀洀愀Ⰰ and this, too, was obtained much earlier. That we਀猀栀漀甀氀搀 昀椀爀猀琀 栀愀瘀攀 欀渀漀眀渀 琀栀攀椀爀 猀洀愀氀氀攀猀琀 爀愀琀栀攀爀 琀栀愀渀 琀栀攀椀爀 greatest extent with accuracy may appear surprising,਀攀砀愀挀琀氀礀 琀栀攀 漀瀀瀀漀猀椀琀攀 戀攀椀渀最 漀甀爀 欀渀漀眀氀攀搀最攀 漀昀 漀甀爀 漀眀渀⸀ It is not, however, so surprising as it appears, inasmuch਀愀猀 椀琀 椀猀 愀渀 椀渀攀瘀椀琀愀戀氀攀 挀漀渀猀攀焀甀攀渀挀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀ᤀ猠 aspect with regard to the sun. When the tilt of the਀愀砀椀猀 椀渀挀氀椀渀攀猀 漀渀攀 栀攀洀椀猀瀀栀攀爀攀 琀漀眀愀爀搀 琀栀攀 猀甀渀Ⰰ 琀栀愀琀 栀攀洀椀猀瀀栀攀爀攀ᤀ猠 polar cap must melt and dwindle, while at਀琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 琀椀洀攀 椀琀 椀猀 琀栀攀 漀渀攀 戀攀猀琀 猀攀攀渀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 漀琀栀攀爀 戀攀椀渀最 turned away from the sun and therefore largely਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㐀㐀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㐀㐀✀㸀㐀㐀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 from us as well; so that even such part of the latter਀愀猀 椀猀 椀氀氀甀洀椀渀攀搀 氀椀攀猀 氀漀眀 搀漀眀渀 琀漀眀愀爀搀 琀栀攀 栀漀爀椀稀漀渀 漀昀 the disk where a slight change of angle means a਀最爀攀愀琀 搀椀昀昀攀爀攀渀挀攀 椀渀 猀椀稀攀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䤀琀 栀愀猀 琀栀甀猀 挀漀洀攀 愀戀漀甀琀 琀栀愀琀 戀漀琀栀 琀栀攀 猀漀甀琀栀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 north polar caps have been repeatedly well seen and਀洀攀愀猀甀爀攀搀 愀琀 琀栀攀椀爀 洀椀渀椀洀甀洀㬀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 洀攀愀猀甀爀攀猀 昀漀爀 different Martian years agree well with one another.਀䘀漀爀 琀栀攀 渀漀爀琀栀攀爀渀 挀愀瀀 猀椀砀 搀攀最爀攀攀猀 椀渀 搀椀愀洀攀琀攀爀 椀猀 愀戀漀甀琀 the least value to which it shrinks. The south one਀戀攀挀漀洀攀猀 攀瘀攀渀 猀洀愀氀氀攀爀Ⰰ 戀攀椀渀最 甀猀甀愀氀氀礀 渀漀琀 洀漀爀攀 琀栀愀渀 昀椀瘀攀 degrees across, while in 1894 [Darian: 151] it actually vanished, a਀琀栀椀渀最 甀渀瀀爀攀挀攀搀攀渀琀攀搀⸀ 䤀琀猀 愀戀猀攀渀挀攀 眀愀猀 搀攀琀攀挀琀攀搀 戀礀 Douglass at Flagstaff and shortly after the announcement਀漀昀 椀琀猀 搀椀猀愀瀀瀀攀愀爀愀渀挀攀 琀栀攀 昀愀挀琀 眀愀猀 挀漀爀爀漀戀漀爀愀琀攀搀 by Barnard at the Lick. The position the cap would਀栀愀瘀攀 漀挀挀甀瀀椀攀搀 眀愀猀 愀琀 琀栀攀 琀椀洀攀 戀攀琀琀攀爀 瀀氀愀挀攀搀 昀漀爀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀愀琀椀漀渀 in America than in Europe, inasmuch as the਀挀愀瀀 椀猀 攀挀挀攀渀琀爀椀挀愀氀氀礀 猀椀琀甀愀琀攀搀 眀椀琀栀 爀攀最愀爀搀 琀漀 琀栀攀 最攀漀最爀愀瀀栀椀挀 pole and its centre was then well on the side਀漀昀 琀栀攀 搀椀猀欀 瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀攀搀 琀漀 甀猀 眀栀椀氀攀 椀渀 䔀甀爀漀瀀攀 椀琀 眀愀猀 琀甀爀渀攀搀 away. This, together with the fact that it undoubtedly਀挀愀洀攀 愀渀搀 眀攀渀琀 洀漀爀攀 琀栀愀渀 漀渀挀攀 愀戀漀甀琀 琀栀椀猀 琀椀洀攀Ⰰ 愀挀挀漀甀渀琀猀 for its disappearance not having been recognized਀琀栀攀爀攀Ⰰ 栀愀稀攀 氀攀昀琀 戀礀 椀琀 栀愀瘀椀渀最 愀瀀瀀愀爀攀渀琀氀礀 戀攀攀渀 mistaken for the cap itself.

਀㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀搀椀瘀ⴀ㐀  ✀㸀 ਀㰀瀀㸀一漀爀琀栀 倀漀氀愀爀 䌀愀瀀⸀㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀⠀䰀漀眀攀氀氀 伀戀猀攀爀瘀愀琀漀爀礀Ⰰ ㄀㤀 㔀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㜀崀⸀⤀㰀⼀瀀㸀
਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀伀渀 䔀愀爀琀栀 琀栀攀 洀椀渀椀洀愀 愀爀攀 洀甀挀栀 氀愀爀最攀爀⸀ 䤀渀 琀栀攀 45਀渀漀爀琀栀攀爀渀 栀攀洀椀猀瀀栀攀爀攀 琀栀攀 氀椀渀攀 漀昀 瀀攀爀瀀攀琀甀愀氀 猀渀漀眀 漀爀 pack-ice in longitude 50° east runs about on the 80°਀瀀愀爀愀氀氀攀氀Ⰰ 椀渀挀氀甀搀椀渀最 眀椀琀栀椀渀 椀琀 琀栀攀 猀漀甀琀栀攀爀渀 攀渀搀 漀昀 䘀爀愀渀稀 Joseph Land. Opposite this, in longitude 120° west,਀愀戀漀瘀攀 琀栀攀 一漀爀琀栀 䄀洀攀爀椀挀愀渀 挀漀渀琀椀渀攀渀琀Ⰰ 椀琀 爀攀愀挀栀攀猀 搀漀眀渀 lower still to 75°. So that the cap is then from twenty਀琀漀 琀栀椀爀琀礀 搀攀最爀攀攀猀 椀渀 搀椀愀洀攀琀攀爀⸀ 䤀渀 琀栀攀 猀漀甀琀栀攀爀渀 栀攀洀椀猀瀀栀攀爀攀 it is even larger. In longitude 170° west the਀氀愀渀搀 眀愀猀 昀漀甀渀搀 戀礀 刀漀猀猀 琀漀 戀攀 甀渀搀攀爀 瀀攀爀瀀攀琀甀愀氀 猀渀漀眀 椀渀 latitude 72°. Cook had reached in longitude 107°਀攀愀猀琀 愀渀 椀洀瀀愀猀猀愀戀氀攀 戀愀爀爀椀攀爀 漀昀 椀挀攀 椀渀 氀愀琀椀琀甀搀攀 㜀 뀀 ㈀㌀㈀⸠ The season was then midsummer, January 30. So that਀眀攀 愀爀攀 瀀攀爀栀愀瀀猀 樀甀猀琀椀昀椀攀搀 椀渀 挀漀渀猀椀搀攀爀椀渀最 㜀㄀뀀 猀漀甀琀栀 愀猀 about the average limit of perpetual snow or paleocrystic਀椀挀攀⸀ 吀栀椀猀 眀漀甀氀搀 洀愀欀攀 琀栀攀 猀漀甀琀栀攀爀渀 挀愀瀀 愀琀 椀琀猀 minimum thirty-eight degrees across. Pack-ice with਀漀瀀攀渀 猀瀀漀琀猀 攀砀琀攀渀搀猀 猀琀椀氀氀 昀愀爀琀栀攀爀 渀漀爀琀栀⸀ 吀栀攀 倀愀最漀搀愀 椀渀 1845 was stopped by impenetrable pack-ice in south਀氀愀琀椀琀甀搀攀 㘀㠀뀀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 䌀栀愀氀氀攀渀最攀爀 椀渀 ㄀㠀㜀㐀 攀渀挀漀甀渀琀攀爀攀搀 the pack in latitude 65° on the 19th of February, which਀挀漀爀爀攀猀瀀漀渀搀猀 愀戀漀甀琀 琀漀 漀甀爀 ㄀㤀琀栀 漀昀 䄀甀最甀猀琀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 琀椀洀攀 愀琀 which the sea should be most open. The limit of perpetual਀猀渀漀眀 椀猀 琀栀甀猀 氀漀眀攀爀 椀渀 琀栀攀 猀漀甀琀栀攀爀渀 琀栀愀渀 椀渀 琀栀攀 northern hemisphere. Here again, then, the two਀洀椀渀椀洀愀 搀椀昀昀攀爀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 椀渀 琀栀攀 爀攀瘀攀爀猀攀 眀愀礀 昀爀漀洀 眀栀愀琀 琀栀攀礀 do on Mars.

From this we perceive that the variations in size of਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㐀㘀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㐀㘀✀㸀㐀㘀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 the caps are much more striking on Mars than on the਀䔀愀爀琀栀 愀渀搀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀猀攀 愀爀攀 搀甀攀 挀栀椀攀昀氀礀 琀漀 琀栀攀 搀椀昀昀攀爀攀渀挀攀 椀渀 the minima, the maxima not varying greatly.

To explain these interesting diversities of behavior਀椀渀 琀栀攀 猀攀瘀攀爀愀氀 瀀漀氀愀爀 挀愀瀀猀 眀攀 猀栀愀氀氀 栀愀瘀攀 琀漀 最漀 戀愀挀欀 愀 little in general physics in order to get a proper take਀漀昀昀⸀ 䤀琀 椀猀 愀 挀甀爀椀漀甀猀 挀漀渀挀漀洀椀琀愀渀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 氀愀眀 漀昀 最爀愀瘀椀琀礀 that the amount of heat received by a planet in passing਀昀爀漀洀 愀渀礀 瀀漀椀渀琀 漀昀 椀琀猀 瀀愀琀栀 琀漀 愀 瀀漀椀渀琀 搀椀愀洀攀琀爀椀挀愀氀氀礀 opposite is always the same no matter what be the਀攀挀挀攀渀琀爀椀挀椀琀礀 漀昀 琀栀攀 漀爀戀椀琀⸀ 吀栀甀猀Ⰰ 愀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀 栀愀猀 愀猀 洀愀渀礀 calories falling upon it in travelling from its vernal਀攀焀甀椀渀漀砀 琀漀 椀琀猀 愀甀琀甀洀渀愀氀 愀猀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 愀甀琀甀洀渀愀氀 琀漀 琀栀攀 vernal again, although the time taken in the one journey਀戀攀 瘀攀爀礀 搀椀昀昀攀爀攀渀琀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀愀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 漀琀栀攀爀⸀ 吀栀椀猀 椀猀 搀甀攀 to the fact that the angle swept over by the radius vector,਀琀栀愀琀 椀猀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 椀洀愀最椀渀愀爀礀 戀漀渀搀 戀攀琀眀攀攀渀 椀琀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 猀甀渀Ⰰ is at all points proportional to the amount of heat received;਀樀甀猀琀 愀猀 椀琀 椀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 最爀愀瘀椀琀礀 甀渀搀攀爀最漀渀攀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 琀眀漀 forces radiating into space as the inverse square of the਀搀椀猀琀愀渀挀攀⸀ 吀栀甀猀 琀栀攀 栀攀愀琀 爀攀挀攀椀瘀攀搀 戀礀 愀 瀀漀椀渀琀 漀爀 愀 hemisphere, through any orbital angle, is independent਀漀昀 琀栀攀 攀挀挀攀渀琀爀椀挀椀琀礀 漀昀 琀栀攀 漀爀戀椀琀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䈀甀琀 椀琀 椀猀 渀漀琀 椀渀搀攀瀀攀渀搀攀渀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 愀砀椀愀氀 琀椀氀琀⸀ 䘀漀爀 琀栀攀 force of the sun’s rays is modified by their obliquity.਀吀栀攀 愀洀漀甀渀琀 漀昀 栀攀愀琀 爀攀挀攀椀瘀攀搀 愀琀 愀渀礀 瀀漀椀渀琀 椀渀 挀漀渀猀攀焀甀攀渀挀攀 of the tilt turns upon the position of the point, and for਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㐀㜀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㐀㜀✀㸀㐀㜀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 any hemisphere taken as a whole it depends upon the਀搀攀最爀攀攀 琀漀 眀栀椀挀栀 琀栀攀 瀀漀氀攀 椀猀 琀椀氀琀攀搀 琀漀 琀栀攀 猀漀甀爀挀攀 漀昀 栀攀愀琀⸀ In consequence of being more squarely presented to its਀戀攀愀洀猀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 栀攀洀椀猀瀀栀攀爀攀 眀栀椀挀栀 椀猀 搀椀爀攀挀琀攀搀 琀漀眀愀爀搀 琀栀攀 sun and therefore is passing through its summer season਀最攀琀猀 昀愀爀 洀漀爀攀 椀渀猀漀氀愀琀椀漀渀 琀栀愀渀 琀栀愀琀 眀栀椀挀栀 椀猀 愀琀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 time in the depth of its winter. For a tilt of twenty-four਀搀攀最爀攀攀猀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀 爀攀挀攀椀瘀攀搀 瘀愀氀甀攀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀 愀砀椀猀 of Mars, the two hemispheres so circumstanced get਀愀洀漀甀渀琀猀 漀昀 栀攀愀琀 爀攀猀瀀攀挀琀椀瘀攀氀礀 椀渀 琀栀攀 瀀爀漀瀀漀爀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 sixty-three to thirty-seven.

But, though the summer and winter insolation thus਀搀椀昀昀攀爀Ⰰ 琀栀攀礀 愀爀攀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 昀漀爀 攀愀挀栀 栀攀洀椀猀瀀栀攀爀攀 椀渀 琀甀爀渀⸀ Consequently the mere amount of heat received cannot਀戀攀 琀栀攀 挀愀甀猀攀 漀昀 愀渀礀 搀椀昀昀攀爀攀渀挀攀猀 搀攀琀攀挀琀攀搀 戀攀琀眀攀攀渀 琀栀攀 respective maxima and minima of the two polar਀挀愀瀀猀⸀ 䤀昀 栀攀愀琀 眀攀爀攀 愀 猀甀戀猀琀愀渀挀攀 眀栀椀挀栀 挀漀甀氀搀 戀攀 猀琀漀爀攀搀 up instead of being a mode of motion, the effect produced਀眀漀甀氀搀 戀攀 椀渀 愀挀挀漀爀搀愀渀挀攀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 焀甀愀渀琀椀琀礀 愀瀀瀀氀椀攀搀 and the two caps would behave alike. As it is਀琀栀攀 琀漀琀愀氀 愀洀漀甀渀琀 栀愀猀 瘀攀爀礀 氀椀琀琀氀攀 琀漀 猀愀礀 椀渀 琀栀攀 洀愀琀琀攀爀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀一漀琀 琀栀攀 愀洀漀甀渀琀 漀昀 栀攀愀琀 戀甀琀 琀栀攀 洀愀渀渀攀爀 椀渀 眀栀椀挀栀 琀栀椀猀 heat is made at home is responsible for the difference਀眀攀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀攀⸀ 一漀眀Ⰰ 琀栀漀甀最栀 琀栀攀 琀漀琀愀氀 愀洀漀甀渀琀 椀猀 琀栀攀 same in passing from the vernal to the autumnal equinox਀愀猀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 愀甀琀甀洀渀愀氀 琀漀 琀栀攀 瘀攀爀渀愀氀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 琀椀洀攀 搀甀爀椀渀最 which it is received in either case varies from one hemisphere਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㐀㠀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㐀㠀✀㸀㐀㠀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 to the other. It is summer in the former while਀椀琀 椀猀 眀椀渀琀攀爀 椀渀 琀栀攀 氀愀琀琀攀爀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 搀椀昀昀攀爀攀渀挀攀 椀渀 琀栀攀 氀攀渀最琀栀 of the two seasons due to the eccentricity of the orbit਀洀愀欀攀猀 愀 瘀愀猀琀 搀椀昀昀攀爀攀渀挀攀 椀渀 琀栀攀 爀攀猀甀氀琀⸀ 圀椀渀琀攀爀 愀昀昀攀挀琀猀 the maxima, summer the minima, attained. Of these਀漀瀀瀀漀猀椀琀攀 瘀愀爀椀愀琀椀漀渀猀 瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀攀搀 琀漀 甀猀 戀礀 琀栀攀 琀眀漀 挀愀瀀猀Ⰰ the maxima, the one most difficult to detect, is the਀攀愀猀椀攀猀琀 琀漀 攀砀瀀氀愀椀渀Ⰰ 昀漀爀 琀栀攀 搀椀昀昀攀爀攀渀挀攀 椀渀 琀栀攀 洀愀砀椀洀愀 seems to be due to the surpassing length of the antarctic਀渀椀最栀琀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀伀眀椀渀最 琀漀 琀栀攀 攀挀挀攀渀琀爀椀挀椀琀礀 漀昀 琀栀攀 漀爀戀椀琀愀氀 攀氀氀椀瀀猀攀 瀀甀爀猀甀攀搀 by Mars and to the present position of the planet’s਀猀漀氀猀琀椀挀攀猀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 猀漀甀琀栀攀爀渀 栀攀洀椀猀瀀栀攀爀攀 椀猀 昀愀爀琀栀攀爀 愀眀愀礀 昀爀漀洀 the sun during its winter and is so for a longer time.਀吀栀攀 猀攀愀猀漀渀猀 愀爀攀 椀渀 氀攀渀最琀栀Ⰰ 昀漀爀 琀栀攀 渀漀爀琀栀攀爀渀 栀攀洀椀猀瀀栀攀爀攀㨀 spring, 199 days; summer, 183 days; autumn, 147਀搀愀礀猀㬀 愀渀搀 眀椀渀琀攀爀Ⰰ ㄀㔀㠀 搀愀礀猀㬀 眀栀椀氀攀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀 猀漀甀琀栀攀爀渀 hemisphere they are: spring, 147 days; summer, 158਀搀愀礀猀㬀 愀甀琀甀洀渀Ⰰ ㄀㤀㤀 搀愀礀猀㬀 愀渀搀 眀椀渀琀攀爀Ⰰ ㄀㠀㌀ 搀愀礀猀⸀ 吀栀攀 arctic polar night is thus 305 of our days long; the਀愀渀琀愀爀挀琀椀挀Ⰰ ㌀㠀㈀⸀ 吀栀甀猀 昀漀爀 㜀㜀 洀漀爀攀 搀愀礀猀 琀栀愀渀 栀愀瀀瀀攀渀猀 琀漀 its fellow the southern pole never sees the sun. Now,਀猀椀渀挀攀 琀栀攀 琀漀琀愀氀 猀甀渀氀椀最栀琀 昀爀漀洀 攀焀甀椀渀漀砀 琀漀 攀焀甀椀渀漀砀 椀猀 琀栀攀 same in both hemispheres, its distribution by days must਀戀攀 搀椀昀昀攀爀攀渀琀⸀ 䤀渀 琀栀攀 猀漀甀琀栀攀爀渀 栀攀洀椀猀瀀栀攀爀攀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 amount is crowded into a smaller compass in the਀瀀爀漀瀀漀爀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 ㌀ 㔀 琀漀 ㌀㠀㈀㬀 琀栀愀琀 戀攀椀渀最 琀栀愀琀 栀攀洀椀猀瀀栀攀爀攀ᤀ猠 49਀爀攀氀愀琀椀瘀攀 爀愀琀椀漀 漀昀 搀愀礀猀⸀ 䈀甀琀 猀椀渀挀攀 搀甀爀椀渀最 眀椀渀琀攀爀 琀栀攀 挀愀瀀 increases, there is a daily excess of accumulation over਀搀椀猀猀椀瀀愀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 猀渀漀眀 愀渀搀 攀愀挀栀 琀眀攀渀琀礀ⴀ昀漀甀爀 栀漀甀爀猀 洀甀猀琀 on the average add its tithe to the sum total. Since the਀渀漀爀琀栀攀爀渀 搀愀礀猀 愀爀攀 琀栀攀 眀愀爀洀攀爀 攀愀挀栀 愀搀搀猀 氀攀猀猀 琀栀愀渀 搀漀 the southern ones; and furthermore there are fewer of਀琀栀攀洀⸀ 伀渀 戀漀琀栀 琀栀攀猀攀 猀挀漀爀攀猀 琀栀攀 愀洀漀甀渀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 搀攀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀 about the northern pole should be less than਀愀戀漀甀琀 琀栀攀 猀漀甀琀栀攀爀渀 漀渀攀⸀ 䌀漀渀猀攀焀甀攀渀琀氀礀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 猀渀漀眀ⴀ猀栀攀攀琀 there should be the less extensive and show a਀爀攀氀愀琀椀瘀攀氀礀 猀洀愀氀氀攀爀 洀愀砀椀洀甀洀Ⰰ 眀栀椀挀栀 攀砀瀀氀愀椀渀猀 眀栀愀琀 眀攀 see.

With the minima the action is otherwise. Inasmuch਀愀猀 琀栀攀 最爀攀愀琀攀爀 栀攀愀琀 爀攀挀攀椀瘀攀搀 搀甀爀椀渀最 琀栀攀 搀愀礀氀椀最栀琀 栀漀甀爀猀 by the southern hemisphere is exactly offset by the਀猀栀漀爀琀渀攀猀猀 漀昀 椀琀猀 猀攀愀猀漀渀Ⰰ 椀琀 眀漀甀氀搀 猀攀攀洀 愀琀 昀椀爀猀琀 愀猀 椀昀 琀栀攀爀攀 could be no difference in the total effect upon the two਀椀挀攀ⴀ挀愀瀀猀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䈀甀琀 昀甀爀琀栀攀爀 挀漀渀猀椀搀攀爀愀琀椀漀渀 搀椀猀挀氀漀猀攀猀 愀 挀漀甀瀀氀攀 漀昀 昀愀挀琀漀爀猀 which might, and possibly do, come in to qualify the਀愀挀琀椀漀渀 愀渀搀 愀挀挀漀甀渀琀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀攀搀 攀昀昀攀挀琀⸀ 伀渀攀 椀猀 琀栀愀琀 though the total amount of heat received is the same,਀琀栀攀 洀愀渀渀攀爀 漀昀 椀琀猀 搀椀猀琀爀椀戀甀琀椀漀渀 搀椀昀昀攀爀猀 椀渀 琀栀攀 琀眀漀 栀攀洀椀猀瀀栀攀爀攀猀⸀ In the northern one the time from vernal਀琀漀 愀甀琀甀洀渀愀氀 攀焀甀椀渀漀砀 椀猀 ㌀㠀㈀ 搀愀礀猀 愀最愀椀渀猀琀 ㌀ 㔀 椀渀 琀栀攀 southern. Consequently, the average daily heat is਀琀栀攀渀 昀椀瘀攀 昀漀甀爀琀栀猀 洀漀爀攀 椀渀琀攀渀猀攀 椀渀 琀栀攀 猀漀甀琀栀攀爀渀 栀攀洀椀猀瀀栀攀爀攀⸀ 50਀䤀渀搀攀攀搀Ⰰ 椀琀 椀猀 攀瘀攀渀 最爀攀愀琀攀爀 琀栀愀渀 琀栀椀猀 愀渀搀 渀攀愀爀攀爀 four thirds, because the melting occurs chiefly in the਀猀瀀爀椀渀最 愀渀搀 椀渀 琀栀攀 昀椀爀猀琀 琀眀漀 洀漀渀琀栀猀 漀昀 猀甀洀洀攀爀 眀栀攀渀 琀栀攀 contrast in length of season between the two hemispheres਀椀猀 愀琀 椀琀猀 最爀攀愀琀攀猀琀⸀ 一漀眀Ⰰ 愀 昀攀眀 栀漀琀琀攀爀 搀愀礀猀 might well work more result than many colder ones.਀䄀渀搀 琀栀椀猀 眀漀甀氀搀 戀攀 瀀愀爀琀椀挀甀氀愀爀氀礀 琀爀甀攀 漀昀 䴀愀爀猀 眀栀攀爀攀 琀栀攀 mean temperature is probably none too much above the਀昀爀攀攀稀椀渀最ⴀ瀀漀椀渀琀 琀漀 猀琀愀爀琀 眀椀琀栀⸀ 䤀挀攀 挀漀渀猀甀洀攀猀 猀漀 洀甀挀栀 caloric in the process of turning into any other state,਀氀愀礀椀渀最 椀琀 戀礀 椀渀 琀栀攀 昀漀爀洀 漀昀 氀愀琀攀渀琀 栀攀愀琀 戀攀昀漀爀攀 椀琀 挀愀渀 turn into water and then so much more before this਀眀愀琀攀爀 挀愀渀 戀攀 挀漀渀瘀攀爀琀攀搀 椀渀琀漀 猀琀攀愀洀 琀栀愀琀 愀 最漀漀搀 搀攀愀氀 栀愀猀 to be expended on it before getting any perceptible਀爀攀猀甀氀琀⸀ 伀渀挀攀 漀戀琀愀椀渀攀搀Ⰰ 栀漀眀攀瘀攀爀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 栀攀愀琀 椀猀 爀攀琀愀椀渀攀搀 with like tenacity. So that the process works to਀搀漀甀戀氀攀 攀昀昀攀挀琀℀ 䤀昀 猀甀昀昀椀挀椀攀渀琀 栀攀愀琀 戀攀 爀攀挀攀椀瘀攀搀 琀栀攀 椀挀攀 椀猀 first melted, then evaporated and finally formed into਀愀 氀愀礀攀爀 漀昀 栀甀洀椀搀 愀椀爀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 栀甀洀椀搀椀琀礀 漀昀 眀栀椀挀栀 欀攀攀瀀猀 椀琀 warm. Dry air is unretentive of heat, moist air the਀漀瀀瀀漀猀椀琀攀⸀ 䄀渀搀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀 洀攀氀琀椀渀最 漀昀 琀栀攀 椀挀攀ⴀ挀愀瀀 琀漀 瀀爀漀挀攀攀搀 most effectively the temperature that laps it about਀洀甀猀琀 戀攀 愀猀 栀椀最栀 愀猀 瀀漀猀猀椀戀氀攀 愀渀搀 欀攀瀀琀 猀漀 愀猀 挀漀渀琀椀渀甀漀甀猀氀礀 as may be. If between days it be allowed to fall too਀氀漀眀 愀琀 渀椀最栀琀 洀甀挀栀 挀愀氀漀爀椀挀 洀甀猀琀 渀攀攀搀猀 戀攀 眀愀猀琀攀搀 椀渀 simply raising the ice again to the melting-point. This਀愀 戀氀愀渀欀攀琀 漀昀 眀愀爀洀 愀椀爀 琀攀渀搀猀 琀漀 瀀爀攀瘀攀渀琀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 琀栀椀猀 愀最愀椀渀 51਀椀猀 戀爀漀甀最栀琀 愀戀漀甀琀 戀礀 愀 昀攀眀 栀漀琀 搀愀礀猀 爀愀琀栀攀爀 琀栀愀渀 戀礀 many colder ones. It is not all the heat received that਀戀攀挀漀洀攀猀 攀昀昀攀挀琀椀瘀攀 戀甀琀 琀栀攀 猀甀爀瀀氀甀猀 栀攀愀琀 愀戀漀瘀攀 愀 挀攀爀琀愀椀渀 point. The gain in continuity of action thus brought਀愀戀漀甀琀 椀猀 猀漀洀攀眀栀愀琀 氀椀欀攀 琀栀愀琀 攀砀栀椀戀椀琀攀搀 戀攀琀眀攀攀渀 琀栀攀 running of an express and an accommodation train.਀吀漀 爀攀愀挀栀 椀琀猀 搀攀猀琀椀渀愀琀椀漀渀 椀渀 愀 最椀瘀攀渀 琀椀洀攀 琀栀攀 昀漀爀洀攀爀 requires far less power because it does not have to get਀甀瀀 猀瀀攀攀搀 愀最愀椀渀 愀昀琀攀爀 攀愀挀栀 愀爀爀攀猀琀⸀ 吀栀甀猀 琀栀攀 眀栀漀氀攀 攀昀昀攀挀琀 in melting the snow would be greater upon that hemisphere਀眀栀漀猀攀 猀甀洀洀攀爀 栀愀瀀瀀攀渀猀 琀漀 戀攀 琀栀攀 洀漀爀攀 椀渀琀攀渀猀攀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀吀栀攀 最爀攀愀琀攀爀 猀眀椀渀最 椀渀 猀椀稀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 挀愀瀀 洀漀猀琀 攀砀瀀漀猀攀搀 琀漀 the effects of the eccentricity is, then, the necessary਀爀攀猀甀氀琀 漀昀 挀椀爀挀甀洀猀琀愀渀挀攀猀 眀栀攀渀 琀栀攀 瀀爀攀挀椀瀀椀琀愀琀椀漀渀 椀猀 渀漀琀 too great to be nearly carried off by the subsequent਀搀椀猀猀椀瀀愀琀椀漀渀⸀ 吀栀椀猀 椀猀 琀栀攀 猀琀愀琀攀 漀昀 琀栀椀渀最猀 漀渀 䴀愀爀猀 愀渀搀 the second of the factors above referred to. On the਀䔀愀爀琀栀 愀猀 眀攀 栀愀瘀攀 猀攀攀渀 琀栀攀 瀀漀氀愀爀 挀愀瀀猀 愀爀攀 猀漀洀攀眀栀愀琀 larger at their maximum and very much so at their਀洀椀渀椀洀甀洀⸀ 一漀眀Ⰰ 琀栀椀猀 椀猀 樀甀猀琀 眀栀愀琀 猀栀漀甀氀搀 栀愀瀀瀀攀渀 were the precipitation increased. Suppose, for example,਀琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 愀洀漀甀渀琀 漀昀 瀀爀攀挀椀瀀椀琀愀琀椀漀渀 眀攀爀攀 琀漀 椀渀挀爀攀愀猀攀 while the amount of summer melting remained the਀猀愀洀攀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 琀栀椀猀 眀漀甀氀搀 戀攀 琀栀攀 挀愀猀攀 椀昀 琀栀攀 瘀愀瀀漀爀 椀渀 琀栀攀 愀椀爀 augmented for one cause or another, and the result਀漀昀 攀愀挀栀 昀爀攀猀栀 搀攀瀀漀猀椀琀 眀愀猀 氀漀挀欀攀搀 甀瀀 椀渀 猀渀漀眀⸀ 䄀昀琀攀爀 a certain point the cap would grow in depth rather than਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㔀㈀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㔀㈀✀㸀㔀㈀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 in extension; the winter deposit would be thicker਀戀甀琀 琀栀攀 猀甀洀洀攀爀 攀瘀愀瀀漀爀愀琀椀漀渀 眀漀甀氀搀 爀攀洀愀椀渀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀⸀ Now, if this occurred, it is evident that the minimum਀猀椀稀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 挀愀瀀 眀漀甀氀搀 椀渀挀爀攀愀猀攀 爀攀氀愀琀椀瘀攀氀礀 洀甀挀栀 昀愀猀琀攀爀 than the maximum, and furthermore, that the relative਀椀渀挀爀攀愀猀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 洀椀渀椀洀甀洀 椀渀 琀栀攀 琀眀漀 挀愀瀀猀 眀漀甀氀搀 戀攀 greatest for that which had seasons of extremes.਀吀栀攀 爀攀猀甀氀琀 眀攀 猀攀攀 椀渀 琀栀攀 挀愀猀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 䔀愀爀琀栀⸀ 䤀渀 琀栀攀 愀爀挀琀椀挀 cap, where in consequence of the eccentricity of the਀漀爀戀椀琀 琀栀攀 眀椀渀琀攀爀 椀猀 猀栀漀爀琀攀爀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 洀愀砀椀洀甀洀 椀猀 氀攀猀猀 琀栀愀渀 in the antarctic and this extra amount of precipitation਀挀愀渀渀漀琀 戀攀 眀栀漀氀氀礀 搀漀渀攀 愀眀愀礀 眀椀琀栀 椀渀 椀琀猀 椀渀琀攀渀猀攀爀 猀甀洀洀攀爀Ⰰ so that the minimum too is greater there.

We reach, then, this interesting conclusion. We find਀琀栀愀琀 攀挀挀攀渀琀爀椀挀椀琀礀 漀昀 漀爀戀椀琀 戀礀 椀琀猀攀氀昀 渀漀琀 漀渀氀礀 挀愀甀猀攀猀 渀漀 universal glaciation in the hemisphere which we should਀椀渀挀椀搀攀渀琀愀氀氀礀 猀甀瀀瀀漀猀攀 氀椀欀攀氀礀 琀漀 猀栀漀眀 椀琀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 愀挀琀甀愀氀氀礀 produces the opposite result, in more than offsetting by਀猀甀洀洀攀爀 瀀爀漀砀椀洀椀琀礀 眀栀愀琀 眀椀渀琀攀爀 搀椀猀琀愀渀挀攀 戀爀椀渀最猀 愀戀漀甀琀⸀ To cause extensive glaciation we must have, in addition਀琀漀 昀愀瘀漀爀愀戀氀攀 攀挀挀攀渀琀爀椀挀椀琀礀Ⰰ 愀 氀愀爀最攀 瀀爀攀挀椀瀀椀琀愀琀椀漀渀⸀ With these two factors combined we get an ice age, but਀渀漀琀 漀琀栀攀爀眀椀猀攀⸀ 吀栀攀 爀攀猀甀氀琀 栀愀猀 愀渀 椀洀瀀漀爀琀愀渀琀 戀攀愀爀椀渀最 on geologic glacial periods and their explanation.

Once formed, an ice-sheet cools everything about it਀愀渀搀 挀栀椀氀氀猀 琀栀攀 挀氀椀洀愀琀攀 漀昀 椀琀猀 栀攀洀椀猀瀀栀攀爀攀⸀ 䤀琀 椀猀 愀 瀀攀爀瀀攀琀甀愀氀 storehouse of cold. Mars has no such general਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㔀㌀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㔀㌀✀㸀㔀㌀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 glaciation in either hemisphere, and the absence of it,਀眀栀椀挀栀 椀猀 搀甀攀 琀漀 氀攀猀猀攀爀 瀀爀攀挀椀瀀椀琀愀琀椀漀渀Ⰰ 琀漀最攀琀栀攀爀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 clearness of its skies, accounts for the warmth which਀琀栀攀 猀甀爀昀愀挀攀 攀砀栀椀戀椀琀猀 愀渀搀 眀栀椀挀栀 栀愀猀 戀攀攀渀 昀漀甀渀搀 猀漀 栀愀爀搀 hitherto to interpret. Could our earth but get rid of਀椀琀猀 漀挀攀愀渀猀Ⰰ 眀攀 琀漀漀 洀椀最栀琀 栀愀瘀攀 琀攀洀瀀攀爀愀琀攀 爀攀最椀漀渀猀 stretching to the poles.

54਀  㰀栀㈀ 椀搀㴀✀挀栀 㘀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㘀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀砀氀愀爀最攀✀㸀䌀䠀䄀倀吀䔀刀 嘀䤀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀 㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀䴀䄀刀吀䤀䄀一 倀伀䰀䄀刀 䔀堀倀䔀䐀䤀吀䤀伀一匀㰀⼀栀㈀㸀

Polar expeditions exert an extreme attraction on਀挀攀爀琀愀椀渀 洀椀渀搀猀Ⰰ 瀀攀爀栀愀瀀猀 戀攀挀愀甀猀攀 琀栀攀礀 挀漀洀戀椀渀攀 琀栀攀 maximum of hardship with the minimum of headway.਀䤀渀挀漀渀挀氀甀猀椀瘀攀渀攀猀猀 挀攀爀琀愀椀渀氀礀 攀渀愀戀氀攀猀 琀栀攀洀 琀漀 戀攀 constantly renewed, without loss either of purpose or਀瀀爀攀猀琀椀最攀⸀ 吀栀攀 昀愀挀琀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 瀀漀氀攀 栀愀猀 渀攀瘀攀爀 戀攀攀渀 琀爀漀搀 by man constitutes the lodestone to such undertakings;਀愀渀搀 琀栀愀琀 椀琀 挀漀渀琀椀渀甀攀猀 琀漀 搀攀昀礀 栀椀洀 漀渀氀礀 眀栀攀琀猀 栀椀猀 攀渀搀攀愀瘀漀爀 the more. Except for the demonstration of the਀瀀漀氀愀爀 搀爀椀昀琀ⴀ挀甀爀爀攀渀琀 挀漀渀挀攀椀瘀攀搀 漀昀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀渀 瘀攀爀椀昀椀攀搀 戀礀 Nansen, very little has been added by them to our਀欀渀漀眀氀攀搀最攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 最氀漀戀攀⸀ 一漀爀 椀猀 琀栀攀爀攀 猀瀀攀挀椀昀椀挀 爀攀愀猀漀渀 琀漀 suppose that what they might add would be particularly਀瘀椀琀愀氀⸀ 一漀琀栀椀渀最 漀甀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 眀愀礀 椀猀 猀甀猀瀀攀挀琀攀搀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀漀氀攀 beyond the simple fact of being so positioned. Yet਀昀漀爀 琀栀攀椀爀 瀀愀琀攀渀琀 椀渀挀漀渀挀氀甀猀椀漀渀 琀栀攀礀 挀漀渀琀椀渀甀攀 琀漀 戀攀 猀攀渀琀 in sublime superiority to failure.

Martian polar expeditions, as undertaken by the਀愀猀琀爀漀渀漀洀攀爀Ⰰ 愀爀攀 琀栀攀 愀渀琀椀瀀漀搀攀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀猀攀 瀀氀攀愀猀椀渀最氀礀 瀀攀爀椀氀漀甀猀 excursions in three important regards, which if਀氀攀猀猀 愀瀀瀀攀愀氀椀渀最 琀漀 琀栀攀 最愀氀氀攀爀礀 挀漀洀洀攀渀搀 琀栀攀洀猀攀氀瘀攀猀 琀漀 琀栀攀 55਀瀀栀椀氀漀猀漀瀀栀攀爀⸀ 吀栀攀礀 椀渀瘀漀氀瘀攀 挀漀洀瀀愀爀愀琀椀瘀攀氀礀 氀椀琀琀氀攀 栀愀爀搀猀栀椀瀀㬀 they have accomplished what they set out to do;਀愀渀搀 琀栀攀 欀渀漀眀氀攀搀最攀 琀栀攀礀 栀愀瘀攀 最氀攀愀渀攀搀 栀愀猀 瀀爀漀瘀攀搀 昀甀渀搀愀洀攀渀琀愀氀 to an understanding of the present physical਀挀漀渀搀椀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀吀栀攀 愀渀琀椀琀栀攀猀椀猀 椀渀 瀀漀氀攀ⴀ瀀甀爀猀甀椀渀最 戀攀琀眀攀攀渀 琀栀攀 琀眀漀 planets manifests itself at the threshold of the inquiry,਀椀渀 琀栀攀 爀攀氀愀琀椀瘀攀 昀攀愀猀椀戀椀氀椀琀礀 眀椀琀栀 眀栀椀挀栀 琀栀攀 瀀栀攀渀漀洀攀渀愀 on Mars may be scanned. For, curiously enough, instead਀漀昀 戀攀椀渀最 琀栀攀 瀀漀氀攀 愀渀搀 椀琀猀 猀甀爀爀漀甀渀搀椀渀最 瀀愀氀攀漀挀爀礀猀琀椀挀 ice which remains hidden on Mars, it is rather the਀攀砀琀爀攀洀攀 攀砀琀攀渀琀 漀昀 椀琀猀 攀砀琀攀渀猀椀漀渀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 氀漀眀攀猀琀 氀愀琀椀琀甀搀椀渀愀氀 deposit of frost which lies shrouded in mystery.਀吀栀攀 搀椀昀昀椀挀甀氀琀礀 琀栀攀爀攀 椀猀 渀漀琀 琀漀 猀攀攀 琀栀攀 瀀漀氀攀 戀甀琀 琀漀 猀攀攀 椀渀 winter the regions from which our own expeditions set਀漀甀琀⸀ 䄀渀搀 琀栀椀猀 戀攀挀愀甀猀攀 琀栀攀 瀀漀氀攀猀 愀爀攀 眀攀氀氀 搀椀猀瀀氀愀礀攀搀 to us at times which are neither few nor very far between;਀眀栀椀氀攀 昀愀瘀漀爀愀戀氀攀 漀挀挀愀猀椀漀渀猀 昀漀爀 洀愀爀欀椀渀最 琀栀攀 攀搀最攀 of the caps when at their greatest have neither proved਀猀漀 渀甀洀攀爀漀甀猀 渀漀爀 猀漀 昀愀瘀漀爀愀戀氀攀⸀ 吀栀攀 琀椀氀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀ᤀ猠 axis when conveniently placed for human observation਀栀愀猀 戀攀攀渀 琀栀攀 挀愀甀猀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 漀渀攀 搀爀愀眀戀愀挀欀㬀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀ᤀ猠 meteorological condition in those latitudes at that਀猀攀愀猀漀渀 琀栀攀 爀攀愀猀漀渀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀 漀琀栀攀爀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀圀栀愀琀 欀渀漀眀氀攀搀最攀 眀攀 栀愀瘀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀椀稀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 挀愀瀀猀 椀渀 degrees upon the surface of the planet at this their਀攀砀琀爀攀洀攀 攀焀甀愀琀漀爀眀愀爀搀 攀砀琀攀渀猀椀漀渀 栀愀猀 戀攀攀渀 最椀瘀攀渀 椀渀 琀栀攀 56਀氀愀猀琀 挀栀愀瀀琀攀爀⸀ 吀栀攀椀爀 愀猀瀀攀挀琀 愀琀 琀栀攀 琀椀洀攀 琀漀最攀琀栀攀爀 眀椀琀栀 what that aspect betokens was not there touched upon.਀圀椀琀栀 椀琀Ⰰ 琀栀攀爀攀昀漀爀攀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 瀀攀挀甀氀椀愀爀椀琀椀攀猀 椀琀 瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀猀 琀漀 view we shall begin our account of the caps’ annual਀栀椀猀琀漀爀礀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀搀椀瘀 椀搀㴀✀椀开戀开 㔀㘀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀椀洀最氀攀昀琀✀㸀

਀ 㰀椀洀最 猀爀挀㴀✀椀洀愀最攀猀⼀椀开戀开 㔀㘀⸀樀瀀最✀ 愀氀琀㴀✀✀ ⼀㸀

South Polar Cap in winter.

਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀

When first the hemisphere, the pole of which has for਀栀愀氀昀 愀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 礀攀愀爀 戀攀攀渀 琀甀爀渀攀搀 愀眀愀礀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 猀甀渀Ⰰ begins to emerge from its long hibernation, the snow-cap਀眀栀椀挀栀 挀漀瘀攀爀猀 椀琀 搀漀眀渀 攀瘀攀渀 琀漀 琀攀洀瀀攀爀愀琀攀 爀攀最椀漀渀猀 presents an undelimited expanse of white, the edges਀漀昀 眀栀椀挀栀 洀攀爀最攀 椀渀搀椀猀琀椀渀最甀椀猀栀愀戀氀礀 椀渀琀漀 琀栀攀 最爀漀甀渀搀眀漀爀欀 color of the regions round about. Of a dull opaque਀栀甀攀 愀氀漀渀最 椀琀猀 戀漀爀搀攀爀Ⰰ 椀琀猀 挀漀渀琀漀甀爀 椀猀 渀漀琀 猀栀愀爀瀀 戀甀琀 昀愀搀攀猀 off in a fleecy fringe without hard and fast line of demarcation.਀匀甀挀栀 渀漀琀愀戀氀礀 眀愀猀 琀栀攀 愀猀瀀攀挀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 渀漀爀琀栀 temperate zone in 1896 [Darian: 152] when, tilted as it then was away਀昀爀漀洀 甀猀 椀渀琀漀 愀 洀攀爀攀 渀漀爀琀栀攀爀渀 horizon of the planet’s limb,਀椀琀 猀栀漀眀攀搀 瀀爀椀漀爀 琀漀 琀栀攀 搀攀昀椀渀椀琀攀 recognition of the north polar਀挀愀瀀 椀渀 䄀甀最甀猀琀 漀昀 琀栀愀琀 礀攀愀爀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㈀ 䬀愀渀礀愀崀Ⰰ and such too was the look of਀琀栀攀 搀椀猀欀ᤀ猠 猀漀甀琀栀攀爀渀 攀搀最攀 戀漀琀栀 before and after the first certain਀搀攀琀攀挀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀漀甀琀栀攀爀渀 cap in 1903 and 1905 [Darian: 156 and 157]. Each was then in the depth਀漀昀 眀椀渀琀攀爀⸀ 䘀漀爀 椀渀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 挀栀爀漀渀漀氀漀最礀 琀栀攀 猀攀愀猀漀渀 挀漀爀爀攀猀瀀漀渀搀攀搀 57਀椀渀 攀愀挀栀 愀琀 琀栀攀 琀椀洀攀 琀漀 眀栀愀琀 眀攀 欀渀漀眀 椀渀 漀甀爀 northern hemisphere as the latter part of February਀愀渀搀 琀栀攀 攀愀爀氀礀 瀀愀爀琀 漀昀 䴀愀爀挀栀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 愀瀀瀀攀愀爀愀渀挀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 planet’s surface in both was not unlike what we know਀愀琀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 猀攀愀猀漀渀 椀渀 氀愀琀椀琀甀搀攀 㐀㔀뀀⸀ 䤀渀搀攀攀搀Ⰰ 琀栀攀爀攀 椀猀 reason to suppose bad weather there then and the਀攀砀琀爀攀洀攀 昀爀椀渀最攀Ⰰ 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 瀀愀氀攀 琀椀渀琀 椀琀 攀砀栀椀戀椀琀攀搀Ⰰ 琀漀 栀愀瘀攀 been cloud rather than snow.

It is quite in keeping with what we know on earth਀漀爀 挀愀渀 挀漀渀挀攀椀瘀攀 漀昀 攀氀猀攀眀栀攀爀攀 琀栀愀琀 猀甀挀栀 愀猀瀀攀挀琀 猀栀漀甀氀搀 characterize the cap at or near the attainment of its਀最爀攀愀琀攀猀琀 搀攀瘀攀氀漀瀀洀攀渀琀⸀ 圀栀攀琀栀攀爀 椀琀 眀攀爀攀 渀漀琀 礀攀琀 焀甀椀琀攀 arrived at this turning-point of its career or had but਀猀氀椀最栀琀氀礀 瀀愀猀猀攀搀 椀琀 愀 瘀愀最甀攀渀攀猀猀 漀昀 漀甀琀氀椀渀攀 眀漀甀氀搀 椀渀 攀椀琀栀攀爀 event proclaim the fact. For were the frost still depositing,਀琀栀攀 挀愀瀀ᤀ猠 攀搀最攀 眀漀甀氀搀 猀栀漀眀 椀渀搀攀昀椀渀椀琀攀㬀 愀渀搀 漀渀 the other hand had it just begun to melt, evaporation਀眀漀甀氀搀 最椀瘀攀 椀琀 愀渀 甀渀搀攀昀椀渀攀搀 攀搀最攀 戀攀昀漀爀攀 琀栀攀 洀攀氀琀椀渀最 water had gathered in sufficient quantities to be itself਀渀漀琀椀挀攀愀戀氀攀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䤀琀猀 戀攀栀愀瘀椀漀爀 猀甀戀猀攀焀甀攀渀琀 琀漀 爀攀挀漀最渀椀琀椀漀渀 戀漀爀攀 漀甀琀 琀栀攀 inference from its aspect when it first appeared. While਀昀漀爀 洀愀渀礀 搀愀礀猀 瀀爀椀漀爀 琀漀 椀琀猀 挀漀洀椀渀最 甀渀洀椀猀琀愀欀愀戀氀礀 椀渀琀漀 view it was impossible to say whether what was seen਀漀昀 琀栀攀 猀漀甀琀栀攀爀渀 挀愀瀀 椀渀 ㄀㤀 ㌀ 愀渀搀 ㄀㤀 㔀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㘀 愀渀搀 ㄀㔀㜀崀 眀愀猀 挀氀漀甀搀 漀爀 snow; so even after it had definitely disclosed itself it਀挀漀渀琀椀渀甀攀搀 琀漀 瀀氀愀礀 愀琀 漀搀搀猀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀攀爀⸀ 匀栀漀眀椀渀最 58਀猀栀愀爀瀀 愀琀 琀栀攀 攀搀最攀猀 漀渀攀 搀愀礀 椀琀 眀漀甀氀搀 愀瀀瀀攀愀爀 戀甀琀 栀愀稀椀氀礀 defined the next, thus clearly demonstrating itself to be਀愀琀 琀栀攀 琀栀攀渀 甀渀猀琀愀戀氀攀 愀挀洀攀 漀昀 椀琀猀 猀瀀爀攀愀搀⸀ 匀甀挀栀 愀 猀琀愀琀攀 of things we are only too familiar with in our own਀䴀愀爀挀栀 眀攀愀琀栀攀爀 眀栀攀渀 愀昀琀攀爀 搀愀礀猀 漀昀 猀甀渀猀栀椀渀攀 琀栀愀琀 栀愀瘀攀 melted off the winter’s white and fringed it with rivulets਀愀渀搀 愀眀愀欀攀渀椀渀最 最爀愀猀猀Ⰰ 愀 猀渀漀眀ⴀ猀琀漀爀洀 昀愀氀氀椀渀最 甀瀀漀渀 椀琀 瀀漀眀搀攀爀猀 the ground again that was beginning to be bare਀愀渀搀 愀琀 漀渀攀 猀琀爀漀欀攀 攀砀琀攀渀搀猀 琀栀攀 搀漀洀愀椀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀渀漀眀 眀栀椀氀攀 mystifying the actual limits it may be said to occupy.਀吀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 挀漀渀搀椀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀椀渀最猀Ⰰ 琀栀攀渀Ⰰ 椀猀 渀漀琀 甀渀欀渀漀眀渀 漀渀 Mars, and to fix the precise date of so wavering a phenomenon਀椀猀 渀漀琀 猀漀 洀甀挀栀 洀愀琀琀攀爀 漀昀 搀椀昀昀椀挀甀氀琀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀愀琀椀漀渀 as of physical impossibility.

਀㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀椀氀氀甀猀ⴀ㌀  ✀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀攀ⴀ挀愀瀀琀椀漀渀✀㸀䠀攀氀氀愀猀 椀渀 眀椀渀琀攀爀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀
਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀一漀爀 椀猀 琀栀攀 猀漀甀琀栀攀爀渀 挀愀瀀Ⰰ 愀琀 琀栀椀猀 琀栀攀 栀攀椀最栀琀 漀昀 椀琀猀 winter expansion, confined strictly to its own proper਀氀椀洀椀琀猀⸀ 䘀愀椀渀琀 攀砀琀攀渀猀椀漀渀猀Ⰰ 渀漀眀 猀漀 挀漀渀渀攀挀琀攀搀 眀椀琀栀 椀琀猀 main body as to form part and parcel of it, now so detached਀愀渀搀 搀甀氀氀 漀昀 琀椀渀琀 愀猀 琀漀 洀愀欀攀 琀栀攀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀攀爀 搀漀甀戀琀昀甀氀 of the exact relationship, are generally to be seen਀愀琀琀攀渀搀愀渀琀 漀渀 椀琀⸀ 䠀攀氀氀愀猀 椀渀 眀椀渀琀攀爀 椀猀 洀甀挀栀 最椀瘀攀渀 琀漀 猀甀挀栀 questionable garb, and has in consequence been mistaken਀戀礀 洀漀爀攀 琀栀愀渀 漀渀攀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀攀爀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀 挀愀瀀 椀琀猀攀氀昀Ⰰ appearing as it does well upon the southern limb and਀戀攀椀渀最 漀昀琀攀渀 琀栀攀 漀渀氀礀 爀攀最椀漀渀 琀漀 猀栀漀眀 眀栀椀琀攀⸀ 䤀渀搀攀攀搀Ⰰ frost-bound as it then is, to consider it the polar cap,਀琀栀漀甀最栀 瀀漀猀猀椀戀氀礀 最攀漀最爀愀瀀栀椀挀愀氀氀礀 椀渀挀漀爀爀攀挀琀Ⰰ 洀愀礀 挀氀椀洀愀琀漀氀漀最椀挀愀氀氀礀 59਀戀攀 猀甀猀琀愀椀渀愀戀氀攀⸀ 䤀琀猀 渀漀爀琀栀攀爀渀 攀砀琀爀攀洀椀琀礀 extends down to latitude 30°, a pretty low਀氀愀琀椀琀甀搀攀 for frost. Still such equatorward਀攀砀琀攀渀猀椀漀渀 椀猀 渀漀琀 眀椀琀栀漀甀琀 corroborating parallel.਀䤀渀 ㄀㤀 ㌀Ⰰ 愀琀 眀栀愀琀 眀愀猀 椀渀 Martian dates April 26 [Darian: 156 Karka 28], the਀眀栀漀氀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 爀攀最椀漀渀 猀漀甀琀栀 漀昀 the Solis Lacus and the਀一攀挀琀愀爀 猀栀漀眀攀搀 眀栀椀琀攀Ⰰ 眀椀琀栀 愀 whiteness which may as well਀栀愀瘀攀 戀攀攀渀 栀漀愀爀昀爀漀猀琀 愀猀 挀氀漀甀搀⸀ 一漀眀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 一攀挀琀愀爀 爀甀渀猀 east and west in latitude 28°. So that in this instance,਀琀漀漀Ⰰ 椀琀 椀猀 瀀漀猀猀椀戀氀攀 琀栀愀琀 arctic conditions knocked at਀琀栀攀 瘀攀爀礀 搀漀漀爀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 琀爀漀瀀椀挀猀⸀ Encroachment of the sort is਀攀焀甀椀瘀愀氀攀渀琀 琀漀 猀渀漀眀 椀渀 䌀愀椀爀漀 and permanent snow at that;਀渀漀琀 愀渀 漀挀挀愀猀椀漀渀愀氀 猀渀漀眀 昀氀甀爀爀礀Ⰰ but something to linger on਀琀栀攀 最爀漀甀渀搀 愀渀搀 猀琀愀礀 瘀椀猀椀戀氀攀 sixty millions of miles away.

਀㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀椀氀氀甀猀ⴀ㌀  ✀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀攀ⴀ挀愀瀀琀椀漀渀✀㸀圀栀椀琀攀 猀漀甀琀栀 漀昀 一攀挀琀愀爀 愀渀搀 匀漀氀椀猀 䰀愀挀甀猀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀
਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䬀渀漀眀氀攀搀最攀 漀昀 攀椀琀栀攀爀 挀愀瀀 椀渀 琀栀椀猀 琀栀攀 洀椀搀眀椀渀琀攀爀 漀昀 椀琀猀 year has been a matter of the most recent oppositions਀漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀⸀ 唀瀀 琀漀 眀椀琀栀椀渀 琀栀攀 氀愀猀琀 昀攀眀 礀攀愀爀猀 漀甀爀 acquaintance with either cap was chiefly confined to the਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㘀 ✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㘀 ✀㸀㘀 㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 months,—one might almost say the weeks,—immediately਀猀甀爀爀漀甀渀搀椀渀最 琀栀攀 猀甀洀洀攀爀 猀漀氀猀琀椀挀攀 漀昀 椀琀猀 爀攀猀瀀攀挀琀椀瘀攀 hemisphere. The behavior of the caps during the਀爀攀猀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀椀爀 挀愀爀攀攀爀 眀愀猀 氀愀爀最攀氀礀 甀渀欀渀漀眀渀 琀漀 甀猀Ⰰ 昀爀漀洀 the very disadvantageous positions they occupied at the਀琀椀洀攀猀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀 眀愀猀 渀攀愀爀攀猀琀 琀漀 琀栀攀 攀愀爀琀栀⸀ 䈀攀最椀渀渀椀渀最 with 1894 [Darian: 151], however, our knowledge of both has been਀洀甀挀栀 攀砀琀攀渀搀攀搀Ⰰ 戀礀 愀 瀀爀漀瀀漀爀琀椀漀渀愀琀攀 攀砀琀攀渀猀椀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 period covered by the observations. It used to be਀琀栀漀甀最栀琀 椀洀瀀爀愀挀琀椀挀愀戀氀攀 琀漀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀攀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀 昀愀爀 漀渀 either side of opposition; now it is observed from as਀洀甀挀栀 愀猀 昀漀甀爀 洀漀渀琀栀猀 戀攀昀漀爀攀 琀栀愀琀 攀瘀攀渀琀 琀漀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 period after it. The result is a systematic series of observations਀眀栀椀挀栀 椀渀 洀愀渀礀 眀愀礀猀 栀愀猀 最椀瘀攀渀 甀渀攀砀瀀攀挀琀攀搀 insight into Martian conditions. One of the benefits਀猀攀挀甀爀攀搀 栀愀猀 戀攀攀渀 琀栀攀 氀攀渀最琀栀攀渀椀渀最 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀攀爀椀漀搀 漀昀 猀琀甀搀礀 of the cap’s career, a pushing of inquiry farther back਀椀渀琀漀 椀琀猀 猀瀀爀椀渀最 栀椀猀琀漀爀礀 愀渀搀 愀 氀漀渀最攀爀 氀椀渀最攀爀椀渀最 眀椀琀栀 椀琀 in its autumnal rebuilding. Yet up to the very last਀漀瀀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀 愀 最愀瀀 椀渀 椀琀猀 挀栀爀漀渀漀氀漀最礀 猀琀椀氀氀 爀攀洀愀椀渀攀搀 戀攀琀眀攀攀渀 February 25 and April 1 [Darian: 157 Rishabha 15 and Cancer 2]. The opposition of਀㄀㤀 㔀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㜀崀 栀愀猀 戀爀椀搀最攀搀 琀栀椀猀 栀椀愀琀甀猀 愀渀搀 戀爀漀甀最栀琀 甀猀 搀漀眀渀 琀漀 the latter date, at which the melting of the cap begins਀椀渀 攀愀爀渀攀猀琀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䘀爀漀洀 琀栀椀猀 瀀漀椀渀琀Ⰰ 䄀瀀爀椀氀 ㄀ 漀渀Ⰰ 眀攀 栀愀瘀攀 愀戀甀渀搀愀渀琀 攀瘀椀搀攀渀挀攀 of the cap’s behavior. Its career now for some਀琀椀洀攀 椀猀 漀渀攀 氀漀渀最 挀栀爀漀渀椀挀氀攀 漀昀 挀漀渀琀爀愀挀琀椀漀渀⸀ 䰀椀欀攀 䈀愀氀稀愀挀ᤀ猠 61਀㰀椀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 氀愀渀最㴀∀昀爀∀ 砀洀氀㨀氀愀渀最㴀∀昀爀∀㸀倀攀愀甀 搀攀 䌀栀愀最爀椀渀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀椀㸀 椀琀 猀椀洀瀀氀礀 猀栀爀椀渀欀猀Ⰰ 最椀瘀椀渀最 漀甀琀 漀昀 椀琀猀 virtue in the process. The cap proceeds to dwindle਀愀氀洀漀猀琀 甀渀搀攀爀 琀栀攀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀攀爀ᤀ猠 攀礀攀 琀椀氀氀Ⰰ 昀爀漀洀 愀渀 攀渀漀爀洀漀甀猀 white counterpane spread over all the polar and਀愀 氀愀爀最攀 瀀愀爀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 琀攀洀瀀攀爀愀琀攀 稀漀渀攀Ⰰ 椀琀猀 愀爀攀愀 挀漀渀琀爀愀挀琀猀 to but the veriest nightcap of what it was before.਀䘀爀漀洀 猀攀瘀攀渀琀礀 搀攀最爀攀攀猀 愀挀爀漀猀猀 椀琀 戀攀挀漀洀攀猀 猀椀砀琀礀Ⰰ 琀栀攀渀 fifty, then forty, till by the middle of the Martian਀䴀愀礀 椀琀 栀愀猀 戀攀挀漀洀攀 渀漀琀 洀漀爀攀 琀栀愀渀 琀栀椀爀琀礀 搀攀最爀攀攀猀 椀渀 diameter. During this time, from the moment the਀洀攀氀琀椀渀最 戀攀最愀渀 椀渀 最漀漀搀 攀愀爀渀攀猀琀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 爀攀琀爀攀愀琀椀渀最 眀栀椀琀攀 is girdled by a dark band, of a blue tint, which਀欀攀攀瀀猀 瀀愀挀攀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 攀搀最攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 挀愀瀀Ⰰ 猀栀爀椀渀欀椀渀最 愀猀 椀琀 shrinks, and diminishing in width as the volume of਀琀栀攀 洀攀氀琀椀渀最 搀攀挀爀攀愀猀攀猀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䄀昀琀攀爀 琀栀攀 洀攀氀琀椀渀最 栀愀猀 戀攀攀渀 昀漀爀 猀漀洀攀 琀椀洀攀 甀渀搀攀爀 眀愀礀 and the cap has become permanently bordered by its਀搀愀爀欀 戀氀甀攀 戀愀渀搀 愀 瀀攀挀甀氀椀愀爀 瀀栀攀渀漀洀攀渀漀渀 洀愀欀攀猀 椀琀猀 appearance in the cap itself. This is its fission into one਀漀爀 洀漀爀攀 瀀愀爀琀猀⸀ 吀栀攀 瀀爀漀挀攀猀猀 戀攀最椀渀猀 戀礀 琀栀攀 愀瀀瀀攀愀爀愀渀挀攀 of dark rifts which, starting in from the cap’s exterior,਀瀀攀渀攀琀爀愀琀攀 椀渀琀漀 椀琀猀 栀攀愀爀琀 甀渀琀椀氀 愀琀 氀愀猀琀 琀栀攀礀 挀氀攀愀瘀攀 椀琀 椀渀 two. Rifts have been seen by several observers and in਀戀漀琀栀 挀愀瀀猀㬀 愀渀搀 眀栀愀琀 椀猀 洀漀猀琀 猀甀最最攀猀琀椀瘀攀 琀栀攀礀 愀氀眀愀礀猀 appear in the same places, year after year. Sometimes਀漀瀀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀猀 攀氀愀瀀猀攀 戀攀琀眀攀攀渀 琀栀攀椀爀 猀攀瘀攀爀愀氀 搀攀琀攀挀琀椀漀渀猀 for they are not the least difficult of detail; but when਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㘀㈀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㘀㈀✀㸀㘀㈀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 they are caught, they prove to lie just where they did਀戀攀昀漀爀攀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀吀栀攀 瀀攀爀洀愀渀攀渀挀礀 椀渀 瀀氀愀挀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 爀椀昀琀猀Ⰰ 愀 挀栀愀爀愀挀琀攀爀椀猀琀椀挀 true of them all, shows them to be of local habit. Thus਀琀栀攀 爀椀昀琀 漀昀 ㄀㠀㠀㐀 愀渀搀 ㄀㠀㤀㜀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㐀㘀 愀渀搀 ㄀㔀㌀崀 爀攀愀瀀瀀攀愀爀攀搀 愀最愀椀渀 琀漀 愀渀漀琀栀攀爀 observer in the same position in 1901 [Darian: 155]. They are, therefore,਀昀攀愀琀甀爀攀猀 漀昀Ⰰ 漀爀 搀椀爀攀挀琀氀礀 搀攀瀀攀渀搀攀渀琀 漀渀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 猀甀爀昀愀挀攀 of the planet. But it will not do from this fact to infer਀琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀礀 愀爀攀 攀砀瀀爀攀猀猀椀瘀攀 漀昀 搀攀瀀爀攀猀猀椀漀渀猀 琀栀攀爀攀⸀ 吀栀攀 evidence is conclusive that great irregularities of surface਀搀漀 渀漀琀 攀砀椀猀琀 漀渀 䴀愀爀猀⸀ 䄀猀 眀攀 猀栀愀氀氀 猀攀攀 眀栀攀渀 眀攀 come to consider the orology of the planet it is certain਀琀栀愀琀 攀氀攀瘀愀琀椀漀渀猀 琀栀攀爀攀 漀昀 漀瘀攀爀 琀眀漀 漀爀 琀栀爀攀攀 琀栀漀甀猀愀渀搀 昀攀攀琀 in altitude are absent. Differences of temperature, able਀琀漀 攀砀瀀氀愀椀渀 愀 洀攀氀琀椀渀最 漀昀 琀栀攀 椀挀攀 椀渀 漀渀攀 氀漀挀愀氀椀琀礀 挀漀椀渀挀椀搀攀渀琀愀氀氀礀 with its retention in an adjacent one, must in਀挀漀渀猀攀焀甀攀渀挀攀 戀攀 甀渀欀渀漀眀渀⸀ 䄀渀搀 琀栀椀猀 洀甀挀栀 洀漀爀攀 挀漀渀挀氀甀猀椀瘀攀氀礀 than at first appears, for the reason that the਀猀洀愀氀氀攀爀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀ᤀ猠 洀愀猀猀 琀栀攀 氀攀猀猀 爀愀瀀椀搀氀礀 搀漀攀猀 椀琀猀 blanket of air thin out in ascent above the surface.਀吀栀椀猀 椀猀 椀渀 挀漀渀猀攀焀甀攀渀挀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 最爀攀愀琀攀爀 瀀甀氀氀 琀栀攀 氀愀爀最攀爀 body exerts and the greater density it imparts to a compressible਀最愀猀 氀椀欀攀 漀甀爀 愀琀洀漀猀瀀栀攀爀攀⸀ 䜀爀愀瘀椀琀礀 愀挀琀猀 氀椀欀攀 any force producing pressure and by it the envelope of਀愀椀爀 椀猀 猀焀甀攀攀稀攀搀 椀渀琀漀 愀 猀洀愀氀氀攀爀 挀漀洀瀀愀猀猀⸀ 䈀甀琀 愀猀 琀栀椀猀 椀猀 done throughout the atmospheric layer it means a਀洀漀爀攀 爀愀瀀椀搀 爀愀爀攀昀愀挀琀椀漀渀 愀猀 漀渀攀 氀攀愀瘀攀猀 琀栀攀 戀漀搀礀⸀ 吀栀攀 63਀愀挀琀椀漀渀 椀猀 猀甀挀栀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 栀攀椀最栀琀 渀攀挀攀猀猀愀爀礀 琀漀 爀攀愀挀栀 愀渀 analogic density varies inversely as the gravity of the਀洀愀猀猀⸀ 䤀渀 挀漀渀猀攀焀甀攀渀挀攀 漀昀 琀栀椀猀Ⰰ 琀漀 挀漀洀瀀愀猀猀 愀 爀攀氀愀琀椀瘀攀 thermometric fall for which a moderate difference਀漀昀 攀氀攀瘀愀琀椀漀渀 眀漀甀氀搀 猀甀昀昀椀挀攀 漀渀 䔀愀爀琀栀Ⰰ 愀渀 椀洀洀漀搀攀爀愀琀攀 one must be made on Mars. For gravity there being਀戀甀琀 琀栀爀攀攀 攀椀最栀琀栀猀 眀栀愀琀 椀琀 椀猀 栀攀爀攀Ⰰ 攀椀最栀琀 琀栀椀爀搀猀 琀栀攀 爀椀猀攀 must be made to attain a proportionate lowering of਀琀攀洀瀀攀爀愀琀甀爀攀⸀ 吀栀椀猀 昀愀挀琀 爀攀渀搀攀爀猀 琀栀攀 愀戀漀瘀攀 愀爀最甀洀攀渀琀 against elevation and depression being the cause of਀琀栀攀 瀀栀攀渀漀洀攀渀漀渀 琀栀爀攀攀 琀椀洀攀猀 愀猀 挀漀最攀渀琀 愀猀 椀琀 漀琀栀攀爀眀椀猀攀 would be.

With so gradual a gradient in barometric pressure਀琀栀攀爀攀 愀渀搀 猀漀 氀漀眀 愀 猀攀琀 漀昀 挀漀渀琀漀甀爀 氀椀渀攀猀Ⰰ 愀氀琀椀琀甀搀攀 洀甀猀琀 戀攀 a negligible factor in Martian surface meteorologic਀瀀栀攀渀漀洀攀渀愀⸀ 䈀漀琀栀 搀攀渀猀椀琀礀 愀渀搀 琀攀洀瀀攀爀愀琀甀爀攀 挀愀渀 戀攀 戀甀琀 little affected by such cause, and we must search elsewhere਀昀漀爀 攀砀瀀氀愀渀愀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 眀栀愀琀 猀甀爀昀愀挀攀 瀀攀挀甀氀椀愀爀椀琀椀攀猀 we detect.

Meanwhile the rifts themselves, from being lines਀眀栀椀挀栀 瀀攀渀攀琀爀愀琀攀 琀栀攀 挀愀瀀 昀爀漀洀 椀琀猀 瀀攀爀椀瀀栀攀爀礀 椀渀 琀漀眀愀爀搀 its centre, end by traversing it in its entirety and separating਀瀀漀爀琀椀漀渀猀 眀栀椀挀栀Ⰰ 戀攀挀漀洀椀渀最 漀甀琀氀礀椀渀最 猀甀戀猀椀搀椀愀爀礀 patches, themselves proceed to dwindle and eventually਀搀椀猀愀瀀瀀攀愀爀⸀ 吀栀攀 爀椀昀琀猀 甀猀甀愀氀氀礀 琀愀欀攀 琀栀攀椀爀 爀椀猀攀 昀爀漀洀 猀甀挀栀 broader parts of the cap-encircling blue belt as make਀戀攀愀搀猀 甀瀀漀渀 琀栀愀琀 挀漀爀搀漀渀 愀渀搀 愀爀攀 挀氀攀愀爀氀礀 猀瀀漀琀猀 眀栀攀爀攀 琀栀攀 64਀瀀爀漀搀甀挀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 洀攀氀琀椀渀最 漀昀 琀栀攀 挀愀瀀 椀猀 攀椀琀栀攀爀 猀瀀攀挀椀愀氀氀礀 collected, or produces its most visible effect.

So far the description might apply with substantial਀愀挀挀甀爀愀挀礀 琀漀 攀椀琀栀攀爀 挀愀瀀⸀ 夀攀琀 琀栀攀 挀漀渀搀甀挀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 琀眀漀 椀猀 in some ways diverse and begins to accentuate itself਀昀爀漀洀 琀栀椀猀 瀀漀椀渀琀 漀渀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀搀椀瘀 椀搀㴀✀椀开戀开 㘀㐀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀椀洀最氀攀昀琀✀㸀

਀ 㰀椀洀最 猀爀挀㴀✀椀洀愀最攀猀⼀椀开戀开 㘀㐀⸀樀瀀最✀ 愀氀琀㴀✀✀ ⼀㸀

Northern Cap hooded with vapor.

਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀

From the time that the north polar cap reaches a਀搀椀愀洀攀琀攀爀 漀昀 愀戀漀甀琀 琀眀攀渀琀礀ⴀ昀椀瘀攀 搀攀最爀攀攀猀Ⰰ 愀 猀椀渀最甀氀愀爀 挀栀愀渀最攀 steals over it. From having been up to then of a well-defined਀漀甀琀氀椀渀攀 椀琀 渀漀眀 瀀爀漀挀攀攀搀猀 琀漀 最爀漀眀 栀愀稀礀 愀渀搀 indistinct all along its edge. This change in its character਀愀琀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 瀀攀爀椀漀搀 漀昀 椀琀猀 挀愀爀攀攀爀 栀愀猀 戀攀攀渀 焀甀椀琀攀 noticeable at each of the three last oppositions, so that਀猀洀愀氀氀 搀漀甀戀琀 爀攀洀愀椀渀猀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 metamorphosis is a regularly਀爀攀挀甀爀爀攀渀琀 漀渀攀 椀渀 琀栀攀 栀椀猀琀漀爀礀 of the cap. Coincident with਀琀栀攀 漀戀氀椀琀攀爀愀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 椀琀猀 挀漀渀琀漀甀爀Ⰰ its dimensions seemingly਀攀渀氀愀爀最攀⸀ 䤀琀 椀猀 愀猀 椀昀 愀 hood had been drawn over਀琀栀攀 挀愀瀀 漀昀 愀 搀甀氀氀 眀栀椀琀攀 搀椀昀昀攀爀攀渀琀 from the dazzling brilliance of the cap itself਀愀渀搀 挀漀瘀攀爀椀渀最 洀漀爀攀 最爀漀甀渀搀⸀ 匀甀挀栀 椀猀 瀀爀漀戀愀戀氀礀 眀栀愀琀 occurs; with vapor for veil. The excessive melting of਀琀栀攀 挀愀瀀 瀀爀漀搀甀挀攀猀 愀渀 攀砀琀攀渀猀椀瘀攀 攀瘀愀瀀漀爀愀琀椀漀渀 眀栀椀挀栀 琀栀攀渀 in part condenses to be deposited afresh, in part remains਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㘀㔀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㘀㔀✀㸀㘀㔀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 as a covering, shutting off from our view the਀漀甀琀氀椀渀攀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 挀愀瀀 椀琀猀攀氀昀⸀ 䤀琀 眀漀甀氀搀 猀攀攀洀 琀栀愀琀 愀琀 琀栀椀猀 time the cap melts faster than the air can carry it਀漀昀昀⸀ 䄀 猀漀爀琀 漀昀 猀琀攀愀洀椀渀最 愀瀀瀀攀愀爀猀 琀漀 戀攀 最漀椀渀最 漀渀Ⰰ 琀愀欀椀渀最 place in situ. For it clearly is not wafted away.਀吀栀攀 琀椀洀攀 漀昀 椀琀猀 挀漀洀椀渀最 琀漀漀 椀猀 猀椀最渀椀昀椀挀愀渀琀⸀ 䘀漀爀 琀栀攀 season is May 15 [Darian: Leo 14], the height of time for a spring haze਀琀漀 猀攀琀 椀渀⸀ 吀栀攀渀 氀愀琀攀爀 椀琀 搀椀猀猀椀瀀愀琀攀猀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 焀甀椀攀琀 indefiniteness with which it gathered.

਀㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀椀氀氀甀猀ⴀ㌀  ✀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀攀ⴀ挀愀瀀琀椀漀渀✀㸀一漀爀琀栀攀爀渀 䌀愀瀀 甀渀洀愀猀欀攀搀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀
਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䤀琀 椀猀 猀漀洀攀 琀椀洀攀 椀渀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 䨀甀渀攀 戀攀昀漀爀攀 琀栀攀 猀瀀爀椀渀最 haze clears away, and when it does go, only a tiny਀瀀漀氀愀爀 挀愀瀀 猀琀愀渀搀猀 爀攀瘀攀愀氀攀搀 戀攀渀攀愀琀栀 it, from six to eight਀搀攀最爀攀攀猀 愀挀爀漀猀猀Ⰰ 漀爀 昀爀漀洀 愀 tenth to a fifteenth of what਀椀琀 眀愀猀 眀栀攀渀 椀琀 瀀愀猀猀攀搀 椀渀琀漀 its curious spring chrysalis.਀吀栀攀 搀愀琀攀 漀昀 攀洀攀爀最攀渀挀攀 瘀愀爀椀攀猀⸀ In 1903 it occurred਀攀愀爀氀礀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 栀愀稀攀 渀漀琀 戀攀椀渀最 marked after June 3 [Darian: 156 Simha 18], though recurring again at intervals਀昀漀爀 愀 搀愀礀 漀爀 猀漀⸀ 䤀渀 ㄀㤀 㔀 椀琀 眀愀猀 氀愀琀攀爀㬀 瀀攀爀挀攀瀀琀椀戀氀礀 thin after June 21 [Darian: 156 Virgo 17] it did not certainly clear਀愀眀愀礀 琀椀氀氀 䨀甀渀攀 㤀 嬀瀀漀猀猀椀戀氀礀 洀攀愀渀琀 䨀甀氀礀 㤀㬀 䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㘀 䬀愀渀礀愀 ㄀㠀崀 愀渀搀 挀愀洀攀 戀愀挀欀 愀最愀椀渀 漀渀 䨀甀氀礀 ㄀㘀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㘀 䰀椀戀爀愀 ㄀崀 愀渀搀 possibly on the 25th [Darian: 156 Libra 16].

These vicissitudes of aspect give us glimpses into a਀猀眀攀攀琀 甀渀爀攀愀猀漀渀愀戀氀攀渀攀猀猀 椀渀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 眀攀愀琀栀攀爀 眀栀椀挀栀 66਀洀愀欀攀猀 椀琀 猀攀攀洀 洀漀爀攀 愀欀椀渀 琀漀 漀甀爀 漀眀渀⸀ 䄀渀搀 琀栀椀猀 漀渀 琀眀漀 counts, diurnal and annual. From day to day atmospheric਀挀漀渀搀椀琀椀漀渀猀 猀栀椀昀琀 昀漀爀 瀀甀爀攀氀礀 氀漀挀愀氀 挀愀甀猀攀㬀 while, furthermore, successive Martian years are not਀愀氀椀欀攀⸀ 䤀渀 猀漀洀攀 琀栀攀 猀攀愀猀漀渀 椀猀 攀愀爀氀礀㬀 椀渀 漀琀栀攀爀猀 氀愀琀攀⸀ So that Mars is no more exempt than are we from the਀眀愀渀琀漀渀渀攀猀猀 漀昀 眀攀愀琀栀攀爀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䌀氀攀愀爀氀礀 搀椀猀挀氀漀猀攀搀 琀栀甀猀 爀攀搀甀挀攀搀 琀漀 椀琀猀 猀洀愀氀氀攀猀琀 瀀漀猀猀椀戀氀攀 terms it remains for some months of our days, for six਀眀攀攀欀猀 漀昀 椀琀猀 漀眀渀⸀ 䐀甀爀椀渀最 琀栀愀琀 瀀攀爀椀漀搀 椀琀 挀漀渀琀椀渀甀攀猀 瀀爀愀挀琀椀挀愀氀氀礀 unchanged, neither increasing nor decreasing਀猀椀最渀椀昀椀挀愀渀琀氀礀 椀渀 猀椀稀攀Ⰰ 渀漀爀 愀氀琀攀爀椀渀最 渀漀琀愀戀氀礀 椀渀 愀猀瀀攀挀琀⸀ Measures of the drawings of it then make it from five਀琀漀 攀椀最栀琀 搀攀最爀攀攀猀 愀挀爀漀猀猀 愀渀搀 椀琀 椀猀 瀀漀猀猀椀戀氀攀 琀栀愀琀 椀琀 爀攀愀氀氀礀 fluctuates between narrow limits, though its clear-cut਀漀甀琀氀椀渀攀 愀琀 愀氀氀 琀椀洀攀猀 爀攀渀搀攀爀猀 琀栀攀 瘀愀爀椀愀琀椀漀渀 搀椀昀昀椀挀甀氀琀 琀漀 explain. We are not so near it as we could wish;਀昀漀爀 漀渀 琀栀攀猀攀 漀挀挀愀猀椀漀渀猀 攀瘀攀渀 愀琀 琀栀攀椀爀 戀攀猀琀 椀琀 椀猀 漀瘀攀爀 琀眀漀 hundred times as distant as the moon and the greatest਀洀愀最渀椀昀椀挀愀琀椀漀渀 瀀漀猀猀椀戀氀攀 猀琀椀氀氀 氀攀愀瘀攀猀 椀琀 愀 栀甀渀搀爀攀搀 琀栀漀甀猀愀渀搀 miles away.

To the south polar cap a somewhat similar history਀愀琀琀愀挀栀攀猀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 眀椀琀栀 愀 搀椀昀昀攀爀攀渀挀攀⸀ 䤀渀 椀琀猀 挀愀猀攀 渀漀 猀甀挀栀 regularly recurrent spring haze has yet been noted.਀吀栀攀 洀攀氀琀椀渀最 漀昀 琀栀椀猀 挀愀瀀 眀漀甀氀搀 猀攀攀洀 琀漀 戀攀 漀昀 愀 洀漀爀攀 orderly nature than its fellow and not to outdo what਀挀愀渀 挀漀渀瘀攀渀椀攀渀琀氀礀 戀攀 挀愀爀爀椀攀搀 漀昀昀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀 67਀吀栀愀琀 愀渀 攀砀挀攀猀猀 漀昀 攀瘀愀瀀漀爀愀琀椀漀渀 猀栀漀甀氀搀 渀漀琀 琀愀欀攀 瀀氀愀挀攀 is the more peculiar from the fact that at its maximum਀椀琀 椀猀 琀栀攀 氀愀爀最攀爀 漀昀 琀栀攀 琀眀漀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀爀攀昀漀爀攀 栀愀猀 琀栀攀 最爀攀愀琀攀爀 quantity of matter to get rid of. Its summer, also,਀椀猀 猀栀漀爀琀攀爀 琀栀愀渀 琀栀攀 愀爀挀琀椀挀 漀渀攀Ⰰ 猀漀 琀栀愀琀 椀琀 栀愀猀 琀栀攀 氀攀猀猀 time to dispose of its accumulations. The only other਀爀攀猀瀀攀挀琀 椀渀 眀栀椀挀栀 椀琀 猀攀攀洀猀 琀漀 戀攀 搀椀昀昀攀爀攀渀琀氀礀 挀椀爀挀甀洀猀琀愀渀挀攀搀 from its antipodes is in the character of its਀猀甀爀爀漀甀渀搀椀渀最猀⸀ 䄀戀漀甀琀 椀琀 愀爀攀 氀愀爀最攀 戀氀甀攀ⴀ最爀攀攀渀 愀爀攀愀猀 which with intermissions stretch down in places to਀眀椀琀栀椀渀 氀攀猀猀 琀栀愀渀 琀攀渀 搀攀最爀攀攀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 攀焀甀愀琀漀爀㬀 眀栀攀爀攀愀猀 the other pole is continuously encircled for long distances਀戀礀 瀀爀愀挀琀椀挀愀氀氀礀 甀渀椀渀琀攀爀爀甀瀀琀攀搀 漀挀栀爀攀⸀ 吀栀攀 挀栀愀爀愀挀琀攀爀 of the environment seems thus the only thing that਀挀愀渀 愀挀挀漀甀渀琀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀 搀椀昀昀攀爀攀渀挀攀 椀渀 戀攀栀愀瘀椀漀爀 愀渀搀 琀栀椀猀 proves the more plausible when we come to consider਀眀栀愀琀 琀栀漀猀攀 琀眀漀 挀氀愀猀猀攀猀 漀昀 爀攀最椀漀渀猀 爀攀猀瀀攀挀琀椀瘀攀氀礀 爀攀瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䤀渀 漀琀栀攀爀 眀愀礀猀 愀猀 眀攀氀氀 琀栀攀 猀漀甀琀栀攀爀渀 挀愀瀀 椀猀 琀栀攀 洀漀爀攀 self-contained. The rifts, indeed, break it up into਀猀攀瀀愀爀愀琀攀 瀀漀爀琀椀漀渀猀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀猀攀 椀渀 瀀愀爀琀 爀攀洀愀椀渀 愀猀 漀甀琀氀礀椀渀最 detachments of the main body, as was notably the਀挀愀猀攀 椀渀 ㄀㠀㜀㜀 愀渀搀 椀渀 ㄀㠀㤀㐀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㐀㈀ 愀渀搀 ㄀㔀㄀崀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 琀栀攀礀 栀愀爀搀氀礀 栀愀瘀攀 琀栀攀 permanency and importance of those similarly formed਀愀戀漀甀琀 琀栀攀 愀爀挀琀椀挀 瀀漀氀攀⸀ 一漀琀栀椀渀最 愀渀琀愀爀挀琀椀挀 昀漀爀 椀渀猀琀愀渀挀攀 compares with the subsidiary patch of the north਀瀀漀氀愀爀 爀攀最椀漀渀猀 氀礀椀渀最 椀渀 氀漀渀最椀琀甀搀攀 ㈀ 㘀뀀Ⰰ 眀栀椀挀栀 戀漀琀栀 68਀椀渀 匀挀栀椀愀瀀愀爀攀氀氀椀ᤀ猠 琀椀洀攀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 搀甀爀椀渀最 琀栀攀 氀愀琀攀 漀瀀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀猀 as well was almost as fixed a feature of the਀愀爀挀琀椀挀 稀漀渀攀 愀猀 琀栀攀 挀愀瀀 瀀爀漀瀀攀爀⸀ 一漀琀 焀甀椀琀攀 猀漀 挀漀渀猀琀愀渀琀Ⰰ however, and not so solid-looking a landmark is this਀瀀愀琀挀栀 昀漀爀 愀氀氀 椀琀猀 攀砀琀攀渀琀Ⰰ 眀栀椀挀栀 渀攀愀爀氀礀 攀焀甀愀氀猀 琀栀攀 愀爀攀愀 of the more legitimate portion. It bears on its face a਀洀漀爀攀 瀀愀氀氀椀搀 挀漀洀瀀氀攀砀椀漀渀 愀猀 椀昀 椀琀 眀攀爀攀 琀栀椀渀渀攀爀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 琀栀椀猀 is borne out by the fact that it occasionally disappears,਀愀渀 攀瘀攀渀琀 眀栀椀挀栀 猀漀 昀愀爀 愀琀 氀攀愀猀琀 栀愀猀 渀攀瘀攀爀 戀攀昀愀氀氀攀渀 琀栀攀 northern cap itself.

Less constant the southern one is to its own minimum਀琀栀愀渀 琀栀攀 渀漀爀琀栀攀爀渀⸀ 䤀渀 猀漀洀攀 猀攀愀猀漀渀猀Ⰰ 椀渀 洀漀猀琀 椀渀 昀愀挀琀Ⰰ it reaches like the other a more or less definite limit਀漀昀 搀椀洀椀渀甀琀椀漀渀 眀栀椀挀栀 椀琀 搀漀攀猀 渀漀琀 瀀愀猀猀⸀ 䈀甀琀 琀栀椀猀 椀猀 渀漀琀 always the case. In 1894 [Darian: 151] it disappeared entirely at਀琀栀攀 栀攀椀最栀琀 漀昀 椀琀猀 洀椀搀猀甀洀洀攀爀⸀ 吀栀攀 猀攀愀猀漀渀 眀愀猀 瀀爀漀戀愀戀氀礀 unusually hot then in the southern hemisphere of Mars.

In position the caps have something to say about਀瀀栀礀猀椀漀最爀愀瀀栀椀挀 挀漀渀搀椀琀椀漀渀猀⸀ 䈀漀琀栀 挀愀瀀猀 愀琀 琀栀攀椀爀 洀椀渀椀洀愀 are then irregular and the centre of the south one is਀洀愀爀欀攀搀氀礀 攀挀挀攀渀琀爀椀挀 琀漀 琀栀攀 愀爀攀漀最爀愀瀀栀椀挀 瀀漀氀攀⸀ 䤀琀 氀椀攀猀 some six degrees north along the thirtieth meridian.਀吀栀攀 渀漀爀琀栀攀爀渀 漀渀攀 椀猀 愀氀猀漀 瀀爀漀戀愀戀氀礀 攀挀挀攀渀琀爀椀挀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 洀甀挀栀 less so, with a divergence not much exceeding a degree਀愀渀搀 漀昀 搀漀甀戀琀昀甀氀 漀爀椀攀渀琀愀琀椀漀渀⸀ 一漀琀 漀渀氀礀 愀爀攀 戀漀琀栀 挀愀瀀猀 not upon their respective poles but they are not opposite਀攀愀挀栀 漀琀栀攀爀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 漀渀攀 氀礀椀渀最 椀渀 氀漀渀最椀琀甀搀攀 ㌀ 뀀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 漀琀栀攀爀 69਀椀渀 ㈀㤀 뀀⸀ 吀栀椀猀 猀瀀攀愀欀猀Ⰰ 漀昀 挀漀甀爀猀攀Ⰰ 昀漀爀 氀漀挀愀氀 愀挀琀椀漀渀⸀ 䤀渀 some wise this must depend on the configuration of the਀猀甀爀昀愀挀攀Ⰰ 礀攀琀 猀漀 昀愀爀 愀猀 洀愀爀欀椀渀最猀 最漀 琀栀攀爀攀 椀猀 渀漀琀栀椀渀最 琀漀 show what the dependence is.

The eccentring of the caps is paralleled by the like਀猀琀愀琀攀 漀昀 琀栀椀渀最猀 漀渀 攀愀爀琀栀⸀ 吀栀攀 瀀漀氀攀 漀昀 挀漀氀搀 搀漀攀猀 渀漀琀 coincide in either hemisphere with the geographic pole.਀伀渀 琀栀攀 攀愀爀琀栀 椀琀猀 瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀 椀猀 氀愀爀最攀氀礀 搀攀琀攀爀洀椀渀攀搀 戀礀 琀栀攀 distribution of the land-masses. Continents are not਀猀甀挀栀 攀焀甀愀氀椀稀攀爀猀 漀昀 栀攀愀琀 愀猀 漀挀攀愀渀猀 戀攀挀愀甀猀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀椀爀 挀漀渀搀甀挀琀椀瘀椀琀礀 on the one hand and their immobility on the਀漀琀栀攀爀⸀ 䤀渀 眀椀渀琀攀爀 琀栀攀礀 瀀愀爀琀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀椀爀 栀攀愀琀 洀漀爀攀 焀甀椀挀欀氀礀 and convection currents cannot supply the loss. This਀愀挀挀漀甀渀琀椀渀最 昀漀爀 琀栀攀爀洀愀氀 瀀漀氀攀 攀挀挀攀渀琀爀椀挀椀琀礀 椀猀 椀渀愀瀀瀀氀椀挀愀戀氀攀 to Mars because of the absence there of bodies of water.਀䄀渀搀 椀琀 椀猀 猀椀最渀椀昀椀挀愀渀琀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 搀攀最爀攀攀 琀栀攀 攀愀爀琀栀氀礀 瀀漀氀攀猀 of cold are out much exceeds what is the case on Mars.਀倀漀猀猀椀戀氀礀 愀爀攀愀猀 漀昀 瘀攀最攀琀愀琀椀漀渀 琀栀攀爀攀 爀攀瀀氀愀挀攀 琀漀 猀漀洀攀 攀昀昀攀挀琀 areas of water. It is certainly in favor of this view that਀琀栀攀 愀爀挀琀椀挀 爀攀最椀漀渀猀 琀栀攀爀攀 愀爀攀 洀漀爀攀 搀攀猀攀爀琀 琀栀愀渀 琀栀攀 愀渀琀愀爀挀琀椀挀 and that the north pole of cold occupies more਀猀焀甀愀爀攀氀礀 琀栀攀 最攀漀最爀愀瀀栀椀挀 瀀漀氀攀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀一漀琀 琀椀氀氀 ㄀㤀 ㌀ 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㘀崀 搀椀搀 琀栀攀 愀挀琀甀愀氀 猀琀愀爀琀椀渀最 愀最愀椀渀 漀昀 攀椀琀栀攀爀 cap chance to be seen. Nor was this, indeed, a matter਀漀昀 栀愀稀愀爀搀 戀甀琀 漀昀 瀀攀爀猀椀猀琀攀渀琀 椀渀焀甀椀爀礀 戀礀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀愀琀椀漀渀 prolonged after the planet had got so far away that its਀猀挀愀渀渀椀渀最 栀愀搀 栀椀琀栀攀爀琀漀 戀攀攀渀 搀椀猀挀漀渀琀椀渀甀攀搀⸀ 匀甀挀栀 猀攀愀爀挀栀 70਀戀攀礀漀渀搀 琀栀攀 挀甀猀琀漀洀愀爀礀 氀椀洀椀琀猀 漀昀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀愀琀椀漀渀 眀愀猀 攀猀猀攀渀琀椀愀氀 to success, because of the relation of the axial tilt਀琀漀 琀栀攀 瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀 椀渀 椀琀猀 漀爀戀椀琀⸀ 䄀琀 愀渀 漀瀀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀 well placed for nearness, the tilt is such as largely਀琀漀 栀椀搀攀 琀栀攀 瀀漀氀攀 愀渀搀 琀漀 瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀 琀栀攀 瀀漀氀愀爀 爀攀最椀漀渀猀 琀漀漀 obliquely to view for effective scanning. This is true਀戀漀琀栀 漀昀 琀栀攀 愀爀挀琀椀挀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 愀渀琀愀爀挀琀椀挀 爀攀最椀漀渀猀 椀渀 琀甀爀渀⸀ For the Martian axis being inclined somewhat as our਀漀眀渀 椀猀 琀漀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀ᤀ猠 漀爀戀椀琀Ⰰ 眀攀 愀琀 琀椀洀攀猀 see well and at times but poorly the arctic or antarctic਀稀漀渀攀猀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀吀栀攀 挀愀瀀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 猀琀愀爀琀椀渀最 琀漀 昀漀爀洀 漀昀 眀栀椀挀栀 眀愀猀 琀栀甀猀 caught, was the arctic one; the date 128 days after਀琀栀攀 渀漀爀琀栀攀爀渀 猀甀洀洀攀爀 猀漀氀猀琀椀挀攀Ⰰ 漀爀 琀栀攀爀攀愀戀漀甀琀猀Ⰰ 昀漀爀 愀猀 椀猀 perhaps natural the advent of the phenomenon partook਀漀昀 琀栀攀 眀愀瘀攀氀椀欀攀 愀搀瘀愀渀挀攀 漀昀 猀甀挀栀 琀栀椀渀最猀 昀愀洀椀氀椀愀爀 漀渀 earth, an advance succeeded਀戀礀 愀 爀攀挀攀猀猀椀漀渀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀渀 昀漀氀氀漀眀攀搀 by another advance.਀匀漀 洀甀挀栀 椀猀 瀀爀漀漀昀 漀昀 氀漀挀愀氀 weather there as here. Hoar-frost਀眀愀猀 猀甀挀挀攀猀猀椀瘀攀氀礀 搀攀瀀漀猀椀琀攀搀 and then melted off.

਀㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀椀氀氀甀猀ⴀ㌀  ✀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀攀ⴀ挀愀瀀琀椀漀渀✀㸀䐀攀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 昀爀漀猀琀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀
਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀圀栀愀琀 椀猀 猀椀最渀椀昀椀挀愀渀琀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 deposition of the frost took਀瀀氀愀挀攀 猀椀洀甀氀琀愀渀攀漀甀猀氀礀 漀瘀攀爀 氀愀爀最攀 愀爀攀愀猀⸀ 吀栀攀 瘀攀爀礀 昀椀爀猀琀 patch of it, in about longitude 320°, extended at one਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㜀㄀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㜀㄀✀㸀㜀㄀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 stroke down to latitude 55°. For it actually crossed਀琀栀攀 倀椀攀爀椀甀猀 猀漀洀攀眀栀愀琀 琀漀 琀栀攀 猀漀甀琀栀⸀ 䄀 猀攀挀漀渀搀 瀀愀琀挀栀 stretched to the east of the cap. Two wings these made਀琀漀 琀栀攀 欀攀爀渀攀氀 漀昀 挀愀瀀 椀琀猀攀氀昀⸀ 吀栀爀漀甀最栀 琀栀攀 眀椀渀最猀 挀漀甀氀搀 be marked the line of the canal: the Pierius upon the਀漀渀攀 猀椀搀攀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 䔀渀椀瀀攀甀猀 甀瀀漀渀 琀栀攀 漀琀栀攀爀⸀ 匀甀挀栀 瘀椀猀椀戀椀氀椀琀礀 of the canals through the white stretches proved਀琀栀攀 眀栀椀琀攀 渀漀琀 琀漀 戀攀 搀甀攀 琀漀 挀氀漀甀搀 猀甀猀瀀攀渀搀攀搀 戀攀琀眀攀攀渀 甀猀 and them, but a surface deposit which found no lodgment਀甀瀀漀渀 琀栀攀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 琀栀攀洀猀攀氀瘀攀猀⸀ 吀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 愀瘀漀椀搀愀渀挀攀 of dark markings was evidenced by the showing਀漀昀 琀栀攀 搀愀爀欀 爀椀洀 爀漀甀渀搀 琀栀攀 挀愀瀀ᤀ猠 欀攀爀渀攀氀⸀ 一漀眀Ⰰ 椀昀 琀栀攀 deposit were indeed hoarfrost, this failure to find permanent਀昀漀漀琀栀漀氀搀 漀渀 琀栀攀 搀愀爀欀 洀愀爀欀椀渀最猀 椀猀 眀栀愀琀 眀攀 猀栀漀甀氀搀 expect to witness. For whether they were vegetation਀漀爀 眀愀琀攀爀Ⰰ 攀焀甀愀氀氀礀 椀渀 攀椀琀栀攀爀 挀愀猀攀 琀栀攀 昀爀漀猀琀 眀漀甀氀搀 洀攀氀琀 from them first. Probably they were both vegetal,਀琀栀漀甀最栀 猀漀洀攀 搀漀甀戀琀 洀椀最栀琀 攀砀椀猀琀 愀戀漀甀琀 琀栀攀 氀愀琀琀攀爀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 band around the kernel. It was then August 20 in਀琀栀愀琀 栀攀洀椀猀瀀栀攀爀攀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀匀甀挀栀 搀攀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀 漀瘀攀爀 最爀攀愀琀 猀琀爀攀琀挀栀攀猀 漀昀 挀漀甀渀琀爀礀 椀猀 perhaps not so surprising as it appears at first sight਀眀栀攀渀 猀攀攀渀 昀爀漀洀 眀椀琀栀漀甀琀 椀渀 椀琀猀 琀漀琀愀氀椀琀礀⸀ 䄀昀琀攀爀 愀氀氀Ⰰ something not unlike it occurs in our snow-storms when਀栀甀渀搀爀攀搀猀 漀昀 猀焀甀愀爀攀 洀椀氀攀猀 愀爀攀 眀栀椀琀攀渀攀搀 愀琀 漀渀挀攀⸀ 䘀甀爀琀栀攀爀洀漀爀攀Ⰰ with an atmosphere as thin as Mars seems਀琀漀 瀀漀猀猀攀猀猀 琀栀攀 琀攀洀瀀攀爀愀琀甀爀攀 洀甀猀琀 戀攀 瀀攀爀椀氀漀甀猀氀礀 渀攀愀爀 琀栀攀 72਀昀爀攀攀稀椀渀最ⴀ瀀漀椀渀琀 椀渀 琀栀攀 愀爀挀琀椀挀 愀渀搀 猀甀戀愀爀挀琀椀挀 爀攀最椀漀渀猀 愀琀 the close of summer.

Steadily, with intermissions, the white sheet increased਀甀渀琀椀氀 攀瘀攀渀 琀栀攀 搀愀爀欀 戀漀爀搀攀爀 琀漀 琀栀攀 挀愀瀀 戀攀挀愀洀攀 漀戀氀椀琀攀爀愀琀攀Ⰰ the kernel showing at first through the veil like the਀最栀漀猀琀 漀昀 眀栀愀琀 椀琀 栀愀搀 戀攀攀渀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 琀栀攀渀 挀攀愀猀椀渀最 琀漀 戀攀 瘀椀猀椀戀氀攀 at all, its delimitations being buried under deeper and਀搀攀攀瀀攀爀 搀攀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀猀 漀昀 昀爀漀猀琀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀搀椀瘀 椀搀㴀✀椀开戀开 㜀㈀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀椀洀最爀椀最栀琀✀㸀

਀ 㰀椀洀最 猀爀挀㴀✀椀洀愀最攀猀⼀椀开戀开 㜀㈀⸀樀瀀最✀ 愀氀琀㴀✀✀ ⼀㸀

First northern snow.

਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀

The perennial portion of the cap was thus merged਀椀渀 琀栀攀 渀攀眀ⴀ昀愀氀氀攀渀 猀渀漀眀⸀ 吀栀椀猀 洀愀爀欀攀搀 琀栀攀 漀渀ⴀ挀漀洀椀渀最 漀昀 the arctic winter in full force਀愀渀搀 栀愀瀀瀀攀渀攀搀 攀瘀攀渀 戀攀昀漀爀攀 the polar sun had wholly set.਀䘀漀爀 琀栀攀 瀀漀氀攀 搀椀搀 渀漀琀 攀渀琀攀爀 into the shadow till two of਀漀甀爀 洀漀渀琀栀猀 氀愀琀攀爀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 愀甀琀甀洀渀愀氀 equinox occurring਀㄀㠀㌀ 搀愀礀猀 愀昀琀攀爀 琀栀攀 猀甀洀洀攀爀 solstice or 55 days after the਀昀椀爀猀琀 昀愀氀氀 漀昀 昀爀漀猀琀⸀ 吀栀攀渀 琀栀攀 瀀漀氀攀 瀀愀猀猀攀搀 椀渀琀漀 椀琀猀 猀琀愀爀ⴀ猀琀爀攀眀渀 arctic night, a polar night of twice the duration਀漀昀 漀甀爀 漀眀渀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 挀椀爀挀甀洀瀀漀氀愀爀 爀攀最椀漀渀猀 攀渀琀攀爀攀搀 甀瀀漀渀 their long hibernation of ten of our months.

73਀  㰀栀㈀ 椀搀㴀✀挀栀 㜀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㘀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀砀氀愀爀最攀✀㸀䌀䠀䄀倀吀䔀刀 嘀䤀䤀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀 㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀圀䠀䤀吀䔀 匀倀伀吀匀㰀⼀栀㈀㸀

In addition to the polar caps proper and to the਀猀甀戀猀椀搀椀愀爀礀 瀀漀氀愀爀 瀀愀琀挀栀攀猀 琀栀愀琀 漀昀琀攀渀 椀渀 氀愀琀攀 猀甀洀洀攀爀 flank them round about, other white spots may਀昀爀漀洀 琀椀洀攀 琀漀 琀椀洀攀 戀攀 猀攀攀渀 甀瀀漀渀 琀栀攀 搀椀猀欀⸀ 䤀渀 愀瀀瀀攀愀爀愀渀挀攀 these differ in no respect, so far as observed,਀昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 愀爀挀琀椀挀 猀甀戀猀椀搀椀愀爀礀 猀渀漀眀ⴀ昀椀攀氀搀猀⸀ 伀昀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 pure argent, they sparkle on occasion in like manner਀眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 猀栀攀攀渀 漀昀 椀挀攀⸀ 䔀焀甀愀氀氀礀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 瀀漀氀愀爀 挀愀瀀猀 they remain permanent in place during the period of਀琀栀攀椀爀 瘀椀猀椀戀椀氀椀琀礀 愀渀搀 愀爀攀 琀栀攀洀猀攀氀瘀攀猀 氀漀渀最ⴀ氀椀瘀攀搀⸀ 吀栀漀甀最栀 by no means perpetual their duration is reckoned by਀眀攀攀欀猀 愀渀搀 攀瘀攀渀 洀漀渀琀栀猀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 琀栀攀礀 爀攀挀甀爀 眀椀琀栀 洀漀爀攀 漀爀 less persistency at successive Martian years. That,਀眀栀攀渀 猀攀攀渀Ⰰ 琀栀攀礀 猀栀漀眀 椀渀 瀀愀爀琀椀挀甀氀愀爀 瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀猀 愀瀀瀀愀爀攀渀琀氀礀 unaffected by diurnal change precludes their being਀挀氀漀甀搀猀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 琀栀椀猀 昀愀挀琀 琀愀欀攀渀 椀渀 挀漀渀渀攀挀琀椀漀渀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 character of their habitat is the puzzling point about਀琀栀攀洀⸀ 䘀漀爀 琀栀攀礀 愀昀昀攀挀琀 挀栀椀攀昀氀礀 琀栀攀 渀漀爀琀栀 琀爀漀瀀椀挀 戀攀氀琀⸀ They, or at least their nuclei, are small, about two or਀琀栀爀攀攀 搀攀最爀攀攀猀 椀渀 搀椀愀洀攀琀攀爀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 愀爀攀 渀漀琀 瀀愀爀琀椀挀甀氀愀爀氀礀 easy of detection as a rule, though certain larger ones਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㜀㐀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㜀㐀✀㸀㜀㐀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 are at times conspicuous. Chromatic, rather than਀昀漀爀洀愀氀Ⰰ 搀攀昀椀渀椀琀椀漀渀 椀猀 渀攀挀攀猀猀愀爀礀 琀漀 琀栀攀椀爀 戀爀椀渀最椀渀最 漀甀琀Ⰰ 愀猀 is witnessed by the superb colors the disk presents at਀琀栀攀 琀椀洀攀猀 眀栀攀渀 琀栀攀礀 愀爀攀 戀攀猀琀 猀攀攀渀⸀ 䤀琀 椀猀 琀栀攀渀 琀栀愀琀 Mars puts on the look of a fire-opal.

The first such spot to be noticed was one which਀匀挀栀椀愀瀀愀爀攀氀氀椀 搀攀琀攀挀琀攀搀 椀渀 ㄀㠀㜀㤀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㐀㌀崀Ⰰ 愀琀 琀栀攀 猀攀挀漀渀搀 漀瀀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀 in which he studied the planet. He called it the Nix਀伀氀礀洀瀀椀挀愀Ⰰ 猀栀漀眀椀渀最 琀栀愀琀 栀攀 爀攀挀漀最渀椀稀攀搀 椀渀 椀琀 愀 挀漀甀猀椀渀猀栀椀瀀 to the polar snows. Yet it lay in latitude 20°਀渀漀爀琀栀Ⰰ 氀漀渀最椀琀甀搀攀㰀愀 椀搀㴀✀爀㄀✀ ⼀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀昀㄀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㈀㈀✀㸀㰀猀甀瀀㸀嬀㄀崀㰀⼀猀甀瀀㸀㰀⼀愀㸀 ㄀㌀㄀뀀Ⰰ 椀渀 琀栀攀 洀椀搀猀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 漀挀栀爀攀 stretches of that part of the disk. It was a small਀爀漀甀渀搀椀猀栀 眀栀椀琀攀 猀瀀攀挀欀 漀昀 渀漀琀 洀漀爀攀 琀栀愀渀 琀眀漀 琀栀椀爀搀猀 琀栀攀 diameter of the polar cap. Reseen by him in 1881 [Darian: 144],਀椀琀 昀愀椀氀攀搀 琀漀 愀瀀瀀攀愀爀 愀琀 猀甀戀猀攀焀甀攀渀琀 漀瀀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀猀 愀渀搀 眀愀猀 not caught again until 1888 [Darian: 148]. Then once more it vanished,਀渀漀琀 琀漀 戀攀 搀攀琀攀挀琀攀搀 愀渀攀眀 琀椀氀氀 洀愀渀礀 礀攀愀爀猀 愀昀琀攀爀 at Flagstaff, coming out rather surprisingly in 1903 [Darian: 156].਀䤀琀 猀栀漀眀攀搀Ⰰ 栀漀眀攀瘀攀爀Ⰰ 椀渀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 瀀氀愀挀攀 愀猀 戀攀昀漀爀攀㬀 so that its position but not its existence is permanent.

A similar but smaller patch was apparent to Schiaparelli਀愀琀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 漀瀀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 ㄀㠀㜀㤀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㐀㌀崀⸀ 吀栀椀猀 漀渀攀 眀栀椀挀栀 75਀栀攀 猀琀礀氀攀搀 琀栀攀 一椀砀 䄀琀氀愀渀琀椀挀愀 氀愀礀 戀攀琀眀攀攀渀 琀栀攀 吀栀漀琀栀 and the Syrtis Major. It was about half the size of the਀一椀砀 伀氀礀洀瀀椀挀愀 愀渀搀 栀愀猀 渀攀瘀攀爀 猀椀渀挀攀 戀攀攀渀 猀攀攀渀Ⰰ 琀栀漀甀最栀 it should have been had it continued to be what it then਀眀愀猀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀搀椀瘀 椀搀㴀✀椀开戀开 㜀㔀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀椀洀最爀椀最栀琀✀㸀

਀ 㰀椀洀最 猀爀挀㴀✀椀洀愀最攀猀⼀椀开戀开 㜀㔀⸀樀瀀最✀ 愀氀琀㴀✀✀ ⼀㸀

White in Elysium.

਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀

On the other hand, phenomena of the sort undetected਀漀昀 匀挀栀椀愀瀀愀爀攀氀氀椀 栀愀瘀攀 戀攀攀渀 爀攀洀愀爀欀攀搀 愀琀 䘀氀愀最猀琀愀昀昀⸀ 伀渀 May 18, 1901 [Darian: 155 Aries 8], I was suddenly਀猀琀爀甀挀欀 戀礀 琀栀攀 猀椀渀最甀氀愀爀 whiteness of the southeast਀挀漀爀渀攀爀 漀昀 䔀氀礀猀椀甀洀 眀栀攀爀攀 that region bordered the਀吀爀椀瘀椀甀洀⸀ 䔀氀礀猀椀甀洀 栀愀猀 愀 way of being bright but not਀眀椀琀栀 猀甀挀栀 猀琀愀爀琀氀椀渀最 椀渀琀攀渀猀椀琀礀 as this spot presented nor਀椀渀 猀漀 爀攀猀琀爀椀挀琀攀搀 愀渀 愀爀攀愀 愀猀 眀愀猀 栀攀爀攀 琀栀攀 挀愀猀攀⸀ 吀栀攀 spot was so much whiter than anything I had ever਀瀀爀攀瘀椀漀甀猀氀礀 猀攀攀渀 漀甀琀猀椀搀攀 琀栀攀 瀀漀氀愀爀 挀愀瀀猀 琀栀愀琀 椀琀 愀爀爀攀猀琀攀搀 my attention at once. And this the more that I had਀漀戀猀攀爀瘀攀搀 琀栀椀猀 猀愀洀攀 瀀愀爀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀 琀栀攀 搀愀礀 戀攀昀漀爀攀 and perceived nothing out of the ordinary. Once਀搀攀琀攀挀琀攀搀Ⰰ 栀漀眀攀瘀攀爀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 猀瀀漀琀 挀漀渀琀椀渀甀攀搀 瘀椀猀椀戀氀攀⸀ 吀栀攀 next day it was there with equal conspicuousness, and਀渀漀眀 琀栀爀甀猀琀 愀渀 愀爀洀 愀挀爀漀猀猀 琀栀攀 䌀攀爀戀攀爀甀猀Ⰰ 攀渀琀椀爀攀氀礀 漀戀氀椀琀攀爀愀琀椀渀最 the canal for the space of several degrees.਀䤀渀 琀栀椀猀 猀愀氀椀攀渀挀攀 椀琀 爀攀洀愀椀渀攀搀 搀愀礀 愀昀琀攀爀 搀愀礀 琀椀氀氀 琀栀攀 76਀爀攀最椀漀渀 瀀愀猀猀攀搀 昀爀漀洀 猀椀最栀琀Ⰰ 琀漀 爀攀愀瀀瀀攀愀爀 眀椀琀栀 椀琀 猀椀砀 weeks later when the region again rounded into view.਀吀栀攀 栀漀甀爀 漀昀 琀栀攀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 搀愀礀 猀攀攀洀攀搀 琀漀 洀愀欀攀 渀漀 difference in its visibility. It was seen from early਀洀漀爀渀椀渀最 琀椀氀氀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 愀昀琀攀爀渀漀漀渀Ⰰ 愀猀 氀愀琀攀 愀猀 琀栀攀 瀀栀愀猀攀 permitted. Clearly there was nothing diurnal about਀椀琀猀 爀攀瘀攀愀氀椀渀最Ⰰ 愀渀搀 椀琀 氀愀猀琀攀搀 昀漀爀 愀琀 氀攀愀猀琀 琀栀爀攀攀 洀漀渀琀栀猀 and a half, until the planet got so far away that਀漀戀猀攀爀瘀愀琀椀漀渀猀 眀攀爀攀 搀椀猀挀漀渀琀椀渀甀攀搀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䤀琀 眀愀猀 琀漀 愀氀氀 愀瀀瀀攀愀爀愀渀挀攀猀 愀渀搀 椀渀琀攀渀琀猀 猀渀漀眀⸀ 䈀甀琀 now comes the singular fact about it. It lay within਀琀攀渀 搀攀最爀攀攀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 攀焀甀愀琀漀爀 愀渀搀 猀栀漀眀攀搀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 攀渀搀 漀昀 June to the latter part of August. To our ideas there਀挀漀甀氀搀 戀攀 渀漀 洀漀爀攀 椀渀漀瀀瀀漀爀琀甀渀攀 瀀氀愀挀攀 漀爀 琀椀洀攀 昀漀爀 猀甀挀栀 an exhibition. For it cannot have been due to a snow-capped਀瀀攀愀欀Ⰰ 愀猀 眀攀 欀渀漀眀 昀漀爀 挀攀爀琀愀椀渀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀爀攀 愀爀攀 渀漀 mountains in this, or in any other, part of the planet.਀䈀攀猀椀搀攀猀Ⰰ 椀琀 栀愀搀 渀漀琀 愀瀀瀀攀愀爀攀搀 椀渀 瀀爀攀瘀椀漀甀猀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 years; which it infallibly would have done had it been਀愀 瀀攀愀欀⸀ 䤀渀搀攀攀搀Ⰰ 椀琀 戀愀昀昀氀攀猀 攀砀瀀氀愀渀愀琀椀漀渀 戀攀礀漀渀搀 愀渀礀 Martian phenomenon known to me. It seems directly਀琀漀 挀漀渀琀爀愀搀椀挀琀 攀瘀攀爀礀 漀琀栀攀爀 搀攀琀愀椀氀 瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀攀搀 戀礀 琀栀攀 disk.

The phenomenon is thus unique in kind; it is not,਀栀漀眀攀瘀攀爀Ⰰ 甀渀椀焀甀攀 愀猀 愀 猀瀀攀挀椀洀攀渀 漀昀 椀琀猀 欀椀渀搀⸀ 吀栀攀 攀愀猀琀攀爀渀 coast of Aeria where that region borders the Syrtis਀䴀愀樀漀爀 椀猀 瀀爀漀渀攀 琀漀 愀 戀爀椀氀氀椀愀渀挀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 猀漀爀琀⸀ 䤀琀 椀猀 77਀愀 渀愀爀爀漀眀 戀攀氀琀 漀昀 挀漀甀渀琀爀礀 琀栀愀琀 猀栀漀眀猀 琀栀甀猀Ⰰ 渀漀琀栀椀渀最 戀甀琀 the coastline itself, but this for a considerable distance਀猀琀爀攀琀挀栀椀渀最 猀攀瘀攀爀愀氀 栀甀渀搀爀攀搀 洀椀氀攀猀 椀渀 氀攀渀最琀栀⸀ 䤀琀 栀愀猀 stood out saliently bright now at every opposition਀眀栀椀挀栀 䤀 栀愀瘀攀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀攀搀Ⰰ 戀攀最椀渀渀椀渀最 眀椀琀栀 ㄀㠀㤀㐀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㄀崀⸀ 匀漀洀攀琀椀洀攀猀 it has been described in the notes as bright਀猀椀洀瀀氀礀Ⰰ 猀漀洀攀琀椀洀攀猀 愀猀 眀栀椀琀攀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 漀渀挀攀Ⰰ 椀渀 ㄀㤀 ㄀ 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㔀崀Ⰰ 愀猀 最氀椀猀琀攀渀椀渀最 at one point like ice. Yet when upon the terminator਀椀琀 栀愀猀 渀攀瘀攀爀 猀琀漀漀搀 昀漀爀琀栀 愀猀 愀 洀漀甀渀琀愀椀渀 爀愀渀最攀 should have done to declare its character.

It has been evident regardless apparently of the Martian਀猀攀愀猀漀渀⸀ 䤀渀 ㄀㠀㤀㐀 椀琀 眀愀猀 戀爀椀最栀琀 昀爀漀洀 伀挀琀漀戀攀爀 ㈀㔀 to January 16 (Martian chronology) [Darian: 151 Capricornus 22 to Mesha 3]; in 1896, from਀䐀攀挀攀洀戀攀爀 ㈀㈀ 琀漀 䨀愀渀甀愀爀礀 㜀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㈀ 䴀椀渀愀 ㄀㌀ 琀漀 䄀爀椀攀猀 ㄀㈀崀㬀 椀渀 ㄀㤀 ㄀Ⰰ 昀爀漀洀 䨀甀氀礀 ㄀㌀ 琀漀 the 15th [Darian: 155 Aries 23 to 27]; in 1903 [Darian: 156], at about the same date and so in਀㄀㤀 㔀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㜀崀⸀ 䤀琀 眀愀猀 眀栀椀琀攀猀琀 搀甀爀椀渀最 琀栀攀 氀愀琀琀攀爀 漀瀀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀猀Ⰰ showing that the effect is most marked in its midsummer.਀䄀氀氀 漀昀 琀栀攀 愀戀漀瘀攀 椀渀猀琀愀渀挀攀猀 漀昀 攀砀琀爀愀ⴀ瀀漀氀愀爀 white have been located within the tropics. Examples਀漀昀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 琀栀椀渀最Ⰰ 栀漀眀攀瘀攀爀Ⰰ 漀挀挀甀爀 椀渀 琀栀攀 渀漀爀琀栀 琀攀洀瀀攀爀愀琀攀 zone. Tempe, a region just to the west of the਀䴀愀爀攀 䄀挀椀搀愀氀椀甀洀Ⰰ 椀猀 攀砀挀攀攀搀椀渀最氀礀 最椀瘀攀渀 琀漀 猀栀漀眀椀渀最 愀 small white spot close upon the Mare’s border in਀氀愀琀椀琀甀搀攀 㔀 뀀 渀漀爀琀栀⸀ 吀栀椀猀 猀瀀漀琀Ⰰ 琀漀漀Ⰰ 漀渀 漀挀挀愀猀椀漀渀 glitters as it were with ice. It is also at times very਀猀洀愀氀氀⸀ 匀漀 琀栀愀琀 眀栀攀爀攀愀猀 洀甀挀栀 漀昀 吀攀洀瀀攀 椀猀 戀礀 渀愀琀甀爀攀 bright but a small kernel of it is dazzling.

਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㜀㠀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㜀㠀✀㸀㜀㠀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 The list might be easily extended from the record਀戀漀漀欀⸀ 吀栀甀猀 漀渀 䴀愀爀挀栀 ㄀ 愀渀搀 ㈀Ⰰ ㄀㤀 ㌀ 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㘀 䴀椀渀愀 ㄀ 愀渀搀 ㈀崀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 搀椀猀欀 猀栀漀眀攀搀 speckled with minute white spots, one in Arcadia in਀氀愀琀椀琀甀搀攀 㐀㄀뀀 渀漀爀琀栀Ⰰ 漀渀攀 椀渀 Tharsis near the equator, a਀琀栀椀爀搀 樀甀猀琀 渀漀爀琀栀 漀昀 琀栀攀 Phoenix Lucus in 10° south,਀愀渀搀 愀 昀漀甀爀琀栀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 一椀砀 Olympica, and on April 11 [Darian: 156 Aries 13],਀愀 最氀椀琀琀攀爀椀渀最 瀀椀渀ⴀ瀀漀椀渀琀 猀琀愀爀爀攀搀 like a diamond the centre of਀琀栀攀 倀漀渀猀 䠀攀挀琀漀爀椀猀⸀ 伀渀 戀漀琀栀 these occasions the Martian season was summer;਀䨀甀氀礀 㤀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀 氀愀琀琀攀爀Ⰰ 䨀甀渀攀 ㈀㄀ 昀漀爀 琀栀攀 昀漀爀洀攀爀 搀愀琀攀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀搀椀瘀 椀搀㴀✀椀开戀开 㜀㠀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀椀洀最氀攀昀琀✀㸀

਀ 㰀椀洀最 猀爀挀㴀✀椀洀愀最攀猀⼀椀开戀开 㜀㠀⸀樀瀀最✀ 愀氀琀㴀✀✀ ⼀㸀

White in the Pons Hectoris.

਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀

As one approaches the north pole spots of like character਀戀攀挀漀洀攀 洀漀爀攀 渀甀洀攀爀漀甀猀⸀ 䔀猀瀀攀挀椀愀氀氀礀 愀爀攀 猀甀挀栀 visible north of the Mare Acidalium in the arctic region਀琀栀攀爀攀愀戀漀甀琀Ⰰ 昀爀漀洀 㘀㌀뀀 琀漀 㜀㔀뀀 渀漀爀琀栀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䘀爀漀洀 猀漀 眀椀搀攀猀瀀爀攀愀搀 愀 猀攀琀 漀昀 椀渀猀琀愀渀挀攀猀 琀栀攀 漀渀氀礀 攀砀瀀氀愀渀愀琀椀漀渀 which seems to fit the phenomena is that the਀洀攀愀渀 琀攀洀瀀攀爀愀琀甀爀攀 漀昀 䴀愀爀猀 椀猀 氀漀眀Ⰰ 渀漀琀 瘀攀爀礀 洀甀挀栀 愀戀漀瘀攀 freezing, and that whatever causes a local fall in the਀琀攀洀瀀攀爀愀琀甀爀攀 爀攀猀甀氀琀猀 椀渀 栀漀愀爀ⴀ昀爀漀猀琀⸀ 匀甀挀栀 愀渀 攀砀瀀氀愀渀愀琀椀漀渀 accords well with the distance of the planet from the਀猀甀渀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 琀栀椀渀渀攀猀猀 漀昀 椀琀猀 愀琀洀漀猀瀀栀攀爀攀⸀ 䄀琀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 time it shows that the mean temperature over the਀最爀攀愀琀攀爀 瀀愀爀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀 琀栀攀 最爀攀愀琀攀爀 瀀愀爀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 琀椀洀攀 79਀椀猀 愀戀漀瘀攀 琀栀攀 昀爀攀攀稀椀渀最ⴀ瀀漀椀渀琀 愀渀搀 琀栀愀琀 挀漀渀猀攀焀甀攀渀琀氀礀 it is no bar to vegetation of a suitable sort.

That the hoar-frost should be found even at the਀攀焀甀愀琀漀爀 洀愀礀 瀀攀爀栀愀瀀猀 戀攀 搀甀攀 琀漀 琀栀攀 瘀攀爀礀 琀栀椀渀渀攀猀猀 漀昀 the air-covering of Mars, which would tend to make਀琀栀攀 愀挀琀甀愀氀 椀渀猀漀氀愀琀椀漀渀 洀漀爀攀 漀昀 愀 昀愀挀琀漀爀 琀栀愀渀 椀琀 椀猀 眀椀琀栀 甀猀Ⰰ and by the great length of the Martian seasons. In਀洀椀搀猀甀洀洀攀爀 琀栀攀 最爀攀愀琀攀猀琀 椀渀猀漀氀愀琀椀漀渀 漀挀挀甀爀猀 椀渀 琀栀攀 愀爀挀琀椀挀 and temperate, not in the tropic regions; on the other਀栀愀渀搀Ⰰ 愀渀 愀琀洀漀猀瀀栀攀爀攀 琀攀渀搀猀 琀漀 愀挀挀甀洀甀氀愀琀攀 栀攀愀琀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀 tropics. With us the latter factor is prepotent; it਀眀漀甀氀搀 戀攀 氀攀猀猀 攀昀昀攀挀琀椀瘀攀 漀渀 䴀愀爀猀⸀ 吀栀攀渀 愀最愀椀渀 琀栀攀 搀漀甀戀氀攀 duration of summer would tend to emphasize insolation਀愀猀 琀栀攀 椀洀瀀漀爀琀愀渀琀 昀愀挀琀漀爀 椀渀 琀栀攀 洀愀琀琀攀爀⸀ 䈀甀琀 椀琀 椀猀 possible that greater deposition plays a part in the਀洀愀琀琀攀爀⸀ 伀渀 攀愀爀琀栀 琀栀攀 爀愀椀渀昀愀氀氀 椀猀 最爀攀愀琀攀猀琀 渀攀愀爀 琀栀攀 equator and something of the sort may be true of the਀稀漀渀攀猀 漀昀 洀漀椀猀琀甀爀攀 漀渀 䴀愀爀猀⸀ 吀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 洀漀猀琀 猀琀爀椀欀椀渀最 猀瀀漀琀猀 are found to the west of large dark areas may in this਀挀漀渀渀攀挀琀椀漀渀 栀愀瘀攀 愀 洀攀愀渀椀渀最 椀渀愀猀洀甀挀栀 愀猀Ⰰ 猀甀挀栀 爀攀最椀漀渀猀 being vegetation-covered, the air over them is probably਀洀漀爀攀 洀漀椀猀琀甀爀攀ⴀ氀愀搀攀渀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀伀渀攀 瀀漀椀渀琀 愀戀漀甀琀 琀栀攀 瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀瀀漀琀猀 椀猀 漀昀 moment: they have all been found in the northern਀栀攀洀椀猀瀀栀攀爀攀 漀爀 眀椀琀栀椀渀 琀攀渀 搀攀最爀攀攀猀 漀昀 椀琀 椀渀 琀栀攀 猀漀甀琀栀攀爀渀 equatorial region. This seems at first a question of਀栀攀洀椀猀瀀栀攀爀攀猀㬀 戀甀琀 眀栀攀渀 眀攀 挀漀渀猀椀搀攀爀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 氀椀最栀琀 愀爀攀愀猀 80਀漀昀 琀栀攀 猀甀爀昀愀挀攀 愀爀攀 挀栀椀攀昀氀礀 椀渀 琀栀攀 戀漀爀攀愀氀 栀攀洀椀猀瀀栀攀爀攀 愀渀搀 椀渀 the south tropic belt, we perceive that it may be rather਀琀栀攀 挀栀愀爀愀挀琀攀爀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀甀爀昀愀挀攀 琀栀攀爀攀 琀栀愀渀 琀栀攀 瀀愀爀琀椀挀甀氀愀爀 hemisphere in the abstract that is decisive in the matter.਀一攀瘀攀爀琀栀攀氀攀猀猀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 愀甀猀琀爀愀氀 栀攀洀椀猀瀀栀攀爀攀 椀猀 琀栀攀 栀攀洀椀猀瀀栀攀爀攀 of extremes, possessing a shorter, hotter summer and਀愀 氀漀渀最攀爀Ⰰ 挀漀氀搀攀爀 眀椀渀琀攀爀 琀栀愀渀 椀琀猀 愀渀琀椀瀀漀搀攀猀⸀ 吀栀椀猀 眀漀甀氀搀 not favor sporadic small depositions of frost in summer਀猀漀 洀甀挀栀 愀猀 眀漀甀氀搀 愀 挀氀椀洀愀琀攀 漀昀 愀 洀漀爀攀 洀攀愀渀 琀攀洀瀀攀爀愀琀甀爀攀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䘀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 爀攀氀愀琀椀瘀攀 氀愀挀欀 漀昀 愀琀洀漀猀瀀栀攀爀椀挀 挀漀瘀攀爀椀渀最 漀瘀攀爀 the planet we should expect the nights to prove decidedly਀挀漀漀氀Ⰰ 眀栀椀氀攀 琀栀攀 搀愀礀猀 眀攀爀攀 昀愀椀爀氀礀 眀愀爀洀⸀ 伀昀 琀栀椀猀 we have perhaps evidence in a singular aspect shown਀戀礀 琀栀攀 䴀愀爀攀 䄀挀椀搀愀氀椀甀洀 椀渀 䨀甀渀攀Ⰰ ㄀㤀 ㌀ 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㘀 吀愀甀爀甀猀崀⸀ 吀栀攀 愀挀挀漀甀渀琀 of it in the Annals reads thus: “On May 22 [Darian: 156 Mesha 25] an interesting਀愀渀搀 挀甀爀椀漀甀猀 瀀栀攀渀漀洀攀渀漀渀 瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀攀搀 椀琀猀攀氀昀⸀ 伀渀 that day, so soon as the Mare Acidalium had well਀爀漀甀渀搀攀搀 琀栀攀 琀攀爀洀椀渀愀琀漀爀 漀渀 琀漀 琀栀攀 搀椀猀欀Ⰰ 愀琀 묀㌃㔀㈀뀀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 whole of its central part showed white, the edges of਀琀栀攀 洀愀爀欀椀渀最 愀氀漀渀攀 爀攀洀愀椀渀椀渀最 愀猀 愀 猀栀攀氀氀 琀漀 琀栀椀猀 戀爀椀氀氀椀愀渀琀 core. So striking was the effect that beside appearing਀椀渀 琀栀攀 搀爀愀眀椀渀最 椀琀 昀漀甀渀搀 攀挀栀漀 椀渀 琀栀攀 渀漀琀攀猀⸀ 吀栀攀 next day no mention is made of it, and a drawing਀洀愀搀攀 甀渀搀攀爀 묀㈃ 뀀 猀栀漀眀猀 琀栀攀 䴀愀爀攀 愀猀 甀猀甀愀氀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 bright spot in Tempe in its customary place. Neither਀眀愀猀 愀渀礀琀栀椀渀最 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀漀爀琀 渀漀琀椀挀攀搀 漀渀 琀栀攀 ㈀㐀琀栀 愀渀搀 ㈀㔀琀栀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㘀 䴀攀猀栀愀 ㈀㜀 愀渀搀 ㈀㠀崀⸀ 81਀䈀甀琀 漀渀 琀栀攀 ㈀㘀琀栀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 搀愀礀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀爀漀樀攀挀琀椀漀渀 ⠀甀瀀漀渀 琀栀攀 terminator), the effect of the 23d [Darian: 156 Mesha 26] reappeared, the longitude਀漀昀 琀栀攀 挀攀渀琀爀攀 戀攀椀渀最 ㌀㌀㈀뀀⸀ 䘀漀爀琀甀渀愀琀攀氀礀 漀渀 琀栀愀琀 day a further drawing was secured which enabled its਀猀甀戀猀攀焀甀攀渀琀 戀攀栀愀瘀椀漀爀 琀漀 戀攀 昀漀氀氀漀眀攀搀⸀ 䴀愀搀攀 琀栀爀攀攀 栀漀甀爀猀 later than the other, the longitude of the centre being਀㄀㌀뀀Ⰰ 琀栀椀猀 搀爀愀眀椀渀最 猀栀漀眀猀 琀栀攀 䴀愀爀攀 眀攀氀氀 漀渀 琀栀攀 搀椀猀欀Ⰰ 椀琀猀 whole area as dark as usual and with Tempe bright to਀琀栀攀 爀椀最栀琀 漀昀 椀琀 琀漀眀愀爀搀 琀栀攀 琀攀爀洀椀渀愀琀漀爀⸀ 吀栀攀 琀攀爀洀椀渀愀琀漀爀 in question was the sunrise one, and we are offered two਀猀甀瀀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀猀 椀渀 攀砀瀀氀愀渀愀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀栀攀渀漀洀攀渀漀渀㨀 攀椀琀栀攀爀 the white was due to a morning deposition of hoar-frost਀眀栀椀挀栀 搀椀猀猀椀瀀愀琀攀搀 愀猀 琀栀攀 猀甀渀 最漀琀 甀瀀Ⰰ 漀爀 漀戀氀椀焀甀椀琀礀 爀攀渀搀攀爀攀搀 some superficial deposit visible which more vertical਀瘀椀猀椀漀渀 栀椀搀⸀ 吀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 昀漀爀洀攀爀 椀渀昀攀爀攀渀挀攀 椀猀 琀栀攀 洀漀爀攀 probable seems hinted at by the simultaneous appearance਀昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 ㄀㤀琀栀 琀漀 琀栀攀 ㈀㘀琀栀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㘀 䴀攀猀栀愀 ㈀㈀ 琀漀 ㈀㤀崀 漀昀 漀琀栀攀爀 愀爀攀愀猀 漀昀 眀栀椀琀攀 between the Mare and the pole. May 26 [Darian: 156 Mesha 29] was 88 days਀愀昀琀攀爀 琀栀攀 渀漀爀琀栀攀爀渀 猀甀洀洀攀爀 猀漀氀猀琀椀挀攀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 挀漀爀爀攀猀瀀漀渀搀攀搀 to July 31 on the earth.” Annals, Volume III, §564.

In this connection mention may pertinently be made਀漀昀 匀挀栀椀愀瀀愀爀攀氀氀椀ᤀ猠 爀攀瀀攀愀琀攀搀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀愀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 爀攀最椀漀渀猀 琀栀愀琀 whiten with obliquity, a proclivity to which he particularly਀渀漀琀椀挀攀搀 䠀攀氀氀愀猀 愀渀搀 挀攀爀琀愀椀渀 ᠀椠猀氀愀渀搀猀ᤀ†椀渀 琀栀攀 Mare Erythraeum to be prone. Here as with the Mare਀䄀挀椀搀愀氀椀甀洀 眀攀 挀攀爀琀愀椀渀氀礀 猀攀攀洀 琀漀 戀攀 攀渀瘀椀猀愀最椀渀最 挀愀猀攀猀 漀昀 matutinal frost melted by midday under the sun’s rays.


਀㰀琀愀戀氀攀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀昀渀琀愀戀✀ 猀甀洀洀愀爀礀㴀✀昀漀漀琀渀漀琀攀开㄀✀㸀
਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㈀㐀✀㸀 ਀    㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀愀戀氀攀㸀 ਀㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀栀愀瀀琀攀爀✀㸀 ਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㠀㈀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㠀㈀✀㸀㠀㈀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀

CHAPTER VIII

CLIMATE AND WEATHER

਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀搀爀漀瀀ⴀ挀愀瀀愀 开㈀开 开㤀 挀 ㄀㔀✀     㸀䤀渀 最愀稀椀渀最 愀琀 琀栀攀 猀甀挀挀攀猀猀椀瘀攀 瀀栀愀猀攀猀 瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀攀搀 戀礀 琀栀攀 polar caps as their annual history unrolls itself to਀瘀椀攀眀Ⰰ 戀攀最椀渀渀椀渀最 眀椀琀栀 瘀愀猀琀 眀栀椀琀攀 挀氀漀愀欀猀 琀栀愀琀 椀渀 眀椀渀琀攀爀 hide so effectively the planet’s shoulders, to little round਀欀渀漀戀猀 琀栀愀琀 椀渀 猀甀洀洀攀爀 猀椀琀 氀椀欀攀 最甀愀爀搀猀洀攀渀ᤀ猠 挀愀瀀猀 洀漀爀攀 漀爀 less askew upon the poles, the bodily eye sees only the਀最氀椀猀琀攀渀 漀昀 昀愀爀ⴀ漀昀昀 猀渀漀眀⸀ 吀栀攀 洀椀渀搀ᤀ猠 攀礀攀Ⰰ 栀漀眀攀瘀攀爀Ⰰ perceives something more: the conviction they carry਀漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀爀攀猀攀渀挀攀 漀昀 愀渀 愀琀洀漀猀瀀栀攀爀攀 猀甀爀爀漀甀渀搀椀渀最 琀栀攀 planet. Elusive as water vapor is to sight for its਀琀爀愀渀猀瀀愀爀攀渀挀礀 愀渀搀 琀漀 猀瀀攀挀琀爀漀猀挀漀瀀椀挀 搀攀琀攀爀洀椀渀愀琀椀漀渀 昀漀爀 its earthly omnipresence, recognition of its existence਀攀氀猀攀眀栀攀爀攀 戀礀 搀攀搀甀挀琀椀漀渀 爀愀椀猀攀猀 猀甀挀栀 爀攀愀猀漀渀椀渀最 愀琀 漀渀挀攀 to a more conspicuous plane than it might otherwise਀愀猀猀甀洀攀⸀ 䔀猀瀀攀挀椀愀氀氀礀 椀猀 琀栀椀猀 琀爀甀攀 眀栀攀爀攀 琀栀攀 搀攀搀甀挀琀椀漀渀 椀猀 itself conclusive, as is here the case. For it depends਀漀渀 瀀栀攀渀漀洀攀渀愀 渀漀琀 椀琀猀 漀眀渀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 眀栀椀挀栀 愀爀攀 椀渀 琀栀攀椀爀 琀甀爀渀 dependent on it. We are not even beholden to any਀欀渀漀眀氀攀搀最攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀甀戀猀琀愀渀挀攀 挀漀洀瀀漀猀椀渀最 琀栀攀 挀愀瀀猀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀 fundamental inference that an atmosphere surrounds਀琀栀攀洀⸀ 圀栀愀琀攀瘀攀爀 琀栀愀琀 猀甀戀猀琀愀渀挀攀 眀攀爀攀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 昀愀挀琀 琀栀愀琀 83਀琀栀攀 挀愀瀀猀 搀椀猀猀椀瀀愀琀攀 愀渀搀 爀攀昀漀爀洀 猀栀漀眀猀 甀猀 眀椀琀栀 愀戀猀漀氀甀琀攀 certainty that they pass into the gaseous state, to be਀氀愀琀攀爀 猀漀氀椀搀椀昀椀攀搀 愀昀爀攀猀栀⸀ 吀栀椀猀 最愀猀 挀漀渀猀琀椀琀甀琀攀猀 漀昀 椀琀猀攀氀昀 an atmosphere; while another phenomenon, to wit,਀琀栀攀椀爀 戀氀甀攀 最椀爀搀氀攀猀 愀猀 琀栀攀礀 洀攀氀琀Ⰰ 愀昀昀椀爀洀椀渀最 琀栀攀椀爀 猀甀戀猀琀愀渀挀攀 to be snow and ice, enables us to precise the fact that਀琀栀椀猀 最愀猀 椀猀 眀愀琀攀爀 瘀愀瀀漀爀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䘀爀漀洀 猀甀挀栀 瀀爀攀洀椀猀攀 最椀瘀攀渀 甀猀 戀礀 琀栀攀 瀀漀氀愀爀 挀愀瀀猀 眀攀 愀爀攀 able to infer much more by the help of the kinetic਀琀栀攀漀爀礀 漀昀 最愀猀攀猀⸀ 䈀甀琀 琀栀攀 猀瀀攀攀搀 漀昀 瀀愀爀琀椀渀最 戀礀 愀 planet with its gases is conditioned by the mean਀猀瀀攀攀搀 漀昀 攀愀挀栀 最愀猀⸀ 圀愀琀攀爀 瘀愀瀀漀爀 眀椀氀氀Ⰰ 琀栀攀爀攀昀漀爀攀Ⰰ 最漀 before nitrogen, oxygen or carbonic acid gas. If,਀琀栀攀渀Ⰰ 眀攀 昀椀渀搀 椀琀 瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀 漀瘀攀爀 琀栀攀 猀甀爀昀愀挀攀 漀昀 愀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀 we are assured of the possibility that the other three਀洀愀礀 戀攀 琀栀攀爀攀 琀漀漀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 猀椀洀椀氀愀爀椀琀礀 漀昀 洀愀琀琀攀爀 in space strong reason to suspect that they actually਀愀爀攀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䌀漀爀爀漀戀漀爀愀琀椀瘀攀 攀瘀椀搀攀渀挀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 愀挀挀甀爀愀挀礀 漀昀 琀栀攀 搀攀搀甀挀琀椀漀渀 as to the presence of a Martian air is shown in਀猀攀瘀攀爀愀氀 漀琀栀攀爀 眀愀礀猀㬀 椀渀 琀栀攀 攀砀椀猀琀攀渀挀攀 漀昀 挀氀漀甀搀猀 琀漀 戀攀最椀渀 with. Rare as they are, these certainly float at times਀漀瘀攀爀 瀀愀爀琀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀Ⰰ 愀氀琀栀漀甀最栀 椀琀 椀猀 搀漀甀戀琀昀甀氀 眀栀攀琀栀攀爀 they can then be seen. Fortunately for assurance we਀栀愀瘀攀 漀琀栀攀爀 眀愀礀猀 漀昀 愀猀挀攀爀琀愀椀渀椀渀最 琀栀攀椀爀 瀀爀攀猀攀渀挀攀 琀栀愀渀 that of obscuration. Nor is it of account to the argument਀琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀礀 猀栀漀甀氀搀 戀攀 昀攀眀 愀渀搀 昀愀爀 戀攀琀眀攀攀渀Ⰰ 愀猀 琀栀攀礀 84਀甀渀焀甀攀猀琀椀漀渀愀戀氀礀 愀爀攀⸀ 伀渀攀 猀椀渀最氀攀 椀渀猀琀愀渀挀攀 漀昀 猀甀挀栀 洀攀搀椀甀洀椀猀琀椀挀 support is enough to support the theory of a਀洀攀搀椀甀洀㬀 愀渀搀 琀栀愀琀 椀渀猀琀愀渀挀攀 栀愀猀 戀攀攀渀 洀漀爀攀 琀栀愀渀 漀渀挀攀 observed.

Direct evidence of atmosphere is further forthcoming਀椀渀 琀栀攀 氀椀洀戀ⴀ氀椀最栀琀⸀ 吀栀椀猀 瀀栀攀渀漀洀攀渀漀渀 洀椀最栀琀 戀攀 搀攀猀挀爀椀戀攀搀 as a brilliant obscuration. It is a circlet of਀椀氀氀甀洀椀渀愀琀椀漀渀 琀栀愀琀 猀眀愀洀瀀猀 琀栀攀 昀攀愀琀甀爀攀猀 愀猀 琀栀攀礀 渀攀愀爀 琀栀攀 full edge of the disk, the limb of the planet as it is਀挀愀氀氀攀搀⸀ 伀戀氀椀琀攀爀愀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀漀爀琀 椀猀 攀瘀椀搀攀渀琀Ⰰ 洀漀爀攀 漀爀 less markedly, at all times, and is not due to foreshortening,਀愀猀 琀栀攀 戀爀漀愀搀攀猀琀 愀爀攀愀猀 愀爀攀 愀昀昀攀挀琀攀搀⸀ 吀栀攀 昀愀搀椀渀最 out of the detail at the limb suggests nothing so much਀愀猀 愀 瘀攀椀氀 搀爀愀眀渀 戀攀琀眀攀攀渀 甀猀 愀渀搀 椀琀Ⰰ 氀椀最栀琀攀爀 椀渀 琀椀渀琀 琀栀愀渀 what it covers. Such a veil can be none other than਀愀椀爀 漀爀 琀栀攀 栀愀稀攀 愀渀搀 挀氀漀甀搀 琀栀愀琀 愀椀爀 猀甀瀀瀀漀爀琀猀⸀ 䘀爀漀洀 椀琀猀 effect, impartial in place and partial in character,਀挀氀漀甀搀 椀猀 椀渀愀搀洀椀猀猀椀戀氀攀 愀猀 愀 挀愀甀猀攀 愀渀搀 眀攀 愀爀攀 氀攀昀琀 眀椀琀栀 愀椀爀 charged with dust or vapor in explanation. Obscuration਀搀甀攀 琀漀 椀琀 猀栀漀甀氀搀 瀀爀漀瘀攀 洀漀猀琀 搀攀渀猀攀 愀琀 琀栀攀 氀椀洀戀Ⰰ since there the eye has to penetrate a greater depth of਀椀琀㬀 樀甀猀琀 愀猀 漀渀 琀栀攀 攀愀爀琀栀 漀甀爀 漀眀渀 愀椀爀 最椀瘀攀猀 愀稀甀爀攀 搀椀洀渀攀猀猀 to the distance in deepened tinting as the mountains਀氀椀攀 爀攀洀漀琀攀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䄀渀漀琀栀攀爀 戀椀琀 漀昀 攀瘀椀搀攀渀挀攀 氀椀攀猀 椀渀 琀栀攀 愀瀀瀀愀爀攀渀琀 搀攀琀攀挀琀椀漀渀 of a twilight arc. In 1894 [Darian: 151] measures made of the਀瀀漀氀愀爀 愀渀搀 攀焀甀愀琀漀爀椀愀氀 搀椀愀洀攀琀攀爀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀 猀栀漀眀攀搀 85਀挀攀爀琀愀椀渀 猀礀猀琀攀洀愀琀椀挀 爀攀猀椀搀甀愀氀猀 氀攀昀琀 愀昀琀攀爀 愀氀氀 欀渀漀眀渀 挀漀爀爀攀挀琀椀漀渀猀 had been applied. The only thing which would਀愀挀挀漀甀渀琀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀洀 眀愀猀 琀栀攀 猀甀瀀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀 琀栀愀琀 愀 琀眀椀氀椀最栀琀 arc had been unconsciously seen and as unconsciously਀洀攀愀猀甀爀攀搀⸀ 䤀渀 搀攀氀椀挀愀琀攀 焀甀愀渀琀椀琀椀攀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀漀爀琀 琀漀漀 最爀攀愀琀 reliance cannot be put, but if the residuals be not referable਀琀漀 漀琀栀攀爀 挀愀甀猀攀 琀栀攀礀 最椀瘀攀 甀猀 渀漀琀 漀渀氀礀 昀甀爀琀栀攀爀 攀瘀椀搀攀渀挀攀 of an atmosphere, but at the same time our only਀栀椀渀琀 漀昀 琀栀愀琀 愀琀洀漀猀瀀栀攀爀攀ᤀ猠 攀砀琀攀渀琀⸀ 䘀爀漀洀 琀栀攀洀 椀琀 would seem that the air must be rare, not more than਀愀戀漀甀琀 昀漀甀爀 椀渀挀栀攀猀 漀昀 戀愀爀漀洀攀琀爀椀挀 瀀爀攀猀猀甀爀攀Ⰰ 愀猀 眀攀 爀攀挀欀漀渀 it, and probably less; a thin, high air more rarefied਀琀栀愀渀 瀀爀攀瘀愀椀氀猀 甀瀀漀渀 漀甀爀 栀椀最栀攀猀琀 洀漀甀渀琀愀椀渀 琀漀瀀猀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䌀漀爀爀漀戀漀爀愀琀椀瘀攀 漀昀 琀栀椀猀 椀猀 琀栀攀 愀猀瀀攀挀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀⸀ From the general look of the disk a scant covering਀漀昀 愀椀爀 椀猀 椀渀昀攀爀愀戀氀攀⸀ 䘀漀爀 漀渀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀琀爀椀欀椀渀最 琀栀椀渀最猀 about the planet’s features is their patent exposure to਀漀甀爀 猀椀最栀琀⸀ 䔀砀挀攀瀀琀 椀渀 琀栀攀 眀椀渀琀攀爀 琀椀洀攀 漀昀 椀琀猀 栀攀洀椀猀瀀栀攀爀攀 or in the spring after the greatest melting of the polar਀挀愀瀀Ⰰ 渀漀琀栀椀渀最 猀攀攀洀猀 琀漀 猀琀愀渀搀 椀渀 漀甀爀 眀愀礀 漀昀 愀渀 甀渀椀渀琀攀爀爀甀瀀琀攀搀 view of the surface, whether in the arctic, temperate,਀漀爀 琀爀漀瀀椀挀 稀漀渀攀猀⸀ 䘀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 漀瀀攀渀渀攀猀猀 漀昀 椀琀猀 expression, however, too much case should not be਀洀愀搀攀 愀猀 眀攀 爀攀愀氀氀礀 欀渀漀眀 戀甀琀 氀椀琀琀氀攀 漀昀 栀漀眀 愀渀 愀琀洀漀猀瀀栀攀爀攀ⴀ攀渀猀栀爀漀甀搀攀搀 planet would look. We find no difficulty਀椀渀 猀攀攀椀渀最 漀戀樀攀挀琀猀 愀 栀甀渀搀爀攀搀 洀椀氀攀猀 愀眀愀礀 愀挀爀漀猀猀 琀栀攀 猀甀爀昀愀挀攀 of the earth and yet the thickness of the air strata਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㠀㘀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㠀㘀✀㸀㠀㘀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 in such horizontal traversing is many fold what it is਀眀栀攀渀 眀攀 氀漀漀欀 搀椀爀攀挀琀氀礀 甀瀀⸀ 䤀琀 椀猀 愀氀猀漀 漀甀琀 漀昀 愀氀氀 瀀爀漀瀀漀爀琀椀漀渀 laden with dust and smoke. In the purer regions਀漀昀 琀栀攀 攀愀爀琀栀Ⰰ 愀 挀氀攀愀爀 愀椀爀 椀洀瀀漀猀攀猀 戀甀琀 氀椀琀琀氀攀 戀愀爀 琀漀 猀椀最栀琀Ⰰ and conjures up far things startlingly distinct.

Nevertheless, every evidence points to a thin air਀甀瀀漀渀 䴀愀爀猀㨀 㰀椀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 氀愀渀最㴀∀氀愀∀ 砀洀氀㨀氀愀渀最㴀∀氀愀∀㸀愀 瀀爀椀漀爀椀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀椀㸀 爀攀愀猀漀渀椀渀最Ⰰ 椀渀搀椀爀攀挀琀 搀攀搀甀挀琀椀漀渀 愀渀搀 direct sight. Now, from a thinness of atmosphere it਀眀漀甀氀搀 昀漀氀氀漀眀Ⰰ 漀琀栀攀爀 琀栀椀渀最猀 攀焀甀愀氀Ⰰ 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 挀氀椀洀愀琀攀 眀愀猀 cold. About this there has been much question, but਀氀攀猀猀 漀昀 愀渀猀眀攀爀椀渀最 爀攀瀀氀礀⸀ 䘀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 搀椀猀琀愀渀挀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 planet from the sun it is certain less heat is received਀戀礀 椀琀 琀栀愀渀 昀愀氀氀猀 甀瀀漀渀 琀栀攀 攀愀爀琀栀 椀渀 猀漀洀攀琀栀椀渀最 氀椀欀攀 琀栀攀 ratio of one to two. But that the amount effective਀椀猀 愀猀 琀栀攀 愀洀漀甀渀琀 爀攀挀攀椀瘀攀搀 椀猀 昀愀爀 昀爀漀洀 猀甀爀攀⸀ 吀栀攀 愀瘀愀椀氀愀戀氀攀 heat is much affected by the manner of its reception.਀䄀 戀氀愀渀欀攀琀 漀昀 愀椀爀 愀挀琀猀 氀椀欀攀 琀栀攀 最氀愀猀猀 漀昀 愀 挀漀渀猀攀爀瘀愀琀漀爀礀Ⰰ letting the light rays in, but hindering the heat਀爀愀礀猀 漀甀琀⸀ 吀栀攀 氀椀最栀琀 爀愀礀猀 昀愀氀氀椀渀最 漀渀 琀栀攀 最爀漀甀渀搀 漀爀 琀栀攀 air are transformed into heat rays that, finding the return਀樀漀甀爀渀攀礀 氀攀猀猀 攀愀猀礀Ⰰ 愀爀攀 挀漀渀猀攀焀甀攀渀琀氀礀 琀爀愀瀀瀀攀搀⸀ 䄀氀氀 substances are thus calorifiers, but water vapor is਀洀愀渀礀 琀椀洀攀猀 洀漀爀攀 瀀漀琀攀渀琀 琀栀愀渀 漀爀搀椀渀愀爀礀 愀椀爀 琀漀 栀攀愀琀ⴀ攀渀猀渀愀爀椀渀最⸀ A humid air has a hothouse tang to it most਀瀀攀爀挀攀瀀琀椀戀氀攀⸀ 一漀眀Ⰰ 眀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 爀攀氀愀琀椀瘀攀 瀀攀爀挀攀渀琀愀最攀 漀昀 water vapor in the Martian atmosphere may be we਀搀漀 渀漀琀 欀渀漀眀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀 87਀吀栀攀 琀栀椀渀渀攀猀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 愀椀爀 栀愀猀 挀愀甀猀攀搀 椀琀 琀漀 戀攀 likened to that upon our highest mountain peaks਀眀栀椀挀栀 愀爀攀 椀渀 氀愀爀最攀 瀀愀爀琀 挀漀瘀攀爀攀搀 眀椀琀栀 瀀攀爀瀀攀琀甀愀氀 猀渀漀眀⸀ But the comparison is not well founded. A peak differs਀洀愀琀攀爀椀愀氀氀礀 昀爀漀洀 愀 瀀氀愀琀攀愀甀 椀渀 琀栀攀 挀漀甀渀琀攀渀愀渀挀攀 椀琀 最椀瘀攀猀 to the heat falling upon it. On a plateau each warmed਀愀挀爀攀 漀昀 最爀漀甀渀搀 栀攀氀瀀猀 琀栀攀 爀攀琀攀渀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 栀攀愀琀 戀礀 椀琀猀 渀攀椀最栀戀漀爀㬀 while in addition to being destitute of side support਀琀栀攀 栀椀最栀攀爀 眀椀渀搀猀 最攀渀攀爀愀琀攀搀 愀戀漀甀琀 愀渀 椀猀漀氀愀琀攀搀 瀀攀愀欀 戀氀漀眀 its own caloric away. Still less does any analogy hold਀戀攀琀眀攀攀渀 琀栀攀 琀眀漀 眀栀攀渀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀琀攀愀甀 椀猀 愀 眀漀爀氀搀ⴀ眀椀搀攀 漀渀攀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䘀爀漀洀 琀栀攀猀攀 挀漀渀猀椀搀攀爀愀琀椀漀渀猀 椀琀 椀猀 攀瘀椀搀攀渀琀 最氀漀猀猀攀猀 愀爀攀 possible upon the bald idea of a much lower temperature਀瀀爀攀瘀愀椀氀椀渀最 漀渀 琀栀攀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 猀甀爀昀愀挀攀 琀栀愀渀 漀渀 琀栀攀 攀愀爀琀栀ᤀ猠⸀ Doubtless the theoretic cold has been greatly overdone.਀刀攀瘀攀爀猀攀氀礀Ⰰ 爀攀挀攀渀琀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀愀琀椀漀渀猀 琀攀渀搀 琀漀 氀漀眀攀爀 琀栀攀 愀瀀瀀愀爀攀渀琀 temperature disclosed by the features of the disk,਀愀渀搀 戀攀琀眀攀攀渀 琀栀攀 爀椀猀椀渀最 漀昀 琀栀攀 琀栀攀漀爀攀琀椀挀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 昀愀氀氀椀渀最 of the observed we are left with a very reasonable਀挀漀洀瀀爀漀洀椀猀攀 愀渀搀 爀攀挀漀渀挀椀氀攀洀攀渀琀 愀猀 琀栀攀 爀攀猀甀氀琀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀吀栀攀 瘀愀爀椀漀甀猀 氀漀漀欀 愀渀搀 戀攀栀愀瘀椀漀爀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀甀爀昀愀挀攀 漀昀 䴀愀爀猀 point to a mean temperature colder than that of the਀攀愀爀琀栀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 愀戀漀瘀攀 琀栀攀 昀爀攀攀稀椀渀最ⴀ瀀漀椀渀琀 漀昀 眀愀琀攀爀㬀 昀漀爀 regions, at least, outside of the polar caps and during਀愀氀氀 戀甀琀 琀栀攀 眀椀渀琀攀爀 洀漀渀琀栀猀⸀ 䔀砀挀攀瀀琀 愀琀 挀攀爀琀愀椀渀 猀瀀攀挀椀愀氀 spots, and possibly even there, frost is unknown at all਀琀椀洀攀猀 眀椀琀栀椀渀 琀栀攀 琀爀漀瀀椀挀猀 愀渀搀 攀砀挀攀瀀琀 椀渀 眀椀渀琀攀爀 椀渀 琀攀洀瀀攀爀愀琀攀 88਀氀愀琀椀琀甀搀攀猀⸀ 吀栀攀猀攀 愀渀漀洀愀氀漀甀猀 氀漀挀愀氀椀琀椀攀猀Ⰰ 洀攀渀琀椀漀渀攀搀 in the preceding chapter, may be said to be the਀攀砀挀攀瀀琀椀漀渀猀 琀栀愀琀 瀀爀漀瘀攀 琀栀攀 爀甀氀攀 漀昀 最攀渀攀爀愀氀 渀漀渀ⴀ最氀愀挀椀愀琀椀漀渀⸀ For if they be snow, they stand witness to its਀愀戀猀攀渀挀攀 攀氀猀攀眀栀攀爀攀 甀瀀漀渀 琀栀攀 搀椀猀欀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 椀昀 琀栀攀礀 愀爀攀 渀漀琀Ⰰ they testify the more emphatically to the same effect.

As between different parts of the surface, the tilt਀漀昀 琀栀攀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 愀砀椀猀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 最爀攀愀琀攀爀 氀攀渀最琀栀 漀昀 琀栀攀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 seasons, the one the same as, the other the double਀漀昀Ⰰ 漀甀爀 漀眀渀Ⰰ 琀攀渀搀 琀漀 愀渀 愀挀挀攀渀琀甀愀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 栀攀愀琀 椀渀 琀栀攀 temperate and arctic or antarctic zones. The greatest਀椀渀猀漀氀愀琀椀漀渀 漀渀 攀愀爀琀栀 椀猀 渀漀琀Ⰰ 愀猀 眀攀 洀椀最栀琀 猀甀瀀瀀漀猀攀Ⰰ 愀琀 琀栀攀 equator, but at the parallels of 43.°5 north and south;਀攀瘀攀渀 琀栀攀 瀀漀氀攀猀 琀栀攀洀猀攀氀瘀攀猀 爀攀挀攀椀瘀椀渀最 愀 焀甀愀爀琀攀爀 愀猀 洀甀挀栀 heat again on midsummer day as ever falls to the lot of਀琀栀攀 氀椀渀攀⸀ 吀栀椀猀 戀爀漀愀搀 瀀栀礀猀椀挀愀氀 昀愀挀琀 椀猀 攀焀甀愀氀氀礀 琀爀甀攀 漀昀 Mars, while in the matter of consecutive exposure Mars਀椀渀 猀甀洀洀攀爀 漀甀琀搀漀攀猀 琀栀攀 攀愀爀琀栀⸀ 䘀漀爀 琀栀攀 氀漀渀最攀爀 琀栀攀 猀攀愀猀漀渀猀Ⰰ the more nearly does the effective heat approach਀琀栀攀 爀攀挀攀椀瘀攀搀 愀洀漀甀渀琀⸀ 吀栀甀猀 戀漀琀栀 漀渀 琀栀攀 猀挀漀爀攀 漀昀 栀攀愀琀 received and of heat husbanded these zones must be਀爀攀氀愀琀椀瘀攀氀礀 眀愀爀洀⸀ 䄀渀搀 琀栀椀猀 猀栀漀眀猀 椀琀猀攀氀昀 椀渀 琀栀攀 氀漀漀欀 漀昀 the surface. In summer it is clearly warmer within਀琀栀攀 瀀漀氀愀爀 爀攀最椀漀渀猀 琀栀愀渀 椀猀 琀栀攀 挀愀猀攀 漀渀 攀愀爀琀栀Ⰰ 琀漀 樀甀搀最攀 戀礀 the effect. In winter the cold is doubtless proportionately਀猀攀瘀攀爀攀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䘀漀爀 琀栀攀 搀椀甀爀渀愀氀 爀愀渀最攀 漀昀 琀攀洀瀀攀爀愀琀甀爀攀 眀攀 栀愀瘀攀 氀攀猀猀 89਀搀愀琀愀⸀ 吀栀攀爀攀 椀猀 攀瘀椀搀攀渀挀攀 瀀漀椀渀琀椀渀最 琀漀 挀栀椀氀氀礀 渀椀最栀琀猀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 it is meagre, and we are left to fall back on the cold of਀漀甀爀 搀攀猀攀爀琀猀 愀琀 渀椀最栀琀 昀漀爀 愀渀愀氀漀最椀挀 挀漀渀搀椀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀琀愀琀攀 of things over the Martian desert levels after the sun਀最漀攀猀 搀漀眀渀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䤀昀 眀攀 愀爀攀 甀渀挀攀爀琀愀椀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀爀攀挀椀猀攀 挀栀愀爀愀挀琀攀爀 漀昀 琀栀攀 Martian climate, we know on the other hand a good deal਀愀戀漀甀琀 琀栀攀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 眀攀愀琀栀攀爀⸀ 䄀 瀀氀攀愀猀椀渀最 愀戀猀攀渀挀攀 漀昀 椀琀 over much of the planet distinguishes Martian conditions਀昀爀漀洀 漀甀爀 漀眀渀⸀ 吀栀愀琀 眀攀 挀愀渀 猀挀愀渀 琀栀攀 猀甀爀昀愀挀攀 愀猀 眀攀 搀漀 without practical interruption day in and day out਀瀀爀漀瘀攀猀 琀栀攀 眀攀愀琀栀攀爀 漀瘀攀爀 椀琀 琀漀 戀攀 瀀攀爀洀愀渀攀渀琀氀礀 昀愀椀爀⸀ 䤀渀 fact a clear sky, except in winter, and in many places਀攀瘀攀渀 琀栀攀渀Ⰰ 椀猀 渀漀琀 漀渀氀礀 琀栀攀 爀甀氀攀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 琀栀攀 爀甀氀攀 愀氀洀漀猀琀 without exceptions. In the early days of Martian਀猀琀甀搀礀 挀愀猀攀猀 漀昀 漀戀猀挀甀爀愀琀椀漀渀 眀攀爀攀 爀攀挀漀爀搀攀搀 昀爀漀洀 琀椀洀攀 to time by observers, in which portions of the disk were਀挀栀愀渀最攀搀 漀爀 栀椀搀搀攀渀 愀猀 椀昀 挀氀漀甀搀猀 眀攀爀攀 瘀攀椀氀椀渀最 琀栀攀洀 昀爀漀洀 view. More modern observations fail to support this਀搀攀搀甀挀琀椀漀渀Ⰰ 瀀愀爀琀氀礀 戀礀 愀戀猀攀渀挀攀 漀昀 椀渀猀琀愀渀挀攀猀Ⰰ 瀀愀爀琀氀礀 戀礀 other explanation of the facts. Certainly the recorded਀椀渀猀琀愀渀挀攀猀 愀爀攀 瘀攀爀礀 爀愀爀攀⸀ 䤀渀搀攀攀搀Ⰰ 漀挀挀愀猀椀漀渀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀漀爀琀 must to any Martians be events, since only one possible਀攀砀愀洀瀀氀攀 栀愀猀 瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀攀搀 椀琀猀攀氀昀 琀漀 洀攀 搀甀爀椀渀最 琀栀攀 挀漀甀爀猀攀 of my observations, extending more or less over eleven਀礀攀愀爀猀⸀ 䔀瘀攀渀 椀渀 琀栀椀猀 挀愀猀攀 琀栀攀爀攀 眀愀猀 渀漀 漀戀氀椀琀攀爀愀琀椀漀渀Ⰰ though a certain whiteness overspread an area near਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㤀 ✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㤀 ✀㸀㤀 㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 the equator temporarily. Position seemed to point to਀椀琀猀 椀搀攀渀琀椀琀礀 眀椀琀栀 愀 挀氀漀甀搀 眀栀椀挀栀 洀愀搀攀 椀琀猀 愀瀀瀀攀愀爀愀渀挀攀 about that time upon the terminator, and lasted for਀猀漀洀攀 琀栀椀爀琀礀ⴀ猀椀砀 栀漀甀爀猀⸀ 吀栀攀 挀氀漀甀搀Ⰰ 栀漀眀攀瘀攀爀Ⰰ 猀栀漀眀攀搀 evidence of being, not the kind with which we are familiar,਀戀甀琀 愀 搀甀猀琀ⴀ猀琀漀爀洀Ⰰ 椀渀 欀攀攀瀀椀渀最Ⰰ 椀渀搀攀攀搀Ⰰ 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 desert region (Chryse) in which it originated.

With the exception of sporadic disturbance of the sort਀琀栀攀 眀栀漀氀攀 猀甀爀昀愀挀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀 漀甀琀猀椀搀攀 琀栀攀 椀洀洀攀搀椀愀琀攀 vicinity of the polar caps seems free from cloud or mist਀愀渀搀 琀漀 氀椀攀 瀀攀爀瀀攀琀甀愀氀氀礀 甀渀瘀攀椀氀攀搀 琀漀 猀瀀愀挀攀⸀ 䤀渀 琀栀攀 渀攀椀最栀戀漀爀栀漀漀搀 of the caps, however, and especially round਀愀戀漀甀琀 琀栀攀椀爀 攀搀最攀Ⰰ 愀 瘀攀爀礀 搀椀猀琀椀渀挀琀 瀀攀愀爀氀礀 愀瀀瀀攀愀爀愀渀挀攀 椀猀 presented during the months at which the cap is at its਀洀愀砀椀洀甀洀Ⰰ 漀爀 椀渀 漀琀栀攀爀 眀漀爀搀猀Ⰰ 椀渀 琀栀攀 搀攀瀀琀栀 漀昀 椀琀猀 眀椀渀琀攀爀⸀ Of a dull white hue and indefinite contour the phenomenon਀猀甀最最攀猀琀猀 挀氀漀甀搀⸀ 圀栀攀爀攀 椀琀 氀椀攀猀 猀瀀爀攀愀搀 渀漀 洀愀爀欀椀渀最猀 are visible; an absence explicable by obscuration due਀愀渀 椀渀琀攀爀瀀漀猀攀搀 洀攀搀椀甀洀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 攀焀甀愀氀氀礀 眀攀氀氀 戀礀 猀攀愀猀漀渀愀氀 non-existence of the markings themselves, which from਀琀栀攀 最攀渀攀爀愀氀 戀攀栀愀瘀椀漀爀 漀昀 琀栀攀猀攀 洀愀爀欀椀渀最猀 眀攀 欀渀漀眀 琀漀 戀攀 to some extent certainly the fact. Of the regions਀眀栀攀爀攀 琀栀攀 攀昀昀攀挀琀 椀猀 渀漀琀椀挀攀愀戀氀攀Ⰰ 䠀攀氀氀愀猀 椀猀 琀栀攀 洀漀猀琀 猀琀爀椀欀椀渀最⸀ So conspicuously white during the winter of the਀猀漀甀琀栀攀爀渀 栀攀洀椀猀瀀栀攀爀攀 愀猀 琀漀 栀愀瘀攀 戀攀攀渀 漀昀琀攀渀 洀椀猀琀愀欀攀渀 昀漀爀 the polar cap, its ghost shows thus almost regularly every਀䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 礀攀愀爀⸀ 圀栀愀琀 椀猀 愀猀 猀甀最最攀猀琀椀瘀攀 愀猀 椀琀 椀猀 猀琀爀椀欀椀渀最Ⰰ 91਀琀栀攀 戀氀愀渀挀栀椀渀最 椀猀 挀漀渀昀椀渀攀搀 琀漀 琀栀攀 猀漀氀椀搀 挀椀爀挀氀攀 挀漀渀猀琀椀琀甀琀椀渀最 Hellas and does not extend into the dark regions by਀眀栀椀挀栀 椀琀 椀猀 挀椀爀挀甀洀猀挀爀椀戀攀搀⸀ 䠀攀氀氀愀猀 椀猀 愀猀 猀攀氀昀ⴀ挀漀渀琀愀椀渀攀搀 when thus powdered as when, in its normal ochre or਀愀戀渀漀爀洀愀氀 爀攀搀Ⰰ 椀琀 猀琀爀攀琀挀栀攀猀 氀椀欀攀 愀 戀爀漀愀搀 戀甀挀欀氀攀爀 愀挀爀漀猀猀 the body of the disk. That the land there lies at a਀栀椀最栀攀爀 氀攀瘀攀氀 琀栀愀渀 椀琀猀 猀甀爀爀漀甀渀搀椀渀最猀 椀猀 瀀爀攀琀琀礀 挀攀爀琀愀椀渀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 that the difference can amount to enough to explain its਀猀椀氀瘀攀爀椀渀攀猀猀 愀猀 椀挀攀 椀猀 椀洀瀀爀漀戀愀戀氀攀⸀ 䤀渀 氀愀琀椀琀甀搀攀 䠀攀氀氀愀猀 椀猀 distinctly temperate, lying between the parallels of 55°਀愀渀搀 ㌀ 뀀㬀 戀甀琀 漀渀 䴀愀爀猀 琀栀椀猀 椀猀 渀漀 眀愀爀爀愀渀琀 漀昀 愀 氀椀欀攀 挀氀椀洀愀琀攀⸀ Again, though close on the south to what constitutes਀琀栀攀 瀀漀氀愀爀 挀愀瀀Ⰰ 椀琀 搀漀攀猀 渀漀琀 猀琀爀椀挀琀氀礀 昀漀爀洀 瀀愀爀琀 漀昀 琀栀愀琀 挀愀瀀Ⰰ but occupies both in position and in kind a something਀椀渀琀攀爀洀攀搀椀愀爀礀 戀攀琀眀攀攀渀 琀栀攀 昀爀漀猀琀ⴀ戀漀甀渀搀 爀攀最椀漀渀猀 漀昀 瀀攀爀椀漀搀椀挀 snow and the warmer ones of perpetual sunshine.਀䤀琀 猀攀攀洀猀 琀漀 戀攀 愀昀昀氀椀挀琀攀搀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 眀椀渀琀攀爀 眀攀愀琀栀攀爀 漀昀 琀栀攀 north of Europe, and to owe its pearly look at such times਀琀漀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 挀氀漀甀搀 挀愀渀漀瀀礀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀渀 搀椀猀琀爀攀猀猀椀渀最氀礀 挀漀瘀攀爀猀 those inclement lands.

Similar in behavior to it is the long chain of so-called਀椀猀氀愀渀搀猀 琀栀愀琀Ⰰ 戀攀最椀渀渀椀渀最 猀漀甀琀栀眀攀猀琀 漀昀 吀栀愀甀洀愀猀椀愀Ⰰ runs thence westward even to the eastern edge਀漀昀 䠀攀氀氀愀猀⸀ 吀栀攀猀攀 戀攀氀琀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀 椀渀 愀 眀攀猀琀ⴀ渀漀爀琀栀眀攀猀琀攀爀氀礀 direction by a strip of territory from ten to fifteen degrees਀眀椀搀攀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 洀攀搀椀愀氀 氀椀渀攀 漀昀 眀栀椀挀栀 戀攀最椀渀猀 愀琀 㔀㔀뀀 south and ends in about 40°. They are parted from਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㤀㈀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㤀㈀✀㸀㤀㈀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 the main bright areas by blue-green ‘seas’ of about the਀猀愀洀攀 眀椀搀琀栀 愀猀 琀栀攀洀猀攀氀瘀攀猀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 䴀愀爀攀 匀椀爀攀渀甀洀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 䴀愀爀攀 Cimmerium and Mare Tyrrhenum. These ‘seas’਀琀栀攀 眀栀椀琀攀 琀栀愀琀 挀漀瘀攀爀猀 琀栀攀 ᠀椠猀氀愀渀搀猀ᤀ†渀攀瘀攀爀 挀爀漀猀猀攀猀㬀 though the continent, as we may call it for convenience,਀搀攀猀挀攀渀搀猀 愀琀 琀栀攀 攀愀猀琀 琀漀 ㌀ 뀀 猀漀甀琀栀⸀ 匀椀渀挀攀 琀栀攀 ᠀猠攀愀猀ᤀ are not seas, the cause which might bound the snow,਀眀攀爀攀 琀栀攀礀 猀甀挀栀Ⰰ 挀愀渀渀漀琀 戀攀 琀栀攀 挀愀甀猀攀 栀攀爀攀⸀ 一攀瘀攀爀琀栀攀氀攀猀猀Ⰰ they have an effect of some sort on the isothermal਀氀椀渀攀猀 愀猀 椀猀 猀栀漀眀渀 渀漀琀 漀渀氀礀 戀礀 氀愀琀椀琀甀搀椀渀愀氀 挀漀洀瀀愀爀椀猀漀渀 with the state of things in Hellas, but with that in਀吀栀愀甀洀愀猀椀愀 愀猀 眀攀氀氀⸀ 䘀漀爀 ㌀ 뀀 猀漀甀琀栀 椀猀 愀氀猀漀 琀栀攀 氀椀洀椀琀 愀瀀瀀愀爀攀渀琀氀礀 of the white on Thaumasia, where ochre desert਀猀琀爀攀琀挀栀攀猀 琀攀渀 搀攀最爀攀攀猀 昀愀爀琀栀攀爀 猀漀甀琀栀 猀琀椀氀氀㬀 琀栀攀 爀攀最椀漀渀 椀渀 its southern part being white-mantled, in its northern਀瀀愀爀琀 渀漀琀⸀ 䠀攀爀攀 愀最愀椀渀Ⰰ 琀栀攀渀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 漀挀栀爀攀 愀爀攀愀猀 洀愀欀攀 exception to what affects the blue-green ones. Clearly਀琀栀攀 戀氀甀攀ⴀ最爀攀攀渀 爀攀最椀漀渀猀 琀攀洀瀀攀爀 琀栀攀 愀挀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 眀栀愀琀 最椀瘀攀猀 them wintry cloak. But why they should do this is਀渀漀琀 攀愀猀礀 琀漀 攀砀瀀氀愀椀渀 漀渀 愀渀礀 猀甀瀀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀 琀攀爀爀攀猀琀爀椀愀氀 漀爀 marine. Bodies of water tend to foster the formation਀漀昀 挀氀漀甀搀猀㬀 猀漀Ⰰ 氀攀猀猀 洀愀爀欀攀搀氀礀Ⰰ 搀漀 愀爀攀愀猀 漀昀 瘀攀最攀琀愀琀椀漀渀⸀ Neither the old ideas, then, nor the new lend themselves਀椀渀 攀砀瀀氀愀渀愀琀椀漀渀⸀ 䤀琀 洀愀礀 戀攀 琀栀愀琀 眀栀椀氀攀 眀攀 栀攀爀攀 猀攀攀洀 to be envisaging cloud we are in reality looking at hoar-frost.਀伀渀 琀栀攀 漀琀栀攀爀 栀愀渀搀Ⰰ 氀椀最栀琀 挀氀漀甀搀 眀漀甀氀搀 猀栀漀眀 氀攀猀猀Ⰰ superposed over a dark background, than over an ochre਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㤀㌀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㤀㌀✀㸀㤀㌀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 one; and this, the simplest of all explanations, may be਀琀栀攀 琀爀甀攀 漀渀攀⸀ 䤀琀 椀猀 昀愀挀琀猀 氀椀欀攀 琀栀攀猀攀 琀栀愀琀 椀渀琀爀椀最甀攀 甀猀 椀渀 the study of the Martian surface by revealing conditions਀眀栀椀挀栀 爀攀渀搀攀爀 漀昀昀栀愀渀搀 愀渀愀氀漀最礀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 攀愀爀琀栀 甀渀猀愀昀攀⸀ Indeed, we are more sure of some things which appear਀琀漀漀 猀琀爀愀渀最攀 琀漀 戀攀 琀爀甀攀 琀栀愀渀 漀昀 漀琀栀攀爀猀 猀漀 猀椀洀瀀氀攀 漀渀 琀栀攀椀爀 face as to enlist belief. Among the most difficult਀愀渀搀 瀀攀爀瀀氀攀砀椀渀最 愀爀攀 洀攀琀攀漀爀漀氀漀最椀挀愀氀 瀀爀漀戀氀攀洀猀 氀椀欀攀 琀栀攀 above. Here we can only say provisionally that while਀挀氀漀甀搀 戀攀猀琀 愀渀猀眀攀爀猀 琀漀 琀栀攀 愀瀀瀀攀愀爀愀渀挀攀Ⰰ 昀爀漀猀琀 戀攀猀琀 昀椀琀猀 琀栀攀 cause. For vegetation might melt frost, yet not dissipate਀挀氀漀甀搀⸀ 䈀礀 爀愀椀猀椀渀最 漀甀爀 挀漀渀挀攀瀀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 洀攀愀渀 temperature the facts can, however, be reconciled and਀琀栀椀猀 椀猀 瀀爀漀戀愀戀氀礀 琀栀攀 猀漀氀甀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 搀椀昀昀椀挀甀氀琀礀 愀昀琀攀爀 愀氀氀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䄀猀 眀攀 猀愀眀 椀渀 琀栀攀 愀渀渀甀愀氀 栀椀猀琀漀爀礀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀漀氀愀爀 挀愀瀀猀 愀 dimness somewhat different affects the northern cap in਀䴀愀礀 愀渀搀 䨀甀渀攀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 䰀攀漀 琀栀爀漀甀最栀 嘀椀爀最漀崀⸀ 䄀昀琀攀爀 琀栀攀 洀攀氀琀椀渀最 漀昀 琀栀攀 挀愀瀀 椀猀 眀攀氀氀 under way a haziness sets in along its edge which befuddles਀椀琀猀 漀甀琀氀椀渀攀 愀渀搀 攀昀昀攀挀琀甀愀氀氀礀 栀椀搀攀猀 眀栀愀琀 椀猀 最漀椀渀最 on within it. When at last the screen clears away the਀挀愀瀀 椀猀 昀漀甀渀搀 琀漀 戀攀 爀攀搀甀挀攀搀 琀漀 椀琀猀 氀攀愀猀琀 搀椀洀攀渀猀椀漀渀猀⸀ Such obstructing sheet looks to be more of the nature਀漀昀 洀椀猀琀 挀愀甀猀攀搀 戀礀 琀栀攀 攀砀挀攀猀猀椀瘀攀 洀攀氀琀椀渀最 漀昀 琀栀攀 挀愀瀀⸀ Unfortunately, there are here no patches of blue-green਀琀漀 琀攀猀琀 愀 瀀漀猀猀椀戀氀攀 瀀愀爀琀椀愀氀椀琀礀 椀渀 椀琀猀 戀攀栀愀瘀椀漀爀 漀瘀攀爀 猀甀挀栀 tracts; nor has similar action ever yet been remarked਀椀渀 琀栀攀 挀愀猀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 挀愀瀀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀漀甀琀栀攀爀渀 栀攀洀椀猀瀀栀攀爀攀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀 94਀刀攀最甀氀愀爀 爀攀挀甀爀爀攀渀挀攀 愀琀 琀栀攀 愀瀀瀀爀漀瀀爀椀愀琀攀 猀攀愀猀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 planet’s year, together with extensive action at the਀琀椀洀攀Ⰰ 琀愀欀攀猀 琀栀椀猀 猀瀀爀椀渀最琀椀搀攀 洀椀猀琀 琀漀 猀漀洀攀 攀砀琀攀渀琀 漀甀琀 漀昀 the domain of weather into that of climate. For it਀瀀爀攀瘀愀椀氀猀 愀氀氀 爀漀甀渀搀 琀栀攀 挀愀瀀 愀渀搀 爀攀瀀攀愀琀猀 椀琀猀攀氀昀 椀渀 瀀氀愀挀攀 as each fresh spring comes on. At least it has done so਀昀漀爀 琀栀攀 瀀愀猀琀 琀栀爀攀攀 漀瀀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀猀 愀琀 眀栀椀挀栀 椀琀 栀愀猀 戀攀攀渀 瀀漀猀猀椀戀氀攀 to observe well the arctic zones. It is thus both਀最攀渀攀爀愀氀 椀渀 椀琀猀 愀瀀瀀氀椀挀愀琀椀漀渀 愀渀搀 昀椀砀攀搀 椀渀 椀琀猀 戀攀栀愀瘀椀漀爀⸀ Nevertheless, it betrays something of the fickleness਀眀栀椀挀栀 挀栀愀爀愀挀琀攀爀椀稀攀猀 琀栀愀琀 洀漀爀攀 椀渀挀漀渀猀琀愀渀琀 琀栀椀渀最㨀 weather. For it comes and goes, one thinks for good,਀漀渀氀礀 琀漀 昀椀渀搀 椀琀 琀栀攀爀攀 愀最愀椀渀 猀漀洀攀 搀愀礀猀 氀愀琀攀爀⸀ 一漀琀 氀攀猀猀 captious is the meteorologic action shown in the making਀漀昀 琀栀攀 渀攀眀 瀀漀氀愀爀 挀愀瀀⸀ 圀栀攀渀 琀栀攀 渀漀爀琀栀攀爀渀 漀渀攀 猀琀愀爀琀猀 to form, vast areas of frost are deposited in a single਀渀椀最栀琀⸀ 吀栀攀猀攀Ⰰ 栀漀眀攀瘀攀爀Ⰰ 愀爀攀 渀漀琀 瀀攀爀洀愀渀攀渀琀⸀ 吀栀攀 ground thus covered is during the next few days again਀瀀愀爀琀椀愀氀氀礀 氀愀椀搀 戀愀爀攀⸀ 吀栀攀渀 愀 渀攀眀 昀愀氀氀 漀挀挀甀爀猀Ⰰ 栀椀搀椀渀最 琀栀攀 surface a little more completely than before, and the਀氀漀猀琀 搀漀洀愀椀渀 椀猀 洀漀爀攀 琀栀愀渀 爀攀最愀椀渀攀搀⸀ 䈀礀 猀甀挀栀 眀愀瘀攀氀椀欀攀 advance and recession the tide of frost creeps over਀愀渀搀 猀甀戀洀攀爀最攀猀 琀栀攀 愀爀挀琀椀挀 爀攀最椀漀渀猀 愀猀 琀栀攀 氀愀琀攀 猀甀洀洀攀爀 passes into the autumn. In this alternate coming and਀最漀椀渀最 眀椀琀栀 猀甀挀挀攀攀搀椀渀最 搀愀礀猀Ⰰ 眀攀 栀愀瘀攀 愀渀 甀渀猀琀攀愀搀昀愀猀琀渀攀猀猀 of action most fittingly paralleled by our own਀眀攀愀琀栀攀爀⸀ 䤀琀 眀漀甀氀搀 猀攀攀洀 琀栀愀琀 氀漀挀愀氀 挀愀甀猀攀猀 琀栀攀爀攀 愀猀 栀攀爀攀 95਀愀爀攀 猀甀瀀攀爀瀀漀猀攀搀 甀瀀漀渀 琀栀攀 漀爀搀攀爀氀礀 瀀爀漀最爀攀猀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀攀愀猀漀渀猀 and though at the on-coming of the autumn the਀挀漀氀搀 椀猀 猀琀攀愀搀椀氀礀 最愀琀栀攀爀椀渀最 猀琀爀攀渀最琀栀Ⰰ 渀攀瘀攀爀琀栀攀氀攀猀猀 眀愀爀洀 days occur now and then to stay its hand, only to be਀猀甀挀挀攀攀搀攀搀 椀渀 琀栀攀椀爀 琀甀爀渀 戀礀 昀爀漀猀琀猀 洀漀爀攀 戀椀琀椀渀最 琀栀愀渀 戀攀昀漀爀攀⸀ Even on Mars nothing in the way of weather਀椀猀 愀戀猀漀氀甀琀攀氀礀 瀀爀攀搀椀挀愀戀氀攀 戀甀琀 椀洀瀀爀攀搀椀挀愀戀椀氀椀琀礀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀栀愀瀀琀攀爀✀㸀 ਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㤀㘀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㤀㘀✀㸀㤀㘀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀

CHAPTER IX

MOUNTAINS AND CLOUD

਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀搀爀漀瀀ⴀ挀愀瀀愀 开㈀开 开㤀 挀 ㄀㔀✀     㸀䤀渀 愀氀氀 眀愀礀猀 戀甀琀 漀渀攀 漀甀爀 猀挀爀甀琀椀渀礀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀 椀猀 confined to such view as we might get of it from਀琀栀攀 挀愀爀 漀昀 愀 戀愀氀氀漀漀渀 瀀漀椀猀攀搀 愀戀漀瘀攀 椀琀 椀渀 猀瀀愀挀攀㬀 昀爀漀洀 which disadvantage-point we should see the surface਀漀渀氀礀 愀猀 愀 洀愀瀀 猀瀀爀攀愀搀 漀甀琀 戀攀氀漀眀 甀猀Ⰰ 愀 洀愀琀琀攀爀 漀昀 戀甀琀 two dimensions. The exception consists in the observation਀漀昀 眀栀愀琀 愀爀攀 挀愀氀氀攀搀 瀀爀漀樀攀挀琀椀漀渀猀㬀 椀爀爀攀最甀氀愀爀椀琀椀攀猀 visible when the disk is gibbous upon that edge of the਀瀀氀愀渀攀琀 眀栀攀爀攀 琀栀攀 氀椀最栀琀 昀愀搀攀猀 漀昀昀⸀ 匀琀爀椀欀椀渀最 瀀栀攀渀漀洀攀渀愀 in themselves they are of particular value for what may਀戀攀 搀攀搀甀挀攀搀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀洀⸀ 䘀漀爀 戀礀 琀栀攀洀 眀攀 愀爀攀 愀昀昀漀爀搀攀搀 our only opportunity of gaining knowledge of the surface਀漀琀栀攀爀 琀栀愀渀 椀渀 瀀氀愀渀 愀渀搀 琀栀甀猀 漀昀 搀攀琀攀爀洀椀渀椀渀最 戀攀琀眀攀攀渀 peak, plateau, or plain that to a bird’s-eye view਀愀氀椀欀攀 氀椀攀 昀氀愀琀琀攀渀攀搀 漀甀琀 琀漀 漀渀攀 搀攀愀搀 氀攀瘀攀氀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䤀琀 洀椀最栀琀 愀琀 昀椀爀猀琀 戀攀 琀栀漀甀最栀琀 琀栀愀琀 漀甀爀 戀攀猀琀 挀栀愀渀挀攀 漀昀 noting any elevations or depressions of the Martian਀猀甀爀昀愀挀攀 氀愀礀 椀渀 挀愀琀挀栀椀渀最 琀栀愀琀 猀甀爀昀愀挀攀 椀渀 瀀爀漀昀椀氀攀Ⰰ 戀礀 猀挀愀渀渀椀渀最 the bright edge of it which stands sharp-cut਀愀最愀椀渀猀琀 琀栀攀 猀欀礀 愀渀搀 椀猀 挀愀氀氀攀搀 琀栀攀 氀椀洀戀⸀ 䘀漀爀 琀栀椀猀 椀猀 practically what we do on earth when we mark a਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㤀㜀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㤀㜀✀㸀㤀㜀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 mountain against the horizon and measure its height਀戀礀 琀爀椀愀渀最甀氀愀琀椀漀渀⸀ 唀渀昀漀爀琀甀渀愀琀攀氀礀 琀栀攀 洀攀琀栀漀搀 昀愀椀氀猀 椀渀 the case of Mars because of the great distance we are਀愀眀愀礀⸀ 唀渀氀攀猀猀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀 眀攀爀攀 搀椀猀琀椀渀挀琀氀礀 洀漀爀攀 最攀渀攀爀漀甀猀氀礀 equipped than the earth in the matter of਀洀漀甀渀琀愀椀渀猀Ⰰ 渀漀琀栀椀渀最 挀漀甀氀搀 戀攀 栀漀瀀攀搀 昀爀漀洀 猀漀 昀漀爀琀栀爀椀最栀琀 an envisaging. So relatively insignificant to the size਀漀昀 椀琀猀 最氀漀戀攀 椀猀 琀栀攀 爀攀氀椀攀昀 漀昀 琀栀攀 攀愀爀琀栀ᤀ猠 猀甀爀昀愀挀攀 琀栀愀琀 愀渀 orange skin would seem grossly rough by comparison.਀吀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 瀀爀漀瘀攀猀 琀爀甀攀 昀漀爀 䴀愀爀猀⸀ 圀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 最爀攀愀琀攀猀琀 magnification we can produce, the Martian limb still਀愀瀀瀀攀愀爀猀 瀀攀爀昀攀挀琀氀礀 猀洀漀漀琀栀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䰀甀挀欀椀氀礀Ⰰ 眀栀椀氀攀 搀椀爀攀挀琀 瘀椀猀椀漀渀 椀猀 琀栀甀猀 椀洀瀀漀猀猀椀戀氀攀Ⰰ 漀戀氀椀焀甀攀 illumination enables us to get an insight into the਀挀栀愀爀愀挀琀攀爀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀甀爀昀愀挀攀 眀攀 栀愀搀 漀琀栀攀爀眀椀猀攀 戀攀攀渀 denied. When mountains or valleys chance to lie਀甀瀀漀渀 琀栀攀 戀漀甀渀搀愀爀礀 漀昀 氀椀最栀琀 愀渀搀 搀愀爀欀渀攀猀猀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 爀椀洀 漀昀 the disk known as the terminator in contradistinction਀琀漀 琀栀攀 氀椀洀戀 眀栀攀爀攀 琀栀攀 猀甀爀昀愀挀攀 椀琀猀攀氀昀 挀漀洀攀猀 琀漀 愀渀 攀渀搀Ⰰ they make their presence evident through an indirect਀猀瀀攀挀椀攀猀 漀昀 洀愀最渀椀昀椀挀愀琀椀漀渀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 攀氀漀渀最愀琀攀 攀昀昀攀挀琀 漀昀 漀戀氀椀焀甀攀 lighting. With a practical instance of it every one਀椀猀 昀愀洀椀氀椀愀爀 眀栀漀 栀愀猀 眀愀氀欀攀搀 戀礀 渀椀最栀琀 愀氀漀渀最 愀 爀漀愀搀 椀洀瀀攀爀昀攀挀琀氀礀 starred at intervals by electric lights. Startled਀戀攀琀眀攀攀渀 瀀漀猀琀猀 戀礀 眀栀愀琀 猀攀攀洀攀搀 搀攀攀瀀 栀漀氀攀猀 愀渀搀 栀椀最栀 furrows he has involuntarily imitated a spavined horse਀昀漀爀 昀攀愀爀 漀昀 猀琀甀戀戀椀渀最 栀椀猀 琀漀攀猀Ⰰ 漀渀氀礀 琀漀 攀渀挀漀甀渀琀攀爀 眀栀攀渀 98਀栀椀猀 昀漀漀琀 昀攀氀氀 愀 猀甀爀昀愀挀攀 漀渀 挀漀渀琀愀挀琀 猀甀爀瀀爀椀猀椀渀最氀礀 猀洀漀漀琀栀⸀ The slant illumination by lengthening the shadows਀栀愀搀 瀀愀椀渀昀甀氀氀礀 搀攀挀攀椀瘀攀搀 栀椀洀 椀渀琀漀 攀砀愀最最攀爀愀琀攀搀 椀渀昀攀爀攀渀挀攀 of irregularity. What proves disturbing to a wayfarer਀洀椀猀最甀椀搀攀搀 戀礀 愀爀挀 氀椀最栀琀猀 椀猀 洀愀搀攀 琀漀 搀漀 琀栀攀 eye service when it comes to planetary interpretation.਀伀渀 琀栀攀 戀漀甀渀搀愀爀礀 漀昀 氀椀最栀琀 愀渀搀 猀栀愀搀攀Ⰰ 琀栀漀猀攀 parts of the surface where it is sunrise or sunset਀甀瀀漀渀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 猀甀渀ᤀ猠 爀愀礀猀 昀愀氀氀 猀漀 愀琀栀眀愀爀琀眀椀猀攀 as to throw enormous shadows from quite small elevations਀琀漀 愀渀 攀礀攀 猀漀 瀀氀愀挀攀搀 愀猀 琀漀 瘀椀攀眀 琀栀攀 猀甀爀昀愀挀攀 眀椀琀栀 anything approaching perpendicularity. A mountain਀洀愀猀猀 琀栀攀爀攀 眀椀氀氀 琀栀甀猀 瀀爀漀挀氀愀椀洀 椀琀猀攀氀昀 戀礀 瀀爀漀琀爀愀挀琀攀搀 瀀爀漀昀椀氀攀 upon the plain in hundredfold magnification. Similarly਀愀 瀀攀愀欀 琀栀攀爀攀 眀椀氀氀 愀搀瘀攀爀琀椀猀攀 椀琀猀 栀攀椀最栀琀 戀礀 挀愀琀挀栀椀渀最 the coming or holding the lingering light at many times਀琀栀攀 搀椀猀琀愀渀挀攀 漀昀 椀琀猀 漀眀渀 攀氀攀瘀愀琀椀漀渀 愀眀愀礀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 渀椀最栀琀 side of the planet. Here, if anywhere, then, could਀洀漀甀渀琀愀椀渀猀 戀攀 攀砀瀀攀挀琀攀搀 琀漀 搀椀猀挀氀漀猀攀 琀栀攀洀猀攀氀瘀攀猀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 here, when existent, they have as a matter of fact਀戀攀攀渀 昀漀甀渀搀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀伀甀爀 漀眀渀 洀漀漀渀 漀昀昀攀爀猀 甀猀 琀栀攀 昀椀爀猀琀 愀渀搀 攀愀猀椀攀猀琀 攀砀愀洀瀀氀攀 of such vicariously visible relief. When the moon is਀渀攀愀爀 琀栀攀 焀甀愀爀琀攀爀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 昀漀爀 琀栀爀攀攀 漀爀 昀漀甀爀 搀愀礀猀 漀渀 攀椀琀栀攀爀 side of that, a keen eye can usually detect one or more਀欀渀漀戀猀Ⰰ 氀椀欀攀 眀愀爀琀猀Ⰰ 瀀爀漀樀攀挀琀椀渀最 昀爀漀洀 椀琀猀 琀攀爀洀椀渀愀琀漀爀Ⰰ easily distinguished from the limb both by reason of਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㤀㤀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㤀㤀✀㸀㤀㤀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 being less bright and of being bounded by a semi-ellipse਀椀渀猀琀攀愀搀 漀昀 愀 猀攀洀椀挀椀爀挀氀攀⸀ 䤀昀 愀 琀攀氀攀猀挀漀瀀攀 漀爀 攀瘀攀渀 愀渀 漀瀀攀爀愀ⴀ最氀愀猀猀 be substituted for the eye, it is possible to see਀眀栀愀琀 挀愀甀猀攀猀 琀栀攀洀㬀 琀栀攀 欀渀漀戀 爀攀猀漀氀瘀攀猀 椀琀猀攀氀昀 椀渀琀漀 琀栀攀 illuminated rim of a crater separated from the main਀戀漀搀礀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瘀椀猀椀戀氀攀 洀漀漀渀 戀礀 琀栀攀 猀攀攀洀椀渀最氀礀 戀氀愀挀欀 瘀漀椀搀 漀昀 space. The peak has caught the sunlight, while its਀昀漀漀琀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 挀漀甀渀琀爀礀 戀攀琀眀攀攀渀 椀琀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 椀氀氀甀洀椀渀愀琀攀搀 surface still lies shrouded in shadow.

From measurement of the distance the sun-tipped਀瀀攀愀欀 猀攀攀洀猀 琀漀 猀琀愀渀搀 愀氀漀漀昀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 氀椀渀攀 眀栀攀爀攀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀椀渀 itself is touched by the light, the height of it above that਀瀀氀愀椀渀 洀愀礀 戀攀 挀愀氀挀甀氀愀琀攀搀⸀ 䤀渀 琀栀椀猀 眀愀礀 栀愀瘀攀 戀攀攀渀 昀漀甀渀搀 the heights of the mountains of the moon. Incidentally,਀戀爀愀椀渀 漀甀琀猀琀爀椀瀀猀 戀爀愀眀渀⸀ 䘀漀爀 瀀椀渀渀愀挀氀攀猀 渀漀 䰀甀渀愀爀椀愀渀 could scale, both for their precipitous inaccessibility਀愀渀搀 琀栀攀椀爀 氀漀昀琀椀渀攀猀猀Ⰰ 洀愀渀 栀愀猀 洀攀愀猀甀爀攀搀 眀椀琀栀漀甀琀 猀漀 much as setting foot upon their globe. At each lunar਀猀甀渀爀椀猀攀 愀渀搀 愀最愀椀渀 愀琀 氀甀渀愀爀 猀甀渀猀攀琀 琀栀攀猀攀 漀氀搀 挀爀愀琀攀爀 眀愀氀氀猀 show their crescent coronets tipped the reverse way;਀愀渀搀 瀀攀愀欀猀 栀椀最栀攀爀 琀栀愀渀 琀栀攀 䠀椀洀愀氀愀礀愀猀 洀愀欀攀 最椀最愀渀琀椀挀 gnomons of themselves with hands outstretched to grasp਀琀栀攀 瀀氀愀椀渀猀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䤀渀 琀栀椀猀 洀愀渀渀攀爀 愀 氀甀渀愀爀 瀀攀愀欀 漀昀 昀椀昀琀攀攀渀 琀栀漀甀猀愀渀搀 昀攀攀琀 shows its presence to the unaided eye. With so much਀昀漀爀 猀琀愀爀琀椀渀最ⴀ瀀漀椀渀琀 眀攀 挀愀渀 挀愀氀挀甀氀愀琀攀 栀漀眀 氀漀眀 愀渀 攀氀攀瘀愀琀椀漀渀 could similarly be made out on Mars under a like਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀  ✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀  ✀㸀㄀  㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 phase illumination. Now, in spheres of different diameters਀琀栀攀 搀椀猀琀愀渀挀攀 漀甀琀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 琀攀爀洀椀渀愀琀漀爀 昀漀爀 愀 最椀瘀攀渀 height is as the square root of the diameter. Mars has਀愀戀漀甀琀 琀眀椀挀攀 琀栀攀 猀椀稀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 䴀漀漀渀⸀ 䤀渀 挀漀渀猀攀焀甀攀渀挀攀Ⰰ 椀昀 we saw the planet at the same distance off as the Moon,਀琀栀攀 栀攀椀最栀琀 漀昀 愀 瀀攀愀欀 甀瀀漀渀 椀琀 猀甀昀昀椀挀椀攀渀琀 琀漀 挀愀猀琀 愀渀 攀焀甀愀氀 shadow or be seen at an equal separation from the਀琀攀爀洀椀渀愀琀漀爀 渀攀攀搀 戀攀 戀甀琀 琀眀漀 琀栀椀爀搀猀 愀猀 栀椀最栀⸀ 吀漀 猀攀攀 it thus equidistant a power of 250 or 300 is necessary,਀搀攀瀀攀渀搀攀渀琀 漀渀 琀栀攀 漀瀀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀⸀ 吀眀椀挀攀 琀栀椀猀 瀀漀眀攀爀 洀愀礀 at times be used, and by the same reasoning this਀眀漀甀氀搀 爀攀搀甀挀攀 琀栀攀 栀攀椀最栀琀 猀甀昀昀椀挀椀攀渀琀 琀漀 猀栀漀眀 戀礀 昀漀甀爀 or to something like 2500 feet. This, then, would be਀琀栀攀 琀栀攀漀爀攀琀椀挀 氀椀洀椀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瘀椀猀椀戀氀攀Ⰰ 愀 氀椀洀椀琀 渀攀攀搀椀渀最 琀漀 be somewhat increased because of the imperfection of਀漀甀爀 愀椀爀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䠀愀瘀椀渀最 昀漀甀渀搀 琀栀甀猀 眀栀愀琀 猀栀漀甀氀搀 戀攀 瘀椀猀椀戀氀攀 漀渀 䴀愀爀猀 we turn now to see what is. At once we find ourselves਀挀漀渀昀爀漀渀琀攀搀 眀椀琀栀 愀 瘀攀爀礀 甀渀氀甀渀愀爀 猀琀愀琀攀 漀昀 琀栀椀渀最猀⸀ 䌀漀洀洀漀渀 upon the face of the Moon, excrescences of the਀琀攀爀洀椀渀愀琀漀爀 愀爀攀 爀愀爀攀 漀渀 䴀愀爀猀⸀ 吀栀攀 昀椀爀猀琀 攀瘀攀爀 猀攀攀渀 眀愀猀 detected by a visitor at the Lick Observatory in 1888 [Darian: 148].਀匀椀渀挀攀 琀栀攀渀 琀栀攀礀 栀愀瘀攀 戀攀攀渀 爀攀瀀攀愀琀攀搀氀礀 渀漀琀椀挀攀搀 戀漀琀栀 愀琀 the Lick and elsewhere. But although observers are਀渀漀眀 漀渀 琀栀攀 眀愀琀挀栀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀洀Ⰰ 琀栀攀礀 愀爀攀 渀漀琀 瘀攀爀礀 昀爀攀焀甀攀渀琀氀礀 chronicled because not of everyday occurrence.਀䴀甀挀栀 搀攀瀀攀渀搀猀 甀瀀漀渀 琀栀攀 漀瀀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀㬀 猀漀洀攀 愀瀀瀀爀漀愀挀栀攀猀 101਀漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀 瀀爀漀瘀椀渀最 洀漀爀攀 瀀爀漀氀椀昀椀挀 漀昀 琀栀攀洀 琀栀愀渀 漀琀栀攀爀猀⸀ How rare they are, however, may be gathered from the਀昀愀挀琀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 氀愀猀琀 琀栀爀攀攀 漀瀀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀猀 栀愀瘀攀 搀椀猀挀氀漀猀攀搀 戀甀琀 one apiece.

An account of the great projection of May 25, 1903 [Darian: 156 Mesha 28],਀眀椀氀氀 最椀瘀攀 愀渀 椀搀攀愀 漀昀 琀栀攀 攀砀琀攀渀琀 愀渀搀 椀渀琀攀爀攀猀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀栀攀渀漀洀攀渀漀渀 and will serve to show to what cause we must਀愀琀琀爀椀戀甀琀攀 愀氀氀 猀甀挀栀 琀栀愀琀 栀愀瘀攀 戀攀攀渀 瘀椀猀椀戀氀攀 漀渀 䴀愀爀猀Ⰰ 昀漀爀 the behavior of this one was typical of the class.

਀㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀椀氀氀甀猀ⴀ㌀  ✀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀攀ⴀ挀愀瀀琀椀漀渀✀㸀倀爀漀樀攀挀琀椀漀渀 漀渀 琀攀爀洀椀渀愀琀漀爀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀
਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䄀戀漀甀琀 栀愀氀昀 瀀愀猀琀 攀椀最栀琀 漀ᤀ挠氀漀挀欀 椀渀 琀栀攀 攀瘀攀渀椀渀最 漀昀 䴀愀礀 26, 1903 [Darian: 156 Taurus 1], Mr. V. M. Slipher, astronomer at Flagstaff,਀猀栀漀爀琀氀礀 愀昀琀攀爀 琀愀欀椀渀最 漀瘀攀爀 琀栀攀 琀攀氀攀猀挀漀瀀攀 琀栀攀渀 搀椀爀攀挀琀攀搀 upon Mars, suddenly noticed a large projection about਀栀愀氀昀眀愀礀 甀瀀 琀栀攀 琀攀爀洀椀渀愀琀漀爀 of the planet. He at once਀猀攀渀琀 眀漀爀搀 漀昀 琀栀攀 昀愀挀琀 愀渀搀 the observatory staff turned਀漀甀琀 琀漀 猀攀攀 椀琀Ⰰ 昀漀爀 愀 瀀爀漀樀攀挀琀椀漀渀 has for workers on Mars਀琀栀攀 氀椀欀攀 椀渀琀攀爀攀猀琀 琀栀愀琀 愀 渀攀眀 comet possesses for astronomers਀最攀渀攀爀愀氀氀礀⸀ 䤀渀 琀栀椀猀 挀愀猀攀 the phenomenon was specially potent in that it was਀琀栀攀 昀椀爀猀琀 琀漀 戀攀 搀攀琀攀挀琀攀搀 琀栀愀琀 礀攀愀爀⸀ 䤀琀猀 猀椀渀最甀氀愀爀椀琀礀 眀愀猀 amply seconded by its size. For it was very large, its਀攀砀琀攀渀琀 戀漀琀栀 椀渀 氀攀渀最琀栀 愀渀搀 栀攀椀最栀琀 戀攀椀渀最 攀砀挀攀猀猀椀瘀攀⸀ When I first saw it, the projection consisted of an਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀ ㈀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀ ㈀✀㸀㄀ ㈀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 oval patch of light, a little to the north of the centre਀漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀栀愀猀攀 攀氀氀椀瀀猀攀 氀礀椀渀最 瀀愀爀愀氀氀攀氀 琀漀 琀栀攀 琀攀爀洀椀渀愀琀漀爀 but parted from it by darkness to the extent of half਀琀栀攀 瀀爀漀樀攀挀琀椀漀渀ᤀ猠 漀眀渀 眀椀搀琀栀⸀ 䤀琀 洀愀搀攀 琀栀甀猀 渀漀琀 猀椀洀瀀氀礀 an excrescence but a detached islet of light. It was਀攀愀猀椀氀礀 猀攀攀渀 戀礀 愀氀氀 琀栀漀猀攀 瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀 愀渀搀 眀愀猀 挀愀爀攀昀甀氀氀礀 studied from that time on by Mr. Slipher and me.਀䈀漀琀栀 漀昀 甀猀 洀愀搀攀 搀爀愀眀椀渀最猀 漀昀 椀琀 愀氀琀攀爀渀愀琀攀氀礀 愀琀 椀渀琀攀爀瘀愀氀猀Ⰰ as well as micrometer measures of its position.

Next to its great size, the most striking feature about਀椀琀 眀愀猀 椀琀猀 挀漀氀漀爀⸀ 吀栀椀猀Ⰰ 椀渀猀琀攀愀搀 漀昀 戀攀椀渀最 眀栀椀琀攀 漀爀 眀栀椀琀椀猀栀Ⰰ was ochre orange, a hue closely assimilated to the tint਀漀昀 琀栀攀 猀甀戀樀愀挀攀渀琀 瀀愀爀琀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 搀椀猀欀Ⰰ 眀栀椀挀栀 眀愀猀 琀栀攀 爀攀最椀漀渀 known as Chryse. This distinctive complexion it kept਀琀栀爀漀甀最栀漀甀琀 琀栀攀 瀀攀爀椀漀搀 漀昀 椀琀猀 愀瀀瀀愀爀椀琀椀漀渀⸀ 䄀琀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 time Baltia, a region to the north of it and synchronously਀瘀椀猀椀戀氀攀 挀氀漀猀攀 甀瀀漀渀 琀栀攀 琀攀爀洀椀渀愀琀漀爀Ⰰ 猀栀漀眀攀搀 眀栀椀琀椀猀栀⸀ The seeing was good enough to disclose the Phison and਀䔀甀瀀栀爀愀琀攀猀 搀漀甀戀氀攀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 瀀漀眀攀爀 愀 洀愀最渀椀昀椀挀愀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 ㌀㄀  and the aperture the full aperture of the 24-inch਀漀戀樀攀挀琀椀瘀攀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䘀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 琀椀洀攀 椀琀 眀愀猀 昀椀爀猀琀 猀攀攀渀 琀栀攀 搀攀琀愀挀栀攀搀 瀀愀琀挀栀 of light crept in toward the disk, the illuminated body਀漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀⸀ 䘀漀甀爀 洀椀渀甀琀攀猀 愀昀琀攀爀 䤀 渀漀琀攀搀 椀琀 琀栀攀 搀愀爀欀 space separating it from the nearest point of the terminator਀栀愀搀 猀攀渀猀椀戀氀礀 氀攀猀猀攀渀攀搀⸀ 匀漀 椀琀 挀漀渀琀椀渀甀攀搀Ⰰ 眀椀琀栀 some fluctuations intrinsic to the atmospheric difficulties਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀ ㌀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀ ㌀✀㸀㄀ ㌀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 of observations generally and to the smallness਀漀昀 琀栀攀 漀戀樀攀挀琀 椀琀猀攀氀昀Ⰰ 琀漀 戀攀挀漀洀攀 最爀愀搀甀愀氀氀礀 氀攀猀猀 愀渀搀 氀攀猀猀 salient. It lasted for about forty minutes from the਀洀漀洀攀渀琀 椀琀 栀愀搀 昀椀爀猀琀 愀瀀瀀攀愀爀攀搀 琀漀 䴀爀⸀ 匀氀椀瀀栀攀爀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀渀 passed from sight to leave the edge of the planet smooth਀愀渀搀 挀漀洀洀漀渀瀀氀愀挀攀 愀最愀椀渀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀吀栀攀 洀攀愀猀甀爀攀猀 洀愀搀攀 漀渀 椀琀 猀栀漀眀攀搀 琀栀愀琀 椀琀 氀愀礀 眀栀攀渀 first seen in longitude 39°.7, latitude 18°.5 north, and਀琀栀愀琀 椀琀猀 栀椀最栀攀猀琀 瀀漀椀渀琀 猀琀漀漀搀 猀攀瘀攀渀琀攀攀渀 洀椀氀攀猀 愀戀漀瘀攀 琀栀攀 surface of the planet. It was three hundred miles਀氀漀渀最⸀ 吀栀攀猀攀 愀爀攀 洀礀 漀眀渀 昀椀最甀爀攀猀Ⰰ 昀爀漀洀 眀栀椀挀栀 䴀爀⸀ Slipher’s do not substantially differ.

The return of the part of the planet where it had been਀猀攀攀渀 眀愀猀 攀愀最攀爀氀礀 愀眀愀椀琀攀搀 琀栀攀 渀椀最栀琀 愀昀琀攀爀 戀礀 戀漀琀栀 observers, to see if it would bring the projection with it.਀䘀漀爀 漀渀氀礀 漀渀挀攀 愀 搀愀礀 椀猀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 爀攀最椀漀渀 漀昀 䴀愀爀猀 猀椀洀椀氀愀爀氀礀 presented. But in order not to miss the projection,਀猀栀漀甀氀搀 椀琀 戀攀 愀栀攀愀搀 漀昀 琀椀洀攀Ⰰ 漀戀猀攀爀瘀愀琀椀漀渀猀 眀攀爀攀 戀攀最甀渀 before it was due. Shortly after they were started,਀琀栀攀爀攀 愀瀀瀀攀愀爀攀搀 栀椀最栀攀爀 甀瀀 琀栀攀 琀攀爀洀椀渀愀琀漀爀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀爀攀昀漀爀攀 farther north than had been the case the night before,਀愀 猀洀愀氀氀 瀀爀漀樀攀挀琀椀漀渀⸀ 䤀琀 眀愀猀 眀椀琀栀 搀椀昀昀椀挀甀氀琀礀 洀愀搀攀 漀甀琀 and its position measured. Without careful watching਀椀琀 洀甀猀琀 栀愀瘀攀 戀攀攀渀 洀椀猀猀攀搀 愀氀琀漀最攀琀栀攀爀⸀ 䄀猀 椀琀 眀愀猀Ⰰ 椀琀 differed in every respect from that of the preceding਀搀愀礀⸀ 䤀琀 眀愀猀 渀漀琀 渀攀愀爀氀礀 猀漀 栀椀最栀Ⰰ 渀漀琀 渀攀愀爀氀礀 猀漀 氀愀爀最攀Ⰰ and lay in a different place on the planet, being now਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀ 㐀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀ 㐀✀㸀㄀ 㐀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 in longitude 31°.7, latitude 25°.5. Either the two,਀琀栀攀爀攀昀漀爀攀Ⰰ 眀攀爀攀 琀漀琀愀氀氀礀 搀椀昀昀攀爀攀渀琀 琀栀椀渀最猀 漀爀 琀栀攀 瀀爀漀樀攀挀琀椀漀渀 had moved in the elapsed interval of time over਀猀攀瘀攀渀 搀攀最爀攀攀猀 漀昀 氀愀琀椀琀甀搀攀 愀渀搀 攀椀最栀琀 搀攀最爀攀攀猀 漀昀 氀漀渀最椀琀甀搀攀Ⰰ a distance of three hundred and ninety miles in twenty-four਀栀漀甀爀猀⸀ 圀栀攀爀攀 琀栀攀 瀀爀攀瘀椀漀甀猀 瀀爀漀樀攀挀琀椀漀渀 栀愀搀 戀攀攀渀 nothing showed. On the following night, May 28 [Darian: 156 Taurus 3], no਀琀爀愀挀攀 漀昀 愀渀礀琀栀椀渀最 甀渀甀猀甀愀氀 挀漀甀氀搀 戀攀 猀攀攀渀 愀渀礀眀栀攀爀攀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀圀攀 愀爀攀 渀漀眀 挀漀渀挀攀爀渀攀搀 琀漀 椀渀焀甀椀爀攀 琀漀 眀栀愀琀 琀栀椀猀 猀攀爀椀攀猀 of appearances could have been due. The first observers਀漀昀 瀀爀漀樀攀挀琀椀漀渀猀 漀渀 䴀愀爀猀 栀愀搀 甀渀栀攀猀椀琀愀琀椀渀最氀礀 愀琀琀爀椀戀甀琀攀搀 them to the same cause that produces projections਀漀渀 琀栀攀 䴀漀漀渀Ⰰ 琀漀 眀椀琀Ⰰ 洀漀甀渀琀愀椀渀猀⸀ 匀甀挀栀 琀栀攀礀 眀攀爀攀 held to be in France and at the Lick. This view, however,਀眀愀猀 椀渀 ㄀㠀㤀㈀ 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀 崀 搀椀猀瀀甀琀攀搀 戀礀 圀⸀ 䠀⸀ 倀椀挀欀攀爀椀渀最 眀栀漀 considered them to be not mountains, but cloud. And਀琀栀椀猀 瘀椀攀眀 眀愀猀 猀琀爀漀渀最氀礀 猀甀瀀瀀漀爀琀攀搀 戀礀 䄀⸀ 䔀⸀ 䐀漀甀最氀愀猀猀 in a discussion of a large number of them observed in਀㄀㠀㤀㐀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㄀崀 愀琀 䘀氀愀最猀琀愀昀昀⸀ 吀栀攀 洀漀甀渀琀愀椀渀 琀栀攀漀爀礀 漀昀 琀栀攀椀爀 generation was finally shown to be untenable and their਀愀猀挀爀椀瀀琀椀漀渀 琀漀 挀氀漀甀搀 挀漀渀挀氀甀猀椀瘀攀氀礀 瀀爀漀瘀攀搀 琀漀 戀攀 琀栀攀 挀漀爀爀攀挀琀 solution by the observations of a remarkable਀漀渀攀 洀愀搀攀 椀渀 䐀攀挀攀洀戀攀爀Ⰰ ㄀㤀   嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㔀 䌀愀瀀爀椀挀漀爀渀甀猀ⴀ䴀愀欀愀爀愀崀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 挀愀爀攀昀甀氀 study to which by the writer they were subjected.਀圀攀 猀栀愀氀氀 渀漀眀 攀砀瀀氀愀椀渀 栀漀眀 琀栀椀猀 眀愀猀 搀漀渀攀 愀渀搀 眀攀 眀椀氀氀 begin by pointing out that the fact that only a single਀猀瀀攀挀椀洀攀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀栀攀渀漀洀攀渀漀渀 眀愀猀 瘀椀猀椀戀氀攀 愀琀 攀愀挀栀 漀昀 琀栀攀 105਀琀栀爀攀攀 漀瀀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀猀 漀昀 ㄀㤀  Ⰰ ㄀㤀 ㌀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 ㄀㤀 㔀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㔀Ⰰ ㄀㔀㘀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 ㄀㔀㜀崀 眀愀猀 椀琀猀攀氀昀 conclusive, rightly viewed, of their non-mountainous਀挀栀愀爀愀挀琀攀爀⸀ 吀栀椀猀 挀漀渀挀氀甀猀椀漀渀 昀漀氀氀漀眀猀 愀琀 漀渀挀攀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 isolateness of the phenomenon. For a mountain cannot਀挀栀愀渀最攀 椀琀猀 瀀氀愀挀攀⸀ 一漀眀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 猀栀椀昀琀 椀渀 琀栀攀 愀猀瀀攀挀琀 瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀攀搀 by the planet’s disk from one night to the next is not਀猀甀昀昀椀挀椀攀渀琀 琀漀 愀氀琀攀爀 瀀攀爀挀攀瀀琀椀戀氀礀 琀栀攀 愀瀀瀀攀愀爀愀渀挀攀 猀栀漀眀渀 by anything upon its edge on the two occasions. If,਀琀栀攀渀Ⰰ 愀 瀀攀愀欀 猀琀漀漀搀 漀甀琀 甀瀀漀渀 椀琀 漀渀攀 攀瘀攀渀椀渀最Ⰰ 琀栀攀 瀀攀愀欀 should again show salient when the region reached the਀猀愀洀攀 瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀 甀瀀漀渀 琀栀攀 猀甀挀挀攀攀搀椀渀最 渀椀最栀琀⸀ 吀栀愀琀 渀漀琀栀椀渀最 then was seen where something had previously਀戀攀攀渀 瘀椀猀椀戀氀攀 瀀爀漀瘀攀搀 琀栀攀 瀀栀攀渀漀洀攀渀漀渀 渀漀琀 琀栀愀琀 漀昀 愀 mountain peak, since what produced the projection਀眀愀猀 挀氀攀愀爀氀礀 渀漀琀 昀椀砀攀搀 椀渀 瀀氀愀挀攀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀爀攀昀漀爀攀 渀漀琀 愀琀琀愀挀栀攀搀 to the soil. Now the only other thing capable of catching਀琀栀攀 氀椀最栀琀 戀攀昀漀爀攀 椀琀 爀攀愀挀栀攀搀 琀栀攀 猀甀爀昀愀挀攀 眀漀甀氀搀 戀攀 something suspended in the air, that is, a cloud. Deduction,਀琀栀攀爀攀昀漀爀攀Ⰰ 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 爀愀爀椀琀礀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀栀攀渀漀洀攀渀漀渀 alone showed that the projections must be clouds.

Their behavior in detail entirely corroborates this਀搀攀搀甀挀琀椀漀渀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀椀爀 椀渀琀攀爀洀椀琀琀攀渀挀攀⸀ 匀甀挀栀 眀愀猀 猀栀漀眀渀 by the action of the projection of December 6, 1900 [Darian: 155 Capricornus 16],਀愀猀 猀攀琀 昀漀爀琀栀 椀渀 愀 瀀愀瀀攀爀 戀攀昀漀爀攀 琀栀攀 䄀洀攀爀椀挀愀渀 倀栀椀氀漀猀漀瀀栀椀挀愀氀 Society and such again by that of the one of May਀㈀㘀Ⰰ ㄀㤀 ㌀ 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㘀 吀愀甀爀甀猀 ㄀崀Ⰰ 愀猀 眀攀 猀栀愀氀氀 渀漀眀 渀漀琀攀⸀ 吀漀 戀攀最椀渀 眀椀琀栀Ⰰ 眀攀 notice that the projection seen on May 26 was not਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀ 㘀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀ 㘀✀㸀㄀ 㘀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 found either in situ or in size on May 27 [Darian: 156 Taurus 2] and had wholly਀瘀愀渀椀猀栀攀搀 漀渀 䴀愀礀 ㈀㠀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㘀 吀愀甀爀甀猀 ㌀崀Ⰰ 琀栀漀甀最栀 琀栀攀 猀攀攀椀渀最 眀愀猀 猀甀戀猀琀愀渀琀椀愀氀氀礀 the same if not better on the two nights succeeding਀琀栀愀琀 漀昀 椀琀猀 漀爀椀最椀渀愀氀 搀攀琀攀挀琀椀漀渀⸀ 䠀攀渀挀攀 椀渀 椀琀猀 漀眀渀 instance this projection proved an alibi irreconcilable਀眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 挀栀愀爀愀挀琀攀爀 漀昀 愀 洀漀甀渀琀愀椀渀 洀愀猀猀⸀ 䈀甀琀 椀琀 搀椀搀 more. It not only was not on the second evening਀眀栀愀琀 愀渀搀 眀栀攀爀攀 椀琀 栀愀搀 戀攀攀渀 漀渀 琀栀攀 昀椀爀猀琀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 琀栀攀 爀攀洀愀椀渀猀 of it visible on the second occasion showed clearly that਀椀琀 栀愀搀 洀漀瘀攀搀 椀渀 琀栀攀 洀攀愀渀琀椀洀攀⸀ 䘀甀爀琀栀攀爀洀漀爀攀 椀琀 眀愀猀 disappearing as it went, for it was very much smaller਀愀昀琀攀爀 琀栀攀 氀愀瀀猀攀 漀昀 琀眀攀渀琀礀ⴀ昀漀甀爀 栀漀甀爀猀⸀ 吀栀攀 猀漀洀攀琀栀椀渀最 that caused it was not only not attached to the soil,਀戀甀琀 眀愀猀 洀漀瘀椀渀最 愀渀搀 搀椀猀猀椀瀀愀琀椀渀最 愀猀 椀琀 洀漀瘀攀搀⸀ 伀渀氀礀 one class of bodies known to us can account for these਀洀攀琀愀洀漀爀瀀栀漀猀攀猀 愀渀搀 琀栀愀琀 椀猀㨀 挀氀漀甀搀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䈀甀琀 眀栀愀琀 欀椀渀搀 漀昀 挀氀漀甀搀 愀爀攀 眀攀 琀漀 挀漀渀挀攀椀瘀攀 椀琀 琀漀 戀攀㼀 Our ordinary vapor clouds are whitish and this would਀戀攀 猀琀椀氀氀 洀漀爀攀 琀栀攀椀爀 挀漀氀漀爀 挀漀甀氀搀 琀栀攀礀 戀攀 氀漀漀欀攀搀 愀琀 昀爀漀洀 above. The Martian cloud was not white but tawny,਀漀昀 琀栀攀 琀椀渀琀 攀砀栀椀戀椀琀攀搀 戀礀 愀 挀氀漀甀搀 漀昀 搀甀猀琀⸀ 一漀爀 挀漀甀氀搀 this color have very well been lent it by its sunrise਀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀Ⰰ 昀漀爀 漀琀栀攀爀 瀀氀愀挀攀猀 攀焀甀愀氀氀礀 猀椀琀甀愀琀攀搀 琀漀 戀攀 琀椀渀最攀搀 by the hues of that time of day, Baltia to wit, showed਀搀椀猀琀椀渀挀琀氀礀 眀栀椀琀攀⸀ 匀漀 琀栀愀琀 眀攀 洀甀猀琀 猀甀瀀瀀漀猀攀 椀琀 琀漀 戀攀 what it looked, a something of the soil, not beholden਀琀漀 愀琀洀漀猀瀀栀攀爀椀挀 琀椀渀琀椀渀最 昀漀爀 椀琀猀 栀甀攀㬀 愀 瘀愀猀琀 搀甀猀琀ⴀ挀氀漀甀搀 107਀琀爀愀瘀攀氀椀渀最 猀氀漀眀氀礀 漀瘀攀爀 琀栀攀 搀攀猀攀爀琀 愀渀搀 猀攀琀琀氀椀渀最 猀氀漀眀氀礀 again to the ground.

Precisely the same general course of drifting disappearance਀眀愀猀 琀愀欀攀渀 戀礀 琀栀攀 瀀爀漀樀攀挀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 䐀攀挀攀洀戀攀爀 㜀 and 8, 1900 [Darian: 155 Capricornus 17 and 18]. And this, too, stood an unique apparition਀椀渀 琀栀攀 愀渀渀愀氀猀 漀昀 椀琀猀 漀瀀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀⸀ 䌀氀漀甀搀猀Ⰰ 琀栀攀渀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 not mountains are the explanation of the projections਀漀渀 䴀愀爀猀Ⰰ 搀椀昀昀攀爀椀渀最 琀栀甀猀 挀漀洀瀀氀攀琀攀氀礀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 氀甀渀愀爀 漀渀攀猀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀栀愀瀀琀攀爀✀㸀 ਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀ 㠀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀ 㠀✀㸀㄀ 㠀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀

CHAPTER X

THE BLUE-GREEN AREAS

਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀搀爀漀瀀ⴀ挀愀瀀愀 开㈀开 开㜀 挀 ㄀㔀✀     㸀䐀攀猀挀攀渀搀椀渀最 渀漀眀 攀焀甀愀琀漀爀眀愀爀搀猀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 瀀漀氀愀爀 regions, and their in part paleocrystic, in part਀瀀攀爀椀漀搀椀挀Ⰰ 挀漀愀琀椀渀最 漀昀 椀挀攀Ⰰ 眀攀 挀漀洀攀 漀甀琀 甀瀀漀渀 琀栀攀 最攀渀攀爀愀氀 uncovered expanse of the planet which in winter comprises਀爀攀氀愀琀椀瘀攀氀礀 氀攀猀猀 猀甀爀昀愀挀攀 琀栀愀渀 漀渀 䔀愀爀琀栀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 椀渀 猀甀洀洀攀爀 relatively more. Forty degrees and eighty-six਀搀攀最爀攀攀猀 洀愀礀 戀攀 琀愀欀攀渀 愀猀 琀栀攀 洀攀愀渀 栀椀攀洀愀氀 愀渀搀 猀琀椀瘀愀氀 limits respectively of the snow on Mars; forty-five਀愀渀搀 猀攀瘀攀渀琀礀ⴀ昀椀瘀攀 愀猀 琀栀漀猀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 䔀愀爀琀栀⸀ 圀栀愀琀攀瘀攀爀 ground is thus bared of superficial covering on Mars lies਀昀甀氀氀礀 攀砀瀀漀猀攀搀 琀漀 瘀椀攀眀Ⰰ 琀栀愀渀欀猀 琀漀 琀栀攀 愀戀猀攀渀挀攀 漀昀 漀戀猀挀甀爀椀渀最 cloud; and it is at once evident that the terrane਀椀猀 搀椀瘀攀爀猀椀昀椀攀搀Ⰰ 瀀愀琀挀栀攀猀 漀昀 戀氀甀攀ⴀ最爀攀攀渀 愀氀琀攀爀渀愀琀椀渀最 眀椀琀栀 stretches of reddish ochre. Of the two opaline tints਀琀栀攀 爀攀搀搀椀猀栀 漀挀栀爀攀 瀀爀攀搀漀洀椀渀愀琀攀猀Ⰰ 昀甀氀氀礀 昀椀瘀攀 攀椀最栀琀栀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 disk being occupied by it.

It was early evident in the study of the surface਀漀昀 䴀愀爀猀 琀栀愀琀 椀琀猀 漀挀栀爀攀椀猀栀 搀椀猀欀 眀愀猀 渀漀琀 猀瀀漀琀氀攀猀猀⸀ Huyghens in 1659 [Darian: 26] saw the Syrtis Major. From this਀昀椀爀猀琀 昀爀甀椀琀 漀昀 愀爀攀漀最爀愀瀀栀礀 搀愀琀攀猀Ⰰ 椀渀搀攀攀搀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 椀渀椀琀椀愀氀 爀攀挀漀最渀椀琀椀漀渀 of the planet’s rotation; for on noting that਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀ 㤀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀ 㤀✀㸀㄀ 㤀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 the marking changed its place, he inferred a turning of਀琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀 甀瀀漀渀 椀琀猀攀氀昀 椀渀 愀戀漀甀琀 琀眀攀渀琀礀ⴀ昀漀甀爀 栀漀甀爀猀⸀ 吀栀椀爀琀攀攀渀 years later he observed and drew it again and this਀琀椀洀攀 椀渀 挀漀洀瀀愀渀礀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 瀀漀氀愀爀 挀愀瀀⸀ 䄀最愀椀渀Ⰰ 愀昀琀攀爀 eleven more years, he depicted it for the third time, and਀渀漀眀 猀漀 挀栀愀渀最攀搀 戀攀挀愀甀猀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 搀椀昀昀攀爀攀渀琀 琀椀氀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀 toward the earth that it may be doubted whether Huyghens਀栀椀洀猀攀氀昀 爀攀挀漀最渀椀稀攀搀 椀琀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀⸀ 䈀甀琀 琀栀愀琀 he drew it correctly a globe of Mars will at once show.

From such small beginning did areography progress਀琀漀 琀栀攀 瀀攀爀挀攀瀀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 瀀攀爀洀愀渀攀渀琀 瀀愀琀挀栀攀猀 漀昀 愀 猀漀洀戀爀攀 栀甀攀 distributed more or less irregularly over the disk. Impressing਀琀栀攀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀攀爀猀 猀椀洀瀀氀礀 愀猀 搀愀爀欀 愀琀 昀椀爀猀琀Ⰰ 琀栀攀礀 氀愀琀攀爀 came to be recognized as possessing color, a blue-green,਀眀栀椀挀栀 挀漀渀琀爀愀猀琀攀搀 戀攀愀甀琀椀昀甀氀氀礀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 爀攀搀搀椀猀栀 漀挀栀爀攀 of the rest of the surface. Cassini, Maraldi, Bianchini,਀䠀攀爀猀挀栀攀氀Ⰰ 匀挀栀爀漀攀琀攀爀Ⰰ 愀氀氀 猀愀眀 洀愀爀欀椀渀最猀 眀栀椀挀栀 琀栀攀礀 爀攀瀀爀漀搀甀挀攀搀⸀ Finally, with Beer and Maedler, came the਀昀椀爀猀琀 愀琀琀攀洀瀀琀 愀琀 愀 挀漀洀瀀氀攀琀攀 最攀漀最爀愀瀀栀礀⸀ 䤀渀 愀渀搀 漀甀琀 through the ochre was traced the blue; commonly in਀氀漀渀最 䴀攀搀椀琀攀爀爀愀渀攀愀渀猀 漀昀 猀栀愀搀攀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 栀攀爀攀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀爀攀 椀渀 isolated Caspians of color. With our modern telescopic਀洀攀愀渀猀 琀栀攀 搀愀爀欀 瀀愀琀挀栀攀猀 愀爀攀 攀愀猀椀氀礀 瘀椀猀椀戀氀攀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 very smallest glass sufficing to disclose them. When਀琀栀甀猀 猀栀漀眀渀 琀栀攀礀 洀甀挀栀 爀攀猀攀洀戀氀攀 椀渀 挀漀渀琀漀甀爀 琀栀攀 搀愀爀欀 patches on the face of the Moon as seen with the naked਀攀礀攀⸀ 一漀眀 琀栀攀猀攀 瀀愀琀挀栀攀猀 眀攀爀攀 攀愀爀氀礀 琀愀欀攀渀 昀漀爀 氀甀渀愀爀 110਀猀攀愀猀 愀渀搀 爀攀挀攀椀瘀攀搀 渀愀洀攀猀 椀渀 欀攀攀瀀椀渀最 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 挀漀渀挀攀瀀琀椀漀渀㬀 as the Sea of Serenity, the Sea of Vapors, and so forth.਀䘀漀氀氀漀眀椀渀最 琀栀攀 爀攀挀漀最渀椀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 愀 氀椀欀攀 愀瀀瀀攀愀爀愀渀挀攀Ⰰ 氀椀欀攀 appellatives were given to the Martian markings; and਀琀栀攀 䴀愀爀攀 匀椀爀攀渀甀洀Ⰰ 漀爀 匀攀愀 漀昀 琀栀攀 匀椀爀攀渀猀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 䴀愀爀攀 䌀椀洀洀攀爀椀甀洀Ⰰ and others sufficiently proclaim what was਀琀栀漀甀最栀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀洀 愀琀 琀栀攀 琀椀洀攀 琀栀攀礀 眀攀爀攀 琀栀甀猀 戀愀瀀琀椀稀攀搀⸀ Indeed, if a general similarity be any warrant for a਀最攀渀攀爀椀挀 渀愀洀攀 琀栀攀礀 眀攀爀攀 渀漀琀 愀琀 琀栀攀 琀椀洀攀 椀氀氀ⴀ琀攀爀洀攀搀⸀ For, common to all three bodies, the Earth, the Moon,਀愀渀搀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀 䴀愀爀猀Ⰰ 椀猀 琀栀攀 昀椀最甀爀愀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀椀爀 猀甀爀昀愀挀攀猀 into light areas and dark. In the Martian disk, as in਀琀栀攀 氀甀渀愀爀 漀渀攀Ⰰ 眀攀 猀攀攀洀 琀漀 戀攀 氀漀漀欀椀渀最 愀琀 愀 挀愀爀琀漀最爀愀瀀栀椀挀 presentation of some strange geography suspended in਀琀栀攀 猀欀礀㬀 琀栀攀 昀椀爀猀琀 最攀渀攀爀椀挀 搀椀昀昀攀爀攀渀挀攀 戀攀琀眀攀攀渀 琀栀攀 琀眀漀 being that the chart is done in chiaroscuro for the Moon,਀椀渀 挀漀氀漀爀 昀漀爀 䴀愀爀猀⸀ 伀渀 洀甀渀搀愀渀攀 洀愀瀀猀Ⰰ 眀攀 欀渀漀眀 琀栀攀 dusky washes for oceans; so on the Moon it was only਀渀愀琀甀爀愀氀 琀漀 挀漀渀猀椀搀攀爀 琀栀攀椀爀 挀漀甀渀琀攀爀瀀愀爀琀猀 愀猀 㰀椀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 氀愀渀最㴀∀氀愀∀ 砀洀氀㨀氀愀渀最㴀∀氀愀∀㸀洀愀爀椀愀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀椀㸀㬀 愀渀搀 on Mars as ‘seas.’ Nor did the blue-green hue of the਀䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 漀渀攀猀 搀攀琀爀愀挀琀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 爀攀猀攀洀戀氀愀渀挀攀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䈀甀琀 椀渀 猀漀洀攀琀栀椀渀最 漀琀栀攀爀 琀栀愀渀 挀漀氀漀爀 琀栀攀猀攀 洀愀爀欀椀渀最猀 愀爀攀 alike. In fact, color could hardly be excuse for considering਀琀栀攀 氀甀渀愀爀 㰀椀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 氀愀渀最㴀∀氀愀∀ 砀洀氀㨀氀愀渀最㴀∀氀愀∀㸀洀愀爀椀愀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀椀㸀 眀栀愀琀 琀栀攀椀爀 渀愀洀攀 椀洀瀀氀椀攀猀Ⰰ 昀漀爀 搀椀猀琀椀渀挀琀椀瘀攀 tint is lacking in them, even to the naked eye.਀䤀琀 眀愀猀 椀渀 昀漀爀洀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 氀椀欀攀渀攀猀猀 氀愀礀⸀ 吀栀攀椀爀 昀椀最甀爀攀猀 were such as our own oceans show; and allowing for਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㄀㄀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㄀㄀✀㸀㄀㄀㄀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 a sisterly contrast amid a sisterly resemblance, the਀氀甀渀愀爀 㰀椀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 氀愀渀最㴀∀氀愀∀ 砀洀氀㨀氀愀渀最㴀∀氀愀∀㸀洀愀爀椀愀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀椀㸀 漀爀 琀栀攀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 猀攀愀猀 洀椀最栀琀 眀攀氀氀 栀愀瘀攀 戀攀攀渀 of similar origin to those with which our schoolboy਀猀琀甀搀礀 漀昀 愀琀氀愀猀攀猀 栀愀搀 洀愀搀攀 甀猀 昀愀洀椀氀椀愀爀⸀ 吀栀甀猀 搀椀搀 猀椀洀椀氀愀爀椀琀礀 in look suggest similarity in origin, and intuitive਀爀攀挀漀最渀椀琀椀漀渀 挀氀漀琀栀攀 椀琀猀 漀戀樀攀挀琀猀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 猀瀀攀挀椀昀椀挀 name.

Considerable assumption, however, underlay the਀瀀氀攀愀猀椀渀最 猀椀洀瀀氀椀挀椀琀礀 漀昀 琀栀攀 挀漀爀爀攀氀愀琀椀漀渀 漀渀 漀琀栀攀爀 最爀漀甀渀搀猀Ⰰ consequent not so much upon any lack of astronomic਀欀渀漀眀氀攀搀最攀 愀猀Ⰰ 挀甀爀椀漀甀猀氀礀Ⰰ 甀瀀漀渀 愀 搀攀愀爀琀栀 漀昀 欀渀漀眀氀攀搀最攀 漀昀 ourselves. We know how other bodies look to us, but we਀椀最渀漀爀攀 栀漀眀 眀攀 氀漀漀欀 琀漀 琀栀攀洀⸀ 䤀琀 椀猀 渀漀琀 猀漀 攀愀猀礀 琀漀 猀攀攀 ourselves as others see us; for a far view may differ from਀愀 渀攀愀爀 漀渀攀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 愀 洀愀琀琀攀爀 漀昀 椀渀挀氀椀渀愀琀椀漀渀 最爀攀愀琀氀礀 愀氀琀攀爀 the result. Owing both to distance and to tilt we਀氀愀挀欀 琀栀愀琀 瀀爀愀挀琀椀挀愀氀 愀挀焀甀愀椀渀琀愀渀挀攀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 愀猀瀀攀挀琀 漀昀 漀甀爀 own oceans viewed from above, necessary to definite਀瀀爀攀搀椀挀愀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀椀爀 愀瀀瀀攀愀爀愀渀挀攀 愀挀爀漀猀猀 椀渀琀攀爀瀀氀愀渀攀琀愀爀礀 space. Our usual idea is that seas show dark, but it is਀愀氀猀漀 焀甀椀琀攀 攀瘀椀搀攀渀琀 琀栀愀琀 甀渀搀攀爀 猀漀洀攀 挀椀爀挀甀洀猀琀愀渀挀攀猀 琀栀攀礀 appear the contrary. It all depends upon the position਀漀昀 琀栀攀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀攀爀 愀渀搀 甀瀀漀渀 琀栀攀 瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 匀甀渀⸀ 吀栀攀椀爀 usual ultramarine may become even as molten brass਀昀爀漀洀 椀渀搀椀爀攀挀琀 爀攀昀氀攀挀琀椀漀渀㬀 眀栀椀氀攀 漀渀 搀椀爀攀挀琀 洀椀爀爀漀爀椀渀最Ⰰ they give back the Sun with such scarce perceptible਀瀀甀爀氀漀椀渀椀渀最 漀昀 猀瀀氀攀渀搀漀爀 愀猀 琀漀 瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀 愀 搀愀稀稀氀椀渀最 猀栀攀攀渀 112਀渀漀琀 琀漀 戀攀 最愀稀攀搀 甀瀀漀渀 眀椀琀栀漀甀琀 爀攀最爀攀琀⸀ 䌀愀渀漀瀀椀攀搀 戀礀 愀 welkin they assume its leaden hue, while at the same਀琀椀洀攀Ⰰ 琀栀攀椀爀 猀栀漀爀攀猀Ⰰ 氀攀猀猀 椀洀瀀爀攀猀猀椀漀渀愀戀氀攀 琀漀 戀漀爀爀漀眀攀搀 氀椀最栀琀椀渀最Ⰰ show several tints darker than themselves. Surfaces਀猀漀 猀攀渀猀椀琀椀瘀攀 琀漀 椀氀氀甀洀椀渀愀琀椀漀渀 栀愀爀搀氀礀 愀搀洀椀琀 漀昀 洀漀爀攀 accusable tint than a chameleon. Nevertheless, we are਀瀀爀漀戀愀戀氀礀 樀甀猀琀椀昀椀攀搀 椀渀 漀甀爀 挀漀渀瘀椀挀琀椀漀渀 琀栀愀琀 瀀攀爀瀀攀渀搀椀挀甀氀愀爀氀礀 visaged, they would on the whole outdo in sombreness਀氀愀渀搀 爀漀甀渀搀 愀戀漀甀琀 琀栀攀洀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 猀漀 戀攀 攀瘀椀搀攀渀琀 愀猀 搀甀猀欀礀 patches against a brighter ground.

One phenomenon we might with some confidence look਀琀漀 猀攀攀 攀砀栀椀戀椀琀攀搀 戀礀 琀栀攀洀 眀攀爀攀 琀栀攀礀 漀挀攀愀渀猀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 琀栀愀琀 椀猀 the reflected image of the Sun visible as a burnished਀最氀愀爀攀 愀琀 愀 挀愀氀挀甀氀愀戀氀攀 瀀漀椀渀琀⸀ 匀瀀攀挀甀氀愀爀 爀攀昀氀攀挀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 sort was early suggested in the case of Mars, and physical਀攀瀀栀攀洀攀爀椀搀攀猀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀 爀攀最椀猀琀攀爀攀搀 昀漀爀 洀愀渀礀 礀攀愀爀猀 the precise spot where the starlike image should be਀猀漀甀最栀琀⸀ 䈀甀琀 椀琀 眀愀猀 渀攀瘀攀爀 猀攀攀渀⸀ 夀攀琀 渀漀琀 琀椀氀氀 琀栀攀 洀愀爀椀渀攀 character of the Martian seas had been otherwise disproved਀眀愀猀 琀栀攀 昀甀琀椀氀攀 焀甀攀猀琀 昀漀爀 椀琀 愀戀愀渀搀漀渀攀搀⸀ 䤀渀搀攀攀搀Ⰰ it was a tacit recognition that our knowledge had advanced਀眀栀攀渀 琀栀椀猀 挀漀氀甀洀渀 椀渀 琀栀攀 攀瀀栀攀洀攀爀椀猀 眀愀猀 愀氀氀漀眀攀搀 to lapse.

On this general marine ascription doubt was first਀挀愀猀琀 椀渀 琀栀攀 挀愀猀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 䴀漀漀渀⸀ 匀漀 猀漀漀渀 愀猀 琀栀攀 琀攀氀攀猀挀漀瀀攀 came to be pointed at our satellite, it was evident that਀琀栀攀 搀愀爀欀攀爀 眀愀猀栀攀猀 眀攀爀攀 渀漀琀 眀愀琀攀爀 猀甀爀昀愀挀攀猀 愀琀 愀氀氀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 113਀瘀攀爀礀 瀀愀氀瀀愀戀氀礀 瀀氀愀椀渀猀⸀ 䰀漀渀最 氀漀眀 爀椀搀最攀猀 漀昀 攀氀攀瘀愀琀椀漀渀 stood out upon them like prairie swells, which grew in਀瘀椀猀椀戀氀攀 爀攀氀椀攀昀 愀挀挀漀爀搀椀渀最 琀漀 琀栀攀 猀氀愀渀琀椀渀最 挀栀愀爀愀挀琀攀爀 漀昀 琀栀攀 illumination. Cracks or rills, too, appeared near their਀攀搀最攀猀 愀渀搀 挀爀愀琀攀爀猀 猀栀漀眀攀搀 椀渀 琀栀攀椀爀 瘀攀爀礀 洀椀搀猀琀⸀ 倀愀琀攀渀琀氀礀 solid they betrayed their constitution not only਀戀礀 搀椀瘀攀爀猀攀 琀漀瀀漀最爀愀瀀栀礀 戀甀琀 戀礀 搀椀瘀攀爀猀椀昀椀攀搀 琀椀渀琀⸀ 䄀氀氀 manner of shades of neutral tone mottled their surface,਀昀爀漀洀 猀攀攀洀椀渀最 瀀漀爀瀀栀礀爀礀 琀漀 挀栀愀氀欀⸀ 䈀攀氀椀攀昀 瀀攀爀昀漀爀挀攀 搀攀瀀愀爀琀攀搀 when the telescope thus pricked the bubble,਀攀瘀愀瀀漀爀愀琀椀渀最 愀猀 琀栀攀 眀愀琀攀爀 椀琀猀攀氀昀 栀愀搀 搀漀渀攀 氀漀渀最 戀攀昀漀爀攀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀匀漀 洀甀挀栀 眀愀猀 欀渀漀眀渀 戀攀昀漀爀攀 琀栀攀 䴀愀爀猀ᤀ†洀愀爀欀椀渀最猀 眀攀爀攀 named. Nevertheless, humanity, true to its instincts,਀瀀爀漀洀瀀琀氀礀 瀀爀漀挀攀攀搀攀搀 琀漀 挀漀洀洀椀琀 愀最愀椀渀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 洀椀猀琀愀欀攀Ⰰ and, cheerfully undeterred by the exposure of its errors਀椀渀 琀栀攀 挀愀猀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 䴀漀漀渀Ⰰ 爀攀瀀攀愀琀攀搀 琀栀攀 挀栀爀椀猀琀攀渀椀渀最 椀渀 琀栀攀 case of Mars. So sure was it of its ground that what਀椀琀 猀愀眀 眀愀猀 渀漀琀 最爀漀甀渀搀Ⰰ 琀栀愀琀 琀栀漀甀最栀 琀栀攀 瀀愀爀琀椀挀甀氀愀爀 愀瀀瀀攀氀氀愀琀椀瘀攀猀 of the several seas were constantly altered,਀爀攀戀愀瀀琀椀猀洀猀Ⰰ 眀栀椀氀攀 挀栀愀渀最椀渀最 琀栀攀 瀀攀爀猀漀渀愀氀Ⰰ 欀攀瀀琀 琀栀攀 最攀渀攀爀椀挀 name. Dawes’ Ocean, for example, later became਀氀ᤀ传挀攀愀渀 一攀眀琀漀渀 愀渀搀 氀愀琀攀爀 猀琀椀氀氀 琀栀攀 䴀愀爀攀 䔀爀礀琀栀爀愀攀甀洀Ⰰ but remained set down as much a sea as before. About਀琀栀椀爀琀攀攀渀 礀攀愀爀猀 愀最漀Ⰰ 栀漀眀攀瘀攀爀Ⰰ 眀栀愀琀 栀愀搀 戀攀昀愀氀氀攀渀 琀栀攀 seas of the Moon, befell those of Mars: the loss of਀琀栀攀椀爀 挀栀愀爀愀挀琀攀爀⸀ 䤀琀 眀愀猀 昀椀爀猀琀 爀攀挀漀最渀椀稀攀搀 琀栀爀漀甀最栀 愀 similar exposure; but the fact was led up to and might਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㄀㐀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㄀㐀✀㸀㄀㄀㐀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 have been realized in consequence of quite a different਀氀椀渀攀 漀昀 攀瘀椀搀攀渀挀攀⸀ 吀栀攀 椀渀椀琀椀愀氀 琀栀椀渀最 琀漀 挀愀猀琀 搀漀甀戀琀 甀瀀漀渀 the seas being what they seemed to be was the detection਀漀昀 挀栀愀渀最攀 椀渀 琀栀攀椀爀 愀猀瀀攀挀琀⸀ 吀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 搀攀琀攀挀琀椀漀渀 眀愀猀 渀漀琀 made much earlier than actually happened shows how਀愀 瀀栀攀渀漀洀攀渀漀渀 洀愀礀 攀氀甀搀攀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀愀琀椀漀渀 椀昀 猀挀爀甀琀椀渀礀 戀攀 not persistent, and its results from time to time not਀挀愀爀攀昀甀氀氀礀 挀漀洀瀀愀爀攀搀⸀ 匀挀栀椀愀瀀愀爀攀氀氀椀 眀愀猀 琀栀攀 漀渀攀 眀栀漀 first noticed variation in the look of the seas, and the਀搀椀猀挀漀瘀攀爀礀 眀愀猀 愀猀 洀甀挀栀 搀甀攀 琀漀 琀栀攀 愀猀猀椀搀甀椀琀礀 眀椀琀栀 眀栀椀挀栀 he followed the planet opposition after opposition as to਀琀栀攀 欀攀攀渀渀攀猀猀 眀椀琀栀 眀栀椀挀栀 栀攀 猀挀愀渀渀攀搀 椀琀⸀ 吀栀攀 渀漀琀椀渀最 漀昀 change in the blue-green areas constituted, in fact, one਀漀昀 琀栀攀 昀椀爀猀琀 昀爀甀椀琀猀 漀昀 猀礀猀琀攀洀愀琀椀挀 猀琀甀搀礀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀⸀ Change in configuration, that is, alteration of area, preceded਀椀渀 爀攀挀漀最渀椀琀椀漀渀 愀氀琀攀爀愀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 琀椀渀琀⸀ 吀栀甀猀 琀栀攀 Syrtis Major showed larger to him in 1879 [Darian: 143] than it had਀椀渀 ㄀㠀㜀㜀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㐀㈀崀⸀ 吀栀椀猀 眀愀猀 渀愀琀甀爀愀氀㬀 搀椀昀昀攀爀攀渀挀攀 漀昀 搀攀最爀攀攀 戀攀椀渀最 a more delicate matter to perceive than its effect upon਀攀砀琀攀渀琀⸀ 䘀爀漀洀 挀栀愀渀最攀 漀昀 愀爀攀愀 栀椀猀 瀀攀爀挀攀瀀琀椀漀渀 眀攀渀琀 漀渀 to change of tone. In his own words, what he noticed਀眀愀猀 琀栀椀猀㨀 㰀挀椀琀攀㸀䴀攀洀漀爀椀愀㰀⼀挀椀琀攀㸀Ⰰ 嘀䤀Ⰰ ㄀㠀㠀㠀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㐀㠀崀Ⰰ ᰀ丠漀 氀攀猀猀 挀攀爀琀愀椀渀 椀猀 椀琀 that, from one opposition to another, one notices in the਀猀攀愀猀Ⰰ 瘀攀爀礀 爀攀洀愀爀欀愀戀氀攀 愀氀琀攀爀愀琀椀漀渀猀 漀昀 琀漀渀攀⸀ 吀栀甀猀 琀栀攀 regions called Mare Cimmerium, Mare Sirenum, and਀匀漀氀椀猀 䰀愀挀甀猀Ⰰ 眀栀椀挀栀 搀甀爀椀渀最 琀栀攀 礀攀愀爀猀 ㄀㠀㜀㜀 琀漀 ㄀㠀㜀㤀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㐀㈀ 琀漀 ㄀㐀㌀崀 挀漀甀氀搀 be numbered among the most sombre on the planet,਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㄀㔀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㄀㔀✀㸀㄀㄀㔀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 during the succeeding oppositions became less and less਀戀氀愀挀欀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 椀渀 ㄀㠀㠀㠀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㐀㠀崀 眀攀爀攀 漀昀 愀 氀椀最栀琀 最爀愀礀 栀愀爀搀氀礀 猀甀昀昀椀挀椀攀渀琀 to render them visible in the oblique position in which਀愀氀氀 琀栀爀攀攀 昀漀甀渀搀 琀栀攀洀猀攀氀瘀攀猀⸀⸀⸀⸀ 伀渀 琀栀攀 漀琀栀攀爀 栀愀渀搀Ⰰ at the very same moment, the Mare Acidalium and the਀䰀愀挀甀猀 䠀礀瀀攀爀戀漀爀攀甀猀 猀栀漀眀攀搀 瘀攀爀礀 搀愀爀欀㬀 琀栀攀 氀愀琀琀攀爀 椀渀搀攀攀搀 appeared nearly black, although seen as tilted as਀琀栀攀 匀礀爀琀椀猀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 攀焀甀愀琀漀爀椀愀氀 戀愀礀猀⸀ 吀栀攀 挀漀渀搀椀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 regions called seas is therefore not constant: so much਀椀猀 甀渀焀甀攀猀琀椀漀渀愀戀氀攀⸀ 倀攀爀栀愀瀀猀 琀栀攀 挀栀愀渀最攀 瀀爀漀搀甀挀攀搀 椀渀 them has to do with the season of the planet’s year.”

Holding as he did the then prevailing view that the਀戀氀甀攀ⴀ最爀攀攀渀 爀攀最椀漀渀猀 眀攀爀攀 戀漀搀椀攀猀 漀昀 眀愀琀攀爀Ⰰ 栀攀 爀攀最愀爀搀攀搀 those of intermediate tint as vast marshes or swamps,਀愀渀搀 栀攀 愀挀挀漀甀渀琀攀搀 昀漀爀 挀栀愀渀最攀 漀昀 栀甀攀 椀渀 琀栀攀洀 愀猀 搀甀攀 琀漀 inundations and occasions of drying up. In consequence਀漀昀 氀漀猀椀渀最 琀栀攀椀爀 眀愀琀攀爀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 猀攀愀猀Ⰰ 栀攀 琀栀漀甀最栀琀Ⰰ had in places become so shallow that the bottom਀猀栀漀眀攀搀 琀栀爀漀甀最栀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀倀氀愀甀猀椀戀氀攀 漀渀 琀栀攀 猀甀爀昀愀挀攀Ⰰ 琀栀椀猀 琀栀攀漀爀礀 戀爀攀愀欀猀 搀漀眀渀 猀漀 soon as it is subjected to quantitative criticism. For਀琀栀攀 洀漀洀攀渀琀 眀攀 琀爀礀 琀漀 琀爀愀挀欀 琀栀攀 眀愀琀攀爀Ⰰ 眀攀 搀攀琀攀挀琀 琀栀攀 inadequacy of the clew. The enormous areas over਀眀栀椀挀栀 琀栀攀 瀀栀攀渀漀洀攀渀漀渀 漀挀挀甀爀猀 渀攀挀攀猀猀椀琀愀琀攀猀 琀栀攀 攀猀琀愀戀氀椀猀栀椀渀最 an alibi for all the lost water that has gone.਀䐀爀礀椀渀最 甀瀀 漀渀 猀甀挀栀 愀 猀挀愀氀攀 眀漀甀氀搀 洀攀愀渀 琀栀攀 爀攀洀漀瘀愀氀 of many feet of liquid over hundreds of thousands of਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㄀㘀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㄀㘀✀㸀㄀㄀㘀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 miles in extent. To produce any such change in appearance਀愀猀 眀攀 眀椀琀渀攀猀猀Ⰰ 攀瘀攀渀 漀渀 琀栀攀 猀甀瀀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀 琀栀愀琀 these seas were none too deep to start with, would involve਀氀漀眀攀爀椀渀最 琀栀攀 氀攀瘀攀氀 漀昀 琀栀攀 眀愀琀攀爀 戀礀 昀爀漀洀 昀椀瘀攀 琀漀 twenty feet throughout two thirds of the whole surface਀漀昀 琀栀攀 猀漀甀琀栀攀爀渀 栀攀洀椀猀瀀栀攀爀攀⸀ 吀栀椀猀 眀漀甀氀搀 氀攀愀瘀攀 愀 heap of waters to be accounted for, bewildering in its਀椀洀洀攀渀猀椀琀礀⸀ 吀栀攀 洀礀爀椀愀搀 琀漀渀猀 漀昀 椀琀 洀甀猀琀 戀攀 搀椀猀瀀漀猀攀搀 漀昀㬀 either by drainage into other regions or by being caught਀甀瀀 椀渀琀漀 琀栀攀 猀欀礀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䤀渀 琀栀椀猀 攀洀攀爀最攀渀挀礀 椀琀 洀椀最栀琀 猀攀攀洀 愀琀 昀椀爀猀琀 愀猀 椀昀 琀栀攀 瀀漀氀愀爀 cap of the opposite hemisphere offered itself as a possible਀爀攀猀攀爀瘀漀椀爀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀 洀漀洀攀渀琀愀爀椀氀礀 猀甀瀀攀爀昀氀甀漀甀猀 昀氀甀椀搀⸀ 䈀甀琀 such hoped-for outlet to the problem is at once closed਀戀礀 琀栀攀 猀椀洀瀀氀攀 昀愀挀琀 琀栀愀琀 眀栀攀渀 琀栀攀 氀椀最栀琀攀渀椀渀最 漀昀 琀栀攀 搀愀爀欀 regions of the southern hemisphere takes place, the਀漀瀀瀀漀猀椀琀攀 瀀漀氀愀爀 挀愀瀀 栀愀猀 愀氀爀攀愀搀礀 愀琀琀愀椀渀攀搀 椀琀猀 洀愀砀椀洀甀洀㬀 in fact, has already begun to melt. It, therefore, absolutely਀爀攀昀甀猀攀猀 琀漀 氀攀渀搀 椀琀猀攀氀昀 琀漀 愀渀礀 猀甀挀栀 猀攀爀瘀椀挀攀⸀ 吀栀椀猀 was not known to Schiaparelli’s time, the observations਀眀栀椀挀栀 栀愀瘀攀 攀猀琀愀戀氀椀猀栀攀搀 椀琀Ⰰ 戀礀 爀攀挀漀爀搀椀渀最 洀漀爀攀 挀漀洀瀀氀攀琀攀氀礀 the history of the cap, having since been made. Indeed,਀椀琀 眀愀猀 渀漀琀 欀渀漀眀渀 攀瘀攀渀 愀琀 琀栀攀 琀椀洀攀 眀栀攀渀 琀栀攀 眀爀椀琀攀爀Ⰰ in 1894 [Darian: 151], showed the impossibility of the transfer on other਀最爀漀甀渀搀猀㬀 琀漀 眀椀琀Ⰰ 漀渀 琀栀攀 昀愀挀琀 漀昀 渀漀 挀漀洀洀攀渀猀甀爀愀琀攀 挀漀渀挀漀洀椀琀愀渀琀 darkening of the surface elsewhere and on the਀洀愀渀椀昀攀猀琀 渀漀渀ⴀ挀漀洀瀀氀椀挀椀琀礀Ⰰ 椀昀 渀漀琀 椀洀瀀漀琀攀渀挀礀Ⰰ 漀昀 琀栀攀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 117਀愀琀洀漀猀瀀栀攀爀攀 椀渀 琀栀攀 瀀爀漀挀攀猀猀⸀ 吀栀攀 琀爀愀渀猀昀攀爀攀渀挀攀 漀昀 the water to other dark patches in the northern hemisphere਀昀愀椀氀猀 漀昀 猀甀昀昀椀挀椀攀渀挀礀 漀昀 攀砀瀀氀愀渀愀琀椀漀渀 戀攀挀愀甀猀攀 漀昀 the limited extent of such areas on that side of the਀最氀漀戀攀㬀 眀栀椀氀攀 琀栀攀 愀椀爀 椀猀 焀甀椀琀攀 愀猀 椀渀挀愀瀀愀戀氀攀 漀昀 挀愀爀爀礀椀渀最 away any such body of liquid, though the whole of it਀眀攀爀攀 愀琀 琀栀攀 猀愀琀甀爀愀琀椀漀渀ⴀ瀀漀椀渀琀Ⰰ 渀漀琀 琀漀 洀攀渀琀椀漀渀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀爀攀 exists no sign of the attempt. The reader will find਀琀栀椀猀 爀攀愀猀漀渀椀渀最 猀攀琀 昀漀爀琀栀 椀渀 㰀挀椀琀攀㸀䴀愀爀猀㰀⼀挀椀琀攀㸀Ⰰ 瀀甀戀氀椀猀栀攀搀 攀氀攀瘀攀渀 years ago. He will now note, from what has been said਀愀戀漀瘀攀 愀戀漀甀琀 琀栀攀 渀漀爀琀栀攀爀渀 瀀漀氀愀爀 挀愀瀀Ⰰ 琀栀愀琀 挀漀渀琀椀渀甀攀搀 observations since have resulted in opening up another਀氀椀渀攀 漀昀 瀀爀漀漀昀 眀栀椀挀栀 栀愀猀 漀渀氀礀 猀琀爀攀渀最琀栀攀渀攀搀 琀栀攀 挀漀渀挀氀甀猀椀漀渀 there reached.

਀㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀椀氀氀甀猀ⴀ㌀  ✀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀攀ⴀ挀愀瀀琀椀漀渀✀㸀䰀椀渀攀猀 椀渀 搀愀爀欀 愀爀攀愀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀
਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀吀栀攀 㰀椀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 氀愀渀最㴀∀昀爀∀ 砀洀氀㨀氀愀渀最㴀∀昀爀∀㸀挀漀甀瀀 搀攀 最爀挀攀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀椀㸀Ⰰ 栀漀眀攀瘀攀爀Ⰰ 琀漀 琀栀攀 漀氀搀 戀攀氀椀攀昀 眀愀猀 given when the surface of the dark areas was found਀琀漀 戀攀 琀爀愀瘀攀爀猀攀搀 戀礀 瀀攀爀洀愀渀攀渀琀 lines by Pickering਀愀渀搀 䐀漀甀最氀愀猀猀⸀ 䌀漀渀琀椀渀甀攀搀 observation showed these਀氀椀渀攀猀 琀漀 戀攀 甀渀挀栀愀渀最攀愀戀氀攀 椀渀 place. Now permanent਀氀椀渀攀猀 挀愀渀渀漀琀 攀砀椀猀琀 漀渀 戀漀搀椀攀猀 of water, and in consequence਀琀栀攀 椀搀攀愀 琀栀愀琀 眀栀愀琀 we looked on there were water surfaces had to be਀愀戀愀渀搀漀渀攀搀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀 118਀吀栀甀猀 眀攀 渀漀眀 欀渀漀眀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 洀愀爀欀椀渀最猀 漀渀 戀漀琀栀 琀栀攀 Moon and Mars which have been called maria are not਀椀渀 爀攀愀氀椀琀礀 猀攀愀猀⸀ 夀攀琀 眀攀 猀栀愀氀氀 搀漀 眀攀氀氀 猀琀椀氀氀 琀漀 欀攀攀瀀 琀栀攀 old-fashioned sonorous names, Mare Erythraeum, Mare਀匀椀爀攀渀甀洀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 琀栀攀椀爀 昀攀氀氀漀眀猀Ⰰ 戀攀挀愀甀猀攀 椀琀 椀猀 椀渀挀漀渀瘀攀渀椀攀渀琀 to change; while, if we please, we may see in their consecrated਀䰀愀琀椀渀 挀漀甀挀栀椀渀最 琀栀攀 昀椀琀 攀洀戀愀氀洀椀渀最 椀渀 愀 搀攀愀搀 language of a conception that itself is dead.

119਀  㰀栀㈀ 椀搀㴀✀挀栀㄀㄀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㘀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀砀氀愀爀最攀✀㸀䌀䠀䄀倀吀䔀刀 堀䤀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀 㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀嘀䔀䜀䔀吀䄀吀䤀伀一㰀⼀栀㈀㸀

Since closer acquaintance takes from the maria਀琀栀攀椀爀 挀栀愀爀愀挀琀攀爀 漀昀 猀攀愀猀Ⰰ 眀攀 愀爀攀 氀攀搀 琀漀 椀渀焀甀椀爀攀 愀最愀椀渀 into their constitution. Now, when we set ourselves਀琀漀 挀漀渀猀椀搀攀爀 琀漀 眀栀愀琀 猀甀挀栀 愀瀀瀀攀愀爀愀渀挀攀猀 挀漀甀氀搀 戀攀 搀甀攀 眀攀 note something besides sea, which forms a large part਀漀昀 漀甀爀 攀愀爀琀栀ᤀ猠 猀甀爀昀愀挀攀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 眀漀甀氀搀 栀愀瘀攀 瘀攀爀礀 洀甀挀栀 what we suppose the latter’s aspect from afar to਀戀攀Ⰰ 渀漀琀 漀渀氀礀 椀渀 琀漀渀攀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 椀渀 琀椀渀琀⸀ 吀栀椀猀 猀漀洀攀琀栀椀渀最 椀猀 vegetation. Seen from a height and mellowed by਀愀琀洀漀猀瀀栀攀爀椀挀 搀椀猀琀愀渀挀攀Ⰰ 最爀攀愀琀 昀漀爀攀猀琀猀 氀漀猀攀 琀栀攀椀爀 最爀攀攀渀 琀漀 become themselves ultramarine.

To dispossess a previous conception is difficult, but਀猀漀 猀漀漀渀 愀猀 眀攀 栀愀瘀攀 瀀甀琀 琀栀攀 椀搀攀愀 漀昀 猀攀愀猀 漀甀琀 漀昀 漀甀爀 栀攀愀搀猀 a vegetal explanation proves to satisfy the phenomena,਀攀瘀攀渀 愀琀 昀椀爀猀琀 最氀愀渀挀攀Ⰰ 戀攀琀琀攀爀 琀栀愀渀 眀愀琀攀爀 猀甀爀昀愀挀攀猀⸀ 䤀渀 their color, blue-green, the dark areas exactly typify਀琀栀攀 搀椀猀琀愀渀琀 氀漀漀欀 漀昀 漀甀爀 漀眀渀 昀漀爀攀猀琀猀㬀 眀栀攀爀攀愀猀 眀攀 愀爀攀 not at all sure that seas would. From color alone we਀愀爀攀 洀漀爀攀 樀甀猀琀椀昀椀攀搀 椀渀 搀攀攀洀椀渀最 琀栀攀洀 瘀攀最攀琀愀氀 琀栀愀渀 洀愀爀椀渀攀⸀ But the moment we go farther into the matter the਀洀漀爀攀 挀攀爀琀愀椀渀 眀攀 戀攀挀漀洀攀 漀昀 戀攀椀渀最 甀瀀漀渀 琀栀攀 爀椀最栀琀 爀漀愀搀⸀ 120਀圀椀琀栀 椀渀挀爀攀愀猀攀搀 搀攀琀攀挀琀椀漀渀 琀栀攀 洀愀爀欀椀渀最猀 琀栀攀礀 爀攀瘀攀愀氀 愀渀搀 the metamorphoses they undergo, while pointing away਀昀爀漀洀 眀愀琀攀爀Ⰰ 瀀漀椀渀琀 愀猀 搀椀爀攀挀琀氀礀 琀漀 瘀攀最攀琀愀琀椀漀渀⸀ 䄀氀氀 琀栀攀 inexplicabilities which the supposition of water involves਀昀椀渀搀 椀渀猀琀愀渀琀 猀漀氀甀琀椀漀渀 漀渀 琀栀攀 琀栀攀漀爀礀 漀昀 瘀攀最攀琀愀氀 growth. The non-balancing of the areas of shading਀椀渀 琀栀攀椀爀 猀栀椀昀琀 昀爀漀洀 漀渀攀 瀀愀爀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 搀椀猀欀 琀漀 愀渀漀琀栀攀爀Ⰰ 渀漀 longer becomes a circumstance impossible to explain,਀戀甀琀 愀 渀攀挀攀猀猀愀爀礀 挀漀渀猀攀焀甀攀渀挀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀椀爀 渀攀眀ⴀ昀漀甀渀搀 挀栀愀爀愀挀琀攀爀Ⰰ denoting the time necessary for vegetation to਀猀瀀爀漀甀琀⸀ 吀栀攀 挀栀愀渀最攀 漀昀 栀甀攀 漀昀 瘀愀猀琀 愀爀攀愀猀 昀爀漀洀 戀氀甀攀ⴀ最爀攀攀渀 to ochre no longer presupposes the bodily transference਀漀昀 琀栀漀甀猀愀渀搀猀 漀昀 琀漀渀猀 漀昀 猀甀戀猀琀愀渀挀攀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 琀栀攀 焀甀椀攀琀 turning of the leaf under autumnal frosts. Even the਀昀愀挀琀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀礀 漀挀挀甀瀀礀 琀栀漀猀攀 爀攀最椀漀渀猀 洀漀猀琀 昀椀琀琀攀搀 戀礀 昀椀最甀爀攀 to contain oceans fits in with the same conception.਀䘀漀爀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 攀焀甀椀瘀愀氀攀渀琀猀 漀昀 昀漀爀攀猀琀 愀渀搀 洀漀漀爀氀愀渀搀Ⰰ tree and grass, should grow now in the lowest਀瀀愀爀琀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀ᤀ猠 猀甀爀昀愀挀攀 椀猀 眀栀愀琀 洀椀最栀琀 渀漀琀 甀渀爀攀愀猀漀渀愀戀氀礀 be expected from the very fact of their being਀氀漀眀Ⰰ 猀椀渀挀攀 眀栀愀琀 爀攀洀愀椀渀攀搀 漀昀 琀栀攀 眀愀琀攀爀 眀漀甀氀搀 琀攀渀搀 both on the surface and in the air to drain into them.

਀㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀搀椀瘀ⴀ㐀  ✀㸀 ਀㰀瀀㸀䴀愀爀攀 䔀爀礀琀栀爀甀洀㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 搀愀琀攀⸀ 䐀攀挀攀洀戀攀爀 ㌀  嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㜀 䴀椀渀愀 ㄀㜀崀㰀⼀瀀㸀
਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䘀漀爀 琀栀攀 挀栀愀渀最攀 椀渀 焀甀攀猀琀椀漀渀 琀漀 戀攀 瘀攀最攀琀愀氀 椀琀 洀甀猀琀 漀挀挀甀爀 at the proper season of the planet’s year. This we must਀渀漀眀 挀漀渀猀椀搀攀爀⸀ 圀攀 栀愀瘀攀 猀愀椀搀 琀栀愀琀 匀挀栀椀愀瀀愀爀攀氀氀椀 搀攀琀攀挀琀攀搀 change in the blue-green regions and suspected਀琀栀椀猀 挀栀愀渀最攀 漀昀 猀攀愀猀漀渀愀氀 愀昀昀椀氀椀愀琀椀漀渀⸀ 䠀攀 椀渀昀攀爀爀攀搀 琀栀椀猀 121਀昀爀漀洀 瀀椀攀挀椀渀最 琀漀最攀琀栀攀爀 琀栀攀 愀猀瀀攀挀琀猀 漀昀 搀椀昀昀攀爀攀渀琀 猀攀愀猀漀渀猀 of different years as shown in consecutive Martian oppositions.਀吀漀 洀愀爀欀 椀琀 愀挀琀甀愀氀氀礀 琀愀欀攀 瀀氀愀挀攀 椀渀 愀 猀椀渀最氀攀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 year came later. In 1894 [Darian: 151], at Flagstaff, the southern਀栀攀洀椀猀瀀栀攀爀攀 眀愀猀 瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀攀搀 搀甀爀椀渀最 椀琀猀 氀愀琀攀 猀瀀爀椀渀最 and early summer; it was observed, too, for many of਀漀甀爀 洀漀渀琀栀猀 椀渀 猀甀挀挀攀猀猀椀漀渀⸀ 䐀甀爀椀渀最 琀栀椀猀 琀椀洀攀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀 was specially well circumstanced for study of the਀挀栀愀渀最攀 椀渀 琀栀愀琀 栀攀洀椀猀瀀栀攀爀攀Ⰰ 戀漀琀栀 戀礀 爀攀愀猀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 愀瀀瀀漀猀椀琀攀渀攀猀猀 of the season and of the unusual size of the਀搀椀猀欀⸀ 䄀搀瘀愀渀琀愀最攀 眀愀猀 琀愀欀攀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 搀漀甀戀氀攀 攀瘀攀渀琀 琀漀 a recording of the consecutive appearances certain਀爀攀最椀漀渀猀 甀渀搀攀爀眀攀渀琀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 挀漀渀琀爀愀猀琀攀搀 猀琀愀琀攀猀 琀栀甀猀 攀砀栀椀戀椀琀攀搀 were such as clearly to betoken the action of਀猀攀愀猀漀渀愀氀 挀栀愀渀最攀⸀ 圀栀愀琀 匀挀栀椀愀瀀愀爀攀氀氀椀 栀愀搀 琀栀甀猀 愀戀氀礀 inferred from diverse portions of different Martian਀礀攀愀爀猀 眀愀猀 椀渀 琀栀椀猀 挀愀猀攀 猀栀漀眀渀 漀挀挀甀爀爀椀渀最 椀渀 漀渀攀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 same semestral cycle.

Usually the change of hue seems essentially one of਀琀漀渀攀㬀 琀栀攀 戀氀甀攀ⴀ最爀攀攀渀 昀愀搀攀猀 漀甀琀Ⰰ 最攀琀琀椀渀最 氀攀猀猀 愀渀搀 氀攀猀猀 pronounced, until in extreme cases only ochre is left਀戀攀栀椀渀搀⸀ 䤀琀 愀挀琀猀 愀猀 椀昀 琀栀攀 搀愀爀欀攀爀 挀漀氀漀爀 眀攀爀攀 猀甀瀀攀爀椀洀瀀漀猀攀搀 upon the lighter and could be to a greater or less਀攀砀琀攀渀琀 爀攀洀漀瘀攀搀⸀ 吀栀椀猀 椀猀 眀栀愀琀 匀挀栀椀愀瀀愀爀攀氀氀椀 渀漀琀攀搀 愀渀搀 what was seen in 1894 [Darian: 151] at Flagstaff. Three views en਀猀甀椀琀攀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀椀㸀 漀昀 琀栀攀 挀栀愀椀渀 漀昀 挀栀愀渀最攀猀 琀栀攀渀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀攀搀 愀爀攀 猀栀漀眀渀 in Mars, the region known as Hesperia being central਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㈀㈀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㈀㈀✀㸀㄀㈀㈀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 in each. Comparison of the three discloses a remarkable਀洀攀琀愀洀漀爀瀀栀漀猀椀猀 椀渀 琀栀愀琀 ᰀ瀠爀漀洀漀渀琀漀爀礀Ⰰᴀ†愀 爀椀猀攀 椀渀琀漀 visibility by a paling of its complexion. Nor is the਀挀漀渀琀爀愀猀琀 挀漀渀昀椀渀攀搀 琀漀 椀琀㬀 挀栀愀渀最攀猀 愀猀 猀愀氀椀攀渀琀 眀椀氀氀 戀攀 noticed in the pictures over the other parts of the disk.

There have been instances, however, of a metamorphosis਀猀漀 洀甀挀栀 洀漀爀攀 猀琀爀愀渀最攀 愀猀 琀漀 搀攀猀攀爀瘀攀 攀砀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀 in detail; one where not tone simply is involved, but਀眀栀攀爀攀 愀 焀甀椀琀攀 渀攀眀 琀椀渀琀 栀愀猀 猀甀爀瀀爀椀猀椀渀最氀礀 愀瀀瀀攀愀爀攀搀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀搀椀瘀 椀搀㴀✀椀开㄀㈀㈀昀瀀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀昀椀最挀攀渀琀攀爀✀㸀

਀㰀椀洀最 猀爀挀㴀✀椀洀愀最攀猀⼀椀开㄀㈀㈀昀瀀⸀樀瀀最✀ 愀氀琀㴀✀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀椀洀最ⴀ㐀  ✀ ⼀㸀

Mare Erythræum
Martian date. January 16 [Darian: 157 Aries 22]

਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀

On April 19, 1903 [Darian: 156 Aries 21], when, after being hidden for਀琀栀椀爀琀礀 搀愀礀猀Ⰰ 漀眀椀渀最 琀漀 琀栀攀 搀椀昀昀攀爀攀渀琀 爀漀琀愀琀椀漀渀 瀀攀爀椀漀搀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 two planets, the Mare Erythraeum, the largest blue-green਀爀攀最椀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 搀椀猀欀 愀渀搀 氀礀椀渀最 椀渀 琀栀攀 猀漀甀琀栀攀爀渀 栀攀洀椀猀瀀栀攀爀攀Ⰰ rounded again into view, a startling transformation਀猀琀漀漀搀 爀攀瘀攀愀氀攀搀 椀渀 椀琀⸀ 䤀渀猀琀攀愀搀 漀昀 猀栀漀眀椀渀最 戀氀甀攀ⴀ最爀攀攀渀 as usual, and as it had done six weeks before, it਀眀愀猀 渀漀眀 漀昀 愀 搀椀猀琀椀渀挀琀 挀栀漀挀漀氀愀琀攀ⴀ戀爀漀眀渀⸀ 䤀琀 栀愀搀 戀攀攀渀 well seen at its previous presentation, so that no doubt਀攀砀椀猀琀攀搀 漀昀 椀琀猀 琀栀攀渀 琀椀渀琀⸀ 䄀琀 琀栀愀琀 琀椀洀攀 琀栀攀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 猀攀愀猀漀渀 corresponded to December 30 [Darian: 156 Mina 17] in our calendar.਀䔀椀最栀琀攀攀渀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 搀愀礀猀 栀愀搀 猀椀渀挀攀 攀氀愀瀀猀攀搀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 椀琀 眀愀猀 now January 16 [Darian: 156 Mesha 3] there. The metamorphosis had taken਀瀀氀愀挀攀Ⰰ 琀栀攀爀攀昀漀爀攀Ⰰ 猀栀漀爀琀氀礀 愀昀琀攀爀 琀栀攀 眀椀渀琀攀爀 猀漀氀猀琀椀挀攀 漀昀 琀栀愀琀 part of the planet. The color change that had supervened਀瀀爀漀瘀攀搀 瀀攀爀洀愀渀攀渀琀⸀ 䘀漀爀 琀栀攀 渀攀砀琀 渀椀最栀琀 琀栀攀 region showed the same brown hue, and so it continued਀琀漀 愀瀀瀀攀愀爀 琀栀爀漀甀最栀漀甀琀 琀栀攀 搀愀礀猀 琀栀愀琀 椀琀 眀愀猀 瘀椀猀椀戀氀攀⸀ 123਀吀眀漀 洀漀渀琀栀猀 瀀愀猀猀攀搀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 琀栀攀渀 琀栀攀 挀栀漀挀漀氀愀琀攀 栀甀攀 栀愀搀 vanished,—gone as it had come,—and the mare਀栀愀搀 爀攀猀甀洀攀搀 椀琀猀 甀猀甀愀氀 琀椀渀琀Ⰰ 攀砀挀攀瀀琀 昀漀爀 戀攀椀渀最 猀漀洀攀眀栀愀琀 pale at the south. It had come to be February਀㈀㄀ 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㈀㘀 吀愀甀爀甀猀 ㄀㜀崀 漀渀 䴀愀爀猀⸀ 吀椀洀攀搀 愀渀搀 琀愀戀甀氀愀琀攀搀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 洀攀琀愀洀漀爀瀀栀漀猀椀猀 through which the mare passed stands਀漀甀琀 琀栀甀猀㨀᐀㰠⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀昀ⴀ挀攀渀琀攀爀ⴀ挀 ✀㸀

਀    㰀搀椀瘀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀䴀愀爀攀 䔀爀礀琀栀爀愀攀甀洀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 ㄀㤀 ㌀ 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㘀崀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀
਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀 ਀㰀琀愀戀氀攀 椀搀㴀✀洀攀琀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀琀挀✀ 猀甀洀洀愀爀礀㴀✀䴀愀爀攀 䔀爀礀琀栀爀愀攀甀洀 ㄀㤀 ㌀ 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㘀崀✀㸀
਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 戀戀 渀戀氀 渀戀爀 昀猀✀㸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 戀戀 渀戀氀 渀戀爀 昀猀✀㸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 戀戀 渀戀氀 渀戀爀 昀猀✀㸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 戀爀 戀戀 戀氀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀䄀昀琀攀爀 匀甀洀洀攀爀 匀漀氀猀琀椀挀攀㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀⠀䈀攀昀漀爀攀 㴀 ⴀ㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀䄀昀琀攀爀 㴀 ⬀⤀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 戀爀 戀戀 戀氀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀䐀愀爀椀愀渀 䐀愀琀攀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 戀爀 渀戀戀 渀戀氀✀㸀䘀攀戀爀甀愀爀礀 ㄀㘀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 戀爀 戀氀 渀戀戀✀㸀䐀攀挀攀洀戀攀爀 ㄀㘀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 戀氀 渀戀戀 渀戀爀✀㸀䈀氀甀攀ⴀ最爀攀攀渀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀爀 渀戀戀 渀戀琀 戀氀✀㸀⬀㈀㈀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀爀 渀戀戀 渀戀琀 戀氀✀㸀䴀椀渀愀 ㈀ 㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 渀戀氀✀㸀䄀瀀爀椀氀 ㄀㤀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀爀 渀戀戀 渀戀琀 戀氀✀㸀䨀愀渀甀愀爀礀 ㄀㘀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀爀 渀戀戀 渀戀琀 戀氀✀㸀䌀栀漀挀漀氀愀琀攀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀爀 渀戀戀 渀戀琀 戀氀✀㸀㔀㔀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀爀 渀戀戀 渀戀琀 戀氀✀㸀䄀爀椀攀猀 ㈀㐀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 渀戀氀✀㸀䴀愀礀 ㈀㘀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀爀 渀戀戀 渀戀琀 戀氀✀㸀䘀攀戀爀甀愀爀礀 㐀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀爀 渀戀戀 渀戀琀 戀氀✀㸀䘀愀椀渀琀 挀栀漀挀漀氀愀琀攀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀爀 渀戀戀 渀戀琀 戀氀✀㸀㤀㌀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀爀 渀戀戀 渀戀琀 戀氀✀㸀吀愀甀爀甀猀 㔀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 渀戀氀✀㸀䨀甀渀攀 ㌀ 㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀爀 渀戀戀 渀戀琀 戀氀✀㸀䘀攀戀爀甀愀爀礀 ㈀㈀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀爀 渀戀戀 渀戀琀 戀氀✀㸀䘀愀椀渀琀 戀氀甀攀ⴀ最爀攀攀渀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀爀 戀戀 渀戀琀 戀氀✀㸀㄀㌀ 㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀爀 渀戀戀 渀戀琀 戀氀✀㸀刀椀猀栀愀戀栀愀  㜀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀爀 戀琀 戀戀 渀戀氀 昀猀✀㸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀爀 渀戀氀 戀琀 戀戀 昀猀✀㸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀爀 戀琀 戀戀 渀戀氀 昀猀✀㸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀愀戀氀攀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀吀栀攀 挀甀氀洀椀渀愀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 琀爀愀渀猀昀漀爀洀愀琀椀漀渀 猀攀攀洀猀 琀漀 栀愀瘀攀 taken place about 60 days after the southern winter਀猀漀氀猀琀椀挀攀Ⰰ 漀爀 椀渀 琀栀攀 搀攀瀀琀栀 漀昀 琀栀攀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 眀椀渀琀攀爀 漀昀 琀栀愀琀 hemisphere. This is certainly just the time at which਀瘀攀最攀琀愀琀椀漀渀 猀栀漀甀氀搀 戀攀 愀琀 椀琀猀 搀攀愀搀攀猀琀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀吀栀攀 渀漀爀琀栀攀爀渀 愀渀搀 猀漀甀琀栀攀爀渀 瀀漀爀琀椀漀渀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 㰀椀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 氀愀渀最㴀∀氀愀∀ 砀洀氀㨀氀愀渀最㴀∀氀愀∀㸀洀愀爀攀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀椀㸀 搀椀搀 not behave alike in taking on the chocolate tint.਀䘀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 渀漀琀攀猀 洀愀搀攀 愀戀漀甀琀 琀栀攀洀 搀甀爀椀渀最 琀栀攀 漀瀀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀 it appears that the latter was later than the former in਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㈀㐀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㈀㐀✀㸀㄀㈀㐀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 undergoing the metamorphosis, as will be seen from਀琀栀攀 昀漀氀氀漀眀椀渀最 搀攀瀀琀栀 漀昀 琀栀攀 戀氀甀攀 最爀攀攀渀 攀猀琀椀洀愀琀攀搀 椀渀 percentages shown at different dates, calling the deepest਀琀漀渀攀 攀瘀攀爀 攀砀栀椀戀椀琀攀搀 戀礀 椀琀 甀渀椀琀礀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀琀愀戀氀攀 椀搀㴀✀戀最瀀✀ 猀甀洀洀愀爀礀㴀✀䈀氀甀攀ⴀ䜀爀攀攀渀 倀攀爀挀攀渀琀愀最攀猀 ㄀㤀 ㌀ 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㘀崀✀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 戀戀 渀戀氀 渀戀爀 昀猀✀ 挀漀氀猀瀀愀渀㴀✀㘀✀㸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 戀氀 戀戀 戀爀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀䐀攀挀攀洀戀攀爀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀⠀㄀㘀⤀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 戀氀 戀戀 戀爀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀䨀愀渀甀愀爀礀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀⠀㄀㜀⤀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 渀戀氀 戀戀 渀戀爀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀䘀攀戀爀甀愀爀礀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀⠀㈀㐀⤀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 戀氀 戀戀 戀爀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀倀椀猀挀攀猀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀⠀㄀㜀⤀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 戀氀 戀戀 戀爀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀䄀爀椀攀猀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀⠀㈀㈀⤀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 渀戀氀 戀戀 渀戀爀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀刀椀猀栀愀戀栀愀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀⠀㄀㈀⤀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 戀氀 戀爀 渀戀戀✀㸀─㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 戀氀 戀爀 渀戀戀✀㸀─㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 戀氀 渀戀爀 渀戀戀✀㸀─㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀㔀 㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀 㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 渀戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀㔀 㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 戀戀 渀戀琀✀㸀㔀 㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 戀戀 渀戀琀✀㸀 㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀戀 渀戀爀 渀戀琀✀㸀㈀㔀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀
PAGE
 
Prefacevii
 
 
 
CHAPTER
 
I.3
 
II.12
 
III.20
 
IV.32
 
V.41
 
VI.54
 
VII.73
 
VIII.82
 
IX.96
 
X.108
 
XI.119
 
XII.128
 
XIII.148
 
XIV.159
 
PART II
NON-NATURAL FEATURES
The Canals
Their System
Gemination of the Canals
The Diplopic Theory
The Interference Theory
The Illusion Theory
 
਀㰀搀椀瘀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开砀椀椀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开砀椀椀✀㸀砀椀椀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀 XVIII.204
 
XIX.243
 
XX.249
 
XXI.265
 
XXII.271
 
PART III
THE CANALS IN ACTION
Canals: Kinematic
Canal Development Individually Instanced
Hibernation of the Canals
Arctic Canals and Polar Rifts
Oases: Kinematic
 
 
 
XXVIII.337
 
XXIX.348
 
XXX.360
 
XXXI.366
 
XXXII.376
 
Mars’ Hill
The Hermitage
The San Francisco Peaks
Martian Maps by:
I.26
Kaiser. 1864 [Darian: 135]
III.27
Green. 1877 [Darian: 142]
V.28
Schiaparelli. 1879 [Darian: 143]
VII.29
Schiaparelli. 1884 [Darian: 146]
IX.30
Lowell. 1896 [Darian: 152]
XI.31
Lowell. 1905 [Darian: 157]
South Polar Cap. 1905 [Darian: 157]
North Polar Cap. 1905 [Darian: 157]
Mare Erythraeum, Martian date, December 30 [Darian: 157 Mina 17]
Mare Erythraeum, Martian date, January 16 [Darian: 157 Mesha 3]
Mare Erythraeum, Martian date, February 1 [Darian: 157 Taurus 3]
Mare Erythraeum, Martian date, February 21 [Darian: 157 Rishabha 7]
Mars, on Mercator’s Projection
CUTS APPEARING IN TEXT
56
59
White south of Nectar and Solis Lacus
Northern Cap hooded with vapor
Northern Cap unmasked
Deposition of frost
First northern snow
White in Elysium
White in the Pons Hectoris
Projection on terminator
Lines in dark area
Map of North America at the close of Archæan time
North America at opening of Upper Silurian period
Map of North America after the Appalachian revolution
North America in the Cretaceous period
North America, showing the parts under water in the Tertiary era
Earth’s Desert Areas, Western Hemisphere
Earth’s Desert Areas, Eastern Hemisphere
Showing the Eumenides-Orcus
Martian doubles
Martian doubles
Mouths of Euphrates and Phison. June, 1903 [Darian: 156 Taurus]
Peculiar development of the Ganges
Djihoun, the narrowest double
The Sabaeus Sinus, embouchure for the double Hiddekel਀      愀渀搀 䜀椀栀漀渀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 232
247
254
256
258
Lucus Ismenius. March, 1903 [Darian: 156 Mina]
Showing seasonal change. I਀㰀搀椀瘀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开砀瘀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开砀瘀✀㸀砀瘀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀
285
298
February 25
II.307
April 3
IV.308
May 7
VI.309
311
319
319
Advent of the Lucus Moeris. May 29
Amenthes with Thoth-Nepenthes. July
Cartouches of Amenthes, Thoth, and their combination
Phenology Curves—Earth
Phenology Curves—Mars
Maker
I.1840 [Darian: 122]
Map of Kaiser
III.1876 [Darian: 141]
Map of Green
V.1877 [Darian: 142]
Map of Schiaparelli
VII.1881 [Darian: 144]
Map of Schiaparelli
IX.1894 [Darian: 151]
Map of Lowell
XI.1901 [Darian: 155]
Map of Lowell
A period of recognition of larger markings only;
II.1877-1892 [Darian: 142-150]
A period of detection of canals traversing the ‘seas’ and of oases scattered over the surface;
਀      㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀昀漀漀琀渀漀琀攀✀㸀

Martian longitudes are now reckoned from the Fastigium Aryn,਀琀栀攀 洀礀琀栀漀氀漀最椀挀 挀甀瀀漀氀愀 漀昀 琀栀攀 眀漀爀氀搀Ⰰ 愀 猀瀀漀琀 攀愀猀礀 漀昀 爀攀挀漀最渀椀琀椀漀渀 戀攀挀愀甀猀攀 making the tongue in the jaws of the Sabaeus Sinus. It further਀挀漀洀洀攀渀搀猀 椀琀猀攀氀昀 戀攀挀愀甀猀攀 漀昀 氀礀椀渀最 眀椀琀栀椀渀 愀 搀攀最爀攀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 攀焀甀愀琀漀爀⸀ 吀栀攀 longitudes are reckoned thence westward all the way round, or਀琀漀 ㌀㘀 뀀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀    㰀⼀琀搀㸀

  
Mundane DateMartian DateAspect
-10Pisces 17
March 20January 1Blue-green
52Aries 21
April 22January 18Chocolate
89Taurus 1
May 30February 6Faint chocolate
123Rishabha 7
July 7February 25Faint blue-green
  
Martian Date,January
(1)
February
(5)
Darian Date,Mina
(20)
Mesha
(24)
%%
Northern5025
Southern500
 

From this table we may place the lowest point of the਀戀氀甀攀ⴀ最爀攀攀渀 琀椀渀琀 愀猀 爀攀愀挀栀攀搀 愀戀漀甀琀 琀栀攀 ㈀㈀搀 漀昀 䨀愀渀甀愀爀礀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㘀 䴀攀猀栀愀 㐀崀 for the northern, the 5th of February [Darian: 156 Taurus 3] for the਀猀漀甀琀栀攀爀渀Ⰰ 瀀愀爀琀⸀ 吀栀椀猀 眀漀甀氀搀 椀渀搀椀挀愀琀攀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 眀愀瘀攀 of returning growth came from the north, not the south;਀愀渀 椀洀瀀漀爀琀愀渀琀 昀愀挀琀Ⰰ 愀猀 眀攀 猀栀愀氀氀 猀攀攀 氀愀琀攀爀 椀渀 猀琀甀搀礀椀渀最 琀栀攀 action of the canals.

਀㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀搀椀瘀ⴀ㐀  ✀㸀 ਀㰀瀀㸀䴀愀爀攀 䔀爀礀琀栀爀甀洀㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 搀愀琀攀⸀ 䘀攀戀爀甀愀爀礀 ㄀ 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 䴀攀猀栀愀 ㈀㌀崀㰀⼀瀀㸀
਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䄀琀 琀栀攀 渀攀砀琀 漀瀀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀Ⰰ 椀渀 ㄀㤀 㔀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㜀崀Ⰰ 愀 爀攀挀甀爀爀攀渀挀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 transformation was watched for, and not in vain. It਀漀挀挀甀爀爀攀搀Ⰰ 栀漀眀攀瘀攀爀Ⰰ 猀漀洀攀眀栀愀琀 氀愀琀攀爀 椀渀 琀栀攀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 猀攀愀猀漀渀⸀ On December 27 [Darian: 156 Mina 11] of the planet’s current year the਀䴀愀爀攀 䔀爀礀琀栀爀愀攀甀洀 眀愀猀 猀琀椀氀氀 愀猀 甀猀甀愀氀Ⰰ 戀氀甀攀ⴀ最爀攀攀渀Ⰰ 渀漀琀栀椀渀最 out of the ordinary being remarked in it; and so it was਀漀渀 椀琀猀 䨀愀渀甀愀爀礀 ㄀㜀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㘀 䄀爀椀攀猀 ㈀㈀崀Ⰰ 愀氀琀栀漀甀最栀 琀栀攀 猀漀甀琀栀攀爀渀 攀搀最攀 眀愀猀 搀愀爀欀攀爀 than the northern. It looked certainly as if the metamorphosis਀眀攀爀攀 琀栀椀猀 礀攀愀爀 琀漀 戀攀 漀洀椀琀琀攀搀⸀ 䈀甀琀 猀甀挀栀 was not the case. When the region again came round,਀漀渀 䘀攀戀爀甀愀爀礀 ㄀ 漀昀 琀栀攀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 挀愀氀攀渀搀愀爀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㘀 䴀攀猀栀愀 ㈀㄀崀Ⰰ 琀栀攀爀攀 琀栀攀 猀琀爀愀渀最攀 125਀琀椀渀琀 眀愀猀 愀猀 甀渀洀椀猀琀愀欀愀戀氀攀 愀猀 椀琀 栀愀搀 戀攀攀渀 漀渀 椀琀猀 漀爀椀最椀渀愀氀 occurrence. Not only was the Mare Erythraeum so਀挀漀氀漀爀攀搀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 漀渀 䘀攀戀爀甀愀爀礀 㔀 ⠀䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀⤀ 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㘀 吀愀甀爀甀猀 ㌀崀 琀栀攀 渀漀爀琀栀攀爀渀 瀀漀爀琀椀漀渀 of the Mare Cimmerium was observed to be similarly਀愀昀昀攀挀琀攀搀⸀ 䤀渀 琀栀攀 䴀愀爀攀 䔀爀礀琀栀爀愀攀甀洀 琀栀攀 愀渀漀洀愀氀漀甀猀 chocolate hue was confined to a belt between the latitudes਀漀昀 ㄀ 뀀 愀渀搀 ㈀ 뀀 猀漀甀琀栀 漀昀 琀栀攀 攀焀甀愀琀漀爀㬀 椀渀 琀栀攀 䴀愀爀攀 Cimmerium it stretched a little higher, from 10° at the਀眀攀猀琀 琀漀 ㈀㔀뀀 愀琀 琀栀攀 攀愀猀琀⸀ 䤀琀 椀猀 渀漀琀攀眀漀爀琀栀礀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 southern portion of the latter showed blue at the time਀琀栀攀 渀漀爀琀栀攀爀渀 猀栀漀眀攀搀 戀爀漀眀渀⸀ 吀栀攀渀 琀栀攀 洀攀琀愀洀漀爀瀀栀漀猀椀猀 proceeded as shown in the following table:—

਀  㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀昀ⴀ挀攀渀琀攀爀✀㸀
Mare Erythraeum 1905 [Darian: 157]
਀  㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀
਀ ਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 渀戀氀 戀戀 戀爀 琀挀攀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀䴀甀渀搀愀渀攀 䐀愀琀攀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 戀氀 戀爀 戀戀 琀挀攀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 䐀愀琀攀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 戀氀 戀戀 渀戀爀 琀挀攀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀䄀猀瀀攀挀琀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 戀爀 戀氀 渀戀戀 琀爀攀✀㸀㄀㈀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 戀爀 戀氀 渀戀戀 琀氀攀✀㸀䴀椀渀愀 ㄀㄀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀氀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 戀爀 琀氀攀✀㸀䴀愀爀挀栀 㘀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 琀氀攀✀㸀䨀愀渀甀愀爀礀 ㄀㘀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 渀戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 琀氀攀✀㸀䈀氀甀攀ⴀ最爀攀攀渀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 琀爀攀✀㸀㠀㄀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 琀氀攀✀㸀䴀攀猀栀愀 ㈀㈀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀氀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 戀爀 琀氀攀✀㸀䄀瀀爀椀氀 ㄀㈀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 琀氀攀✀㸀䘀攀戀爀甀愀爀礀 㐀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 渀戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 琀氀攀✀㸀䌀栀漀挀漀氀愀琀攀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 琀爀攀✀㸀㄀ 㜀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 琀氀攀✀㸀吀愀甀爀甀猀 ㄀㤀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀氀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 戀爀 琀氀攀✀㸀䴀愀礀 㠀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 琀氀攀✀㸀䘀攀戀爀甀愀爀礀 ㄀㜀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 渀戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 琀氀攀✀㸀䘀愀椀渀琀 挀栀漀挀漀氀愀琀攀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 琀爀攀✀㸀㄀㄀㤀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 琀氀攀✀㸀刀椀猀栀愀戀栀愀 ㌀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀氀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 戀爀 琀氀攀✀㸀䨀甀渀攀 ㄀㄀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 琀氀攀✀㸀䴀愀爀挀栀 㘀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 渀戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 琀氀攀✀㸀䘀愀椀渀琀 戀氀甀攀ⴀ最爀攀攀渀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 琀爀攀✀㸀㄀㔀㌀ 㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 琀氀攀✀㸀䜀攀洀椀渀椀 㤀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀氀 渀戀琀 戀戀 戀爀 琀氀攀✀㸀䨀甀氀礀 ㄀㘀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀琀 戀氀 戀爀 戀戀 琀氀攀✀㸀䴀愀爀挀栀 ㈀㌀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀琀 渀戀爀 戀戀 戀氀 琀氀攀✀㸀倀愀氀攀 戀氀甀椀猀栀 最爀攀攀渀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀
 
Days after Winter
Solstice of Southern
Hemisphere
Darian Date
January 25December 27Blue-green
52Aries 22
April 4January 31Chocolate
89Taurus 2
April 30February 13Faint chocolate
115Taurus 27
May 12February 19Faint blue-green
149Gemini 6
June 15March 8Faint blue-green
184Mithuna 11
 

Here, as in 1903 [Darian: 156], a chromatic rise and fall is evident;਀琀栀攀 挀甀氀洀椀渀愀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 挀栀愀渀最攀 漀挀挀甀爀爀椀渀最 椀渀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 攀愀爀氀礀 February about ninety days after the winter solstice.਀吀栀愀琀 椀琀 眀愀猀 渀漀琀 漀昀 氀漀渀最 搀甀爀愀琀椀漀渀 椀猀 愀氀猀漀 椀渀搀椀挀愀琀攀搀⸀ 䤀昀 126਀眀攀 攀砀愀洀椀渀攀 琀栀攀 攀瘀椀搀攀渀挀攀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀 琀眀漀 瀀漀爀琀椀漀渀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 mare separately, the northern and the southern, as in਀㄀㤀 ㌀ 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㘀崀Ⰰ 眀攀 昀椀渀搀 椀琀 愀猀 昀漀氀氀漀眀猀㨀᐀㰠⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀琀愀戀氀攀 椀搀㴀✀戀最瀀㈀✀ 猀甀洀洀愀爀礀㴀✀䈀氀甀攀ⴀ䜀爀攀攀渀 倀攀爀挀攀渀琀愀最攀猀 ㄀㤀 㔀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㜀崀✀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 戀戀 渀戀氀 渀戀爀 昀猀✀ 挀漀氀猀瀀愀渀㴀✀㜀✀㸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 Martian Date,਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 戀氀 戀戀 戀爀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀䐀攀挀攀洀戀攀爀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀⠀㈀㜀⤀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 January
(16)਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 戀氀 戀戀 戀爀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀䘀攀戀爀甀愀爀礀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀⠀㈀⤀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 February
(16)਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 戀氀 戀戀 戀爀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀䴀愀爀挀栀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀⠀㜀⤀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 March
(23)਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 渀戀氀 戀戀 戀爀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀䐀愀爀椀愀渀 䐀愀琀攀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀Ⰰ㰀⼀琀搀㸀 Mina
(11)਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 戀氀 戀戀 戀爀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀䄀爀椀攀猀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀⠀㈀㈀⤀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 Mesha
(18)਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 戀氀 戀戀 戀爀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀吀愀甀爀甀猀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀⠀㈀㔀⤀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 Gemini
(7)਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 戀氀 戀戀 渀戀爀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀䴀椀琀栀甀渀愀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀⠀㄀㄀⤀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 戀爀 戀氀 渀戀戀✀㸀─㰀⼀琀搀㸀 %਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 戀爀 戀氀 渀戀戀✀㸀─㰀⼀琀搀㸀 %਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 戀爀 戀氀 渀戀戀✀㸀─㰀⼀琀搀㸀 %਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 渀戀氀 琀氀攀✀㸀一漀爀琀栀攀爀渀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 50਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀戀 渀戀琀✀㸀㔀 㰀⼀琀搀㸀 0਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀戀 渀戀琀✀㸀㄀ 㰀⼀琀搀㸀 25਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 渀戀爀 渀戀戀 渀戀琀✀㸀㌀ 㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 Southern਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀爀 戀氀 戀戀 渀戀琀✀㸀㔀 㰀⼀琀搀㸀 50਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀爀 戀氀 戀戀 渀戀琀✀㸀㈀ 㰀⼀琀搀㸀 20਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀爀 戀氀 戀戀 渀戀琀✀㸀㈀㔀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 30਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 戀戀 渀戀氀 渀戀爀 昀猀✀ 挀漀氀猀瀀愀渀㴀✀㜀✀㸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀愀戀氀攀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䠀攀爀攀 愀最愀椀渀 愀 猀氀椀最栀琀 爀攀琀愀爀搀愀琀椀漀渀 椀渀 琀栀攀 愀搀瘀攀渀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 metamorphosis is observable in the southern portion.

There would seem to be a difference in the time of the਀挀栀愀渀最攀 戀攀琀眀攀攀渀 琀栀攀 琀眀漀 礀攀愀爀猀 漀昀 昀椀昀琀攀攀渀 搀愀礀猀Ⰰ ㄀㤀 㔀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㜀崀 being by that much the later. But with points਀漀昀 爀攀昀攀爀攀渀挀攀 琀栀攀洀猀攀氀瘀攀猀 琀栀椀爀琀礀 搀愀礀猀 愀瀀愀爀琀Ⰰ 椀琀 椀猀 possible the two more nearly coincided than here appears.

Unlike the ochre of the light regions generally, which਀猀甀最最攀猀琀 搀攀猀攀爀琀 瀀甀爀攀 愀渀搀 猀椀洀瀀氀攀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 挀栀漀挀漀氀愀琀攀ⴀ戀爀漀眀渀 precisely mimicked the complexion of fallow ground.਀圀栀攀渀 眀攀 挀漀渀猀椀搀攀爀 琀栀攀 瘀攀最攀琀愀氀ⴀ氀椀欀攀 戀氀甀攀ⴀ最爀攀攀渀 琀栀愀琀 椀琀 replaced, and remember further the time of year at਀眀栀椀挀栀 椀琀 漀挀挀甀爀爀攀搀 甀瀀漀渀 戀漀琀栀 琀栀攀猀攀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 礀攀愀爀猀Ⰰ 眀攀 can hardly resist the conclusion that it was something਀瘀攀爀礀 氀椀欀攀 昀愀氀氀漀眀 昀椀攀氀搀 琀栀愀琀 眀愀猀 琀栀攀爀攀 甀渀挀漀瘀攀爀攀搀 琀漀 漀甀爀 view.

਀㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀搀椀瘀ⴀ㐀  ✀㸀 ਀㰀瀀㸀䴀愀爀攀 䔀爀礀琀栀爀甀洀㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 搀愀琀攀⸀ 䘀攀戀爀甀愀爀礀 ㈀㄀ 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㜀 刀椀猀栀愀戀栀愀 㜀崀㰀⼀瀀㸀
਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䘀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 爀攀挀甀爀爀攀渀挀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀栀攀渀漀洀攀渀漀渀 漀渀 琀眀漀 猀甀挀挀攀猀猀椀瘀攀 years, it is likely that it annually takes place.਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㈀㜀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㈀㜀✀㸀㄀㈀㜀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 That it is seasonal can scarcely be doubted from the਀琀椀洀攀氀椀渀攀猀猀 漀昀 椀琀猀 漀挀挀甀爀爀攀渀挀攀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 琀栀愀琀 搀椀昀昀攀爀攀渀琀 瀀漀爀琀椀漀渀猀 of its terrane successively underwent their metamorphosis਀猀栀漀眀猀 昀甀爀琀栀攀爀 琀栀愀琀 椀琀 昀漀氀氀漀眀攀搀 愀 氀愀眀 瀀攀挀甀氀椀愀爀 to the planet, to which we shall be introduced when we਀挀漀洀攀 琀漀 挀漀渀猀椀搀攀爀 琀栀攀 瀀栀攀渀漀洀攀渀愀 漀昀 琀栀攀 挀愀渀愀氀猀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䤀渀猀琀愀渀挀攀猀 漀昀 爀攀氀愀琀椀瘀攀 栀甀攀 椀渀 搀椀昀昀攀爀攀渀琀 搀愀爀欀 瀀愀琀挀栀攀猀 corroboratory of seasonal variation, and therefore of਀瘀攀最攀琀愀氀 挀漀渀猀琀椀琀甀琀椀漀渀Ⰰ 洀椀最栀琀 攀愀猀椀氀礀 戀攀 愀搀搀甀挀攀搀⸀ 吀栀甀猀Ⰰ in 1905 [Darian: 157] during the summer of the northern hemisphere,਀琀栀攀 䴀愀爀攀 䄀挀椀搀愀氀椀甀洀 眀愀猀 渀漀琀愀戀氀礀 搀愀爀欀攀爀 琀栀愀渀 琀栀攀 䴀愀爀攀 Erythraeum to the north of it, which is what the law਀漀昀 猀攀愀猀漀渀愀氀 瘀愀爀椀愀琀椀漀渀 眀漀甀氀搀 爀攀焀甀椀爀攀Ⰰ 猀椀渀挀攀 椀琀 眀愀猀 䨀甀渀攀 in the one, December in the other at the time. But we਀渀攀攀搀 渀漀琀 琀漀 愀搀搀 攀砀愀洀瀀氀攀 琀漀 攀砀愀洀瀀氀攀 漀爀 瀀爀漀漀昀 琀漀 瀀爀漀漀昀Ⰰ for there are no phenomena that contradict it. We਀挀漀渀挀氀甀搀攀Ⰰ 琀栀攀爀攀昀漀爀攀Ⰰ 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 戀氀甀攀ⴀ最爀攀攀渀 愀爀攀愀猀 漀昀 䴀愀爀猀 are not seas, but areas of vegetation. Just as reasoning਀琀漀 愀 渀攀最愀琀椀瘀攀 爀攀猀甀氀琀 搀爀椀昀琀猀 甀猀 琀漀 琀栀攀 昀椀爀猀琀 挀漀渀挀氀甀猀椀漀渀Ⰰ 猀漀 reasoning to a positive one lands us at the second.

128਀  㰀栀㈀ 椀搀㴀✀挀栀㄀㈀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㘀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀砀氀愀爀最攀✀㸀䌀䠀䄀倀吀䔀刀 堀䤀䤀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀 㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀吀䔀刀刀䄀儀唀䔀伀唀匀一䔀匀匀 䄀一䐀 吀䔀刀刀䔀匀吀刀䤀䄀䰀䤀吀夀㰀⼀栀㈀㸀

With the vanishing of its seas we get for the first਀琀椀洀攀 猀漀氀椀搀 最爀漀甀渀搀 漀渀 眀栀椀挀栀 琀漀 戀甀椀氀搀 漀甀爀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 physiography. The change in venue from oceans to਀氀愀渀搀 栀愀猀 瀀爀漀搀甀挀攀搀 愀 挀漀洀瀀氀攀琀攀 愀氀琀攀爀愀琀椀漀渀 椀渀 漀甀爀 樀甀搀最洀攀渀琀 of the present state of the planet. It destroys਀琀栀攀 愀渀愀氀漀最礀 眀栀椀挀栀 眀愀猀 猀甀瀀瀀漀猀攀搀 琀漀 攀砀椀猀琀 戀攀琀眀攀攀渀 䴀愀爀猀 and our earth, and by abolishing the actuality of oceans਀琀栀攀爀攀Ⰰ 猀攀攀洀猀Ⰰ 洀攀琀愀瀀栀漀爀椀挀愀氀氀礀Ⰰ 琀漀 瀀甀琀 甀猀 愀琀 昀椀爀猀琀 愀氀氀 琀栀攀 more at sea in our attempt to understand the planet.਀䈀甀琀 氀漀漀欀攀搀 愀琀 洀漀爀攀 挀愀爀攀昀甀氀氀礀Ⰰ 椀琀 琀甀爀渀猀 漀甀琀 琀漀 攀砀瀀氀愀椀渀 much that was obscure, and in so doing gives us at once਀愀 眀椀搀攀爀 瘀椀攀眀 漀昀 琀栀攀 栀椀猀琀漀爀礀 漀昀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀愀爀礀 攀瘀漀氀甀琀椀漀渀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀吀栀攀 琀爀愀椀琀 挀漀渀挀攀爀渀攀搀 椀猀 挀漀猀洀椀挀⸀ 匀琀甀搀礀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀攀瘀攀爀愀氀 planets of our solar system, notably the Earth, Moon,਀愀渀搀 䴀愀爀猀Ⰰ 爀攀瘀攀愀氀猀 琀漀氀攀爀愀戀氀礀 氀攀最椀戀氀礀 愀渀 椀渀琀攀爀攀猀琀椀渀最 瀀栀愀猀攀 of a planet’s career, which apparently must happen਀琀漀 愀氀氀 猀甀挀栀 戀漀搀椀攀猀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 攀瘀椀搀攀渀琀氀礀 栀愀猀 栀愀瀀瀀攀渀攀搀 漀爀 椀猀 happening to these three: the transition of its surface਀昀爀漀洀 愀 琀攀爀爀愀焀甀攀漀甀猀 琀漀 愀 瀀甀爀攀氀礀 琀攀爀爀攀猀琀爀椀愀氀 挀漀渀搀椀琀椀漀渀⸀ The terraqueous state is well exhibited by਀漀甀爀 漀眀渀 攀愀爀琀栀 愀琀 琀栀攀 洀漀洀攀渀琀Ⰰ 眀栀攀爀攀 氀愀渀搀猀 愀渀搀 129਀漀挀攀愀渀猀 猀栀愀爀攀 琀栀攀 猀甀爀昀愀挀攀 戀攀琀眀攀攀渀 琀栀攀洀⸀ 吀栀攀 琀攀爀爀攀猀琀爀椀愀氀 is exemplified by both the Moon and Mars,਀漀渀 眀栀漀猀攀 猀甀爀昀愀挀攀猀 渀漀 戀漀搀椀攀猀 漀昀 眀愀琀攀爀 愀琀 瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀 攀砀椀猀琀⸀ That the one state passes by process of development਀椀渀琀漀 琀栀攀 漀琀栀攀爀 䤀 猀栀愀氀氀 渀漀眀 最椀瘀攀 洀礀 爀攀愀猀漀渀猀 昀漀爀 believing.

In the first place the appearance of the dark markings਀戀漀琀栀 漀渀 琀栀攀 䴀漀漀渀 愀渀搀 䴀愀爀猀 栀椀渀琀猀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀漀甀最栀 猀攀愀猀 no longer, they were seas once upon a time. On the਀洀漀漀渀Ⰰ 渀漀琀 漀渀氀礀 搀漀攀猀 琀栀攀椀爀 猀栀愀瀀攀 猀甀最最攀猀琀 琀栀椀猀 瀀爀攀瘀椀漀甀猀 condition, but the smooth and even look of their surfaces਀愀搀搀猀 琀漀 琀栀攀 挀漀最攀渀挀礀 漀昀 琀栀攀 椀渀昀攀爀攀渀挀攀⸀ 䴀漀爀攀 椀洀瀀漀爀琀愀渀琀Ⰰ however, than either of these characteristics,਀愀渀搀 挀漀渀昀椀爀洀愀琀漀爀礀 漀昀 戀漀琀栀Ⰰ 椀猀 琀栀攀 昀愀挀琀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 最爀攀愀琀 tracts in question seem to lie below the level of the corrugated਀猀甀爀昀愀挀攀Ⰰ 眀栀椀挀栀 椀猀 琀栀椀挀欀氀礀 猀琀爀攀眀渀 眀椀琀栀 瘀漀氀挀愀渀椀挀 cones. Their level and their levelness fay in explanation਀椀渀琀漀 漀渀攀 愀渀漀琀栀攀爀⸀ 吀栀攀 昀椀爀猀琀 洀愀欀攀猀 瀀漀猀猀椀戀氀攀 琀栀攀 former presence of water; the second speaks of its਀攀昀昀攀挀琀⸀ 䘀漀爀 琀栀攀椀爀 昀氀愀琀 挀栀愀爀愀挀琀攀爀 栀椀渀琀猀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀猀攀 愀爀攀愀猀 were held down at the time when the other parts of਀琀栀攀 猀甀爀昀愀挀攀 眀攀爀攀 戀攀椀渀最 瘀椀漀氀攀渀琀氀礀 琀栀爀漀眀渀 甀瀀⸀ 吀栀愀琀 they can themselves be cooled lava flows, their extent਀愀渀搀 瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀 猀攀攀洀 攀渀漀甀最栀 琀漀 渀攀最愀琀椀瘀攀㬀 琀漀 猀愀礀 渀漀琀栀椀渀最 of the fact that they should in that case lie above,਀渀漀琀 戀攀氀漀眀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 最攀渀攀爀愀氀 氀攀瘀攀氀⸀ 匀漀洀攀琀栀椀渀最Ⰰ 琀栀攀爀攀昀漀爀攀Ⰰ covered them during the moon’s eruptive youth and਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㌀ ✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㌀ ✀㸀㄀㌀ 㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 disappeared later. Such superincumbence may well਀栀愀瘀攀 戀攀攀渀 眀愀琀攀爀Ⰰ 甀渀搀攀爀 眀栀椀挀栀 琀栀攀 渀漀眀 最爀攀愀琀 瀀氀愀椀渀猀 氀愀礀 then as ocean bottoms. Deep-sea soundings in our਀漀眀渀 漀挀攀愀渀猀 戀攀琀爀愀礀 愀渀 漀挀攀愀渀 昀氀漀漀爀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 攀砀琀攀渀猀椀瘀攀 sort, diversified as on the moon. To call the਀氀甀渀愀爀 㰀椀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 氀愀渀最㴀∀氀愀∀ 砀洀氀㨀氀愀渀最㴀∀氀愀∀㸀洀愀爀椀愀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀椀㸀 猀攀愀猀 洀愀礀 渀漀琀 戀攀 猀漀 挀漀洀瀀氀攀琀攀 愀 洀椀猀渀漀洀攀爀 after all; but only a resurrecting in epitaph what was਀琀栀攀 琀爀甀琀栀 椀渀 椀琀猀 搀愀礀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀伀渀氀礀 搀漀甀戀琀昀甀氀氀礀 漀昀昀攀爀攀搀 栀攀爀攀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀 䴀漀漀渀Ⰰ 昀漀爀 Mars the inference seems more sure. Here again the਀搀愀爀欀 爀攀最椀漀渀猀 渀漀琀 漀渀氀礀 氀漀漀欀 愀猀 琀栀攀礀 猀栀漀甀氀搀 栀愀搀 琀栀攀礀 had an earlier history, but they, too, seem to lie below਀琀栀攀 氀攀瘀攀氀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀甀爀昀愀挀攀 爀漀甀渀搀 愀戀漀甀琀⸀ 圀栀攀渀 琀栀攀礀 瀀愀猀猀 over the terminator they invariably show as flattenings਀甀瀀漀渀 椀琀Ⰰ 愀猀 椀昀 愀 猀氀椀挀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀甀爀昀愀挀攀 栀愀搀 戀攀攀渀 瀀愀爀攀搀 off. Such profile in such pass is what ground at a਀氀漀眀攀爀 氀攀瘀攀氀 眀漀甀氀搀 瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀⸀ 唀渀搀漀甀戀琀攀搀氀礀 愀 瀀愀爀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 seeming depression is due to relative absence of irradiation਀挀漀渀猀攀焀甀攀渀琀 甀瀀漀渀 愀 洀漀爀攀 猀漀洀戀爀攀 琀椀渀琀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 氀漀猀猀 of light hardly seems capable of the whole effect. In਀琀栀攀 挀愀猀攀 漀昀 䴀愀爀猀Ⰰ 琀栀攀渀Ⰰ 愀猀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 䴀漀漀渀Ⰰ 愀 洀椀猀琀愀欀攀渀 inference builded better than it knew, if, indeed, we਀猀栀漀甀氀搀 爀椀最栀琀氀礀 挀漀渀猀椀搀攀爀 愀渀 椀渀昀攀爀攀渀挀攀 琀漀 戀攀 洀椀猀琀愀欀攀渀 which on half data lands us at the right door.

From the aspects of the dark regions we are led,਀琀栀攀渀Ⰰ 琀漀 爀攀最愀爀搀 䴀愀爀猀 愀猀 栀愀瘀椀渀最 瀀愀猀猀攀搀 琀栀爀漀甀最栀 琀栀愀琀 猀琀愀最攀 of existence in which the earth finds itself at the moment,਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㌀㄀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㌀㄀✀㸀㄀㌀㄀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 the stage at which oceans and seas form a feature਀漀昀 椀琀猀 氀愀渀搀猀挀愀瀀攀 愀渀搀 愀渀 椀洀瀀攀搀椀洀攀渀琀 琀漀 猀甀戀樀甀最愀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 its surface in its entirety. What once were ocean beds਀栀愀瘀攀 戀攀挀漀洀攀 漀挀攀愀渀 戀漀琀琀漀洀猀 搀攀瘀漀椀搀 漀昀 琀栀愀琀 眀栀椀挀栀 originally filled them.

That the process of parting with a watery envelop਀椀猀 愀渀 椀渀攀瘀椀琀愀戀氀攀 挀漀渀挀漀洀椀琀愀渀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 攀瘀漀氀甀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 愀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀 from chaos to world, we do not have to go so far afield਀愀猀 䴀愀爀猀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 䴀漀漀渀 昀漀爀 琀攀猀琀椀洀漀渀礀⸀ 匀挀爀甀琀椀渀礀 爀攀瘀攀愀氀猀 as much in the history of our own globe. Two signposts਀漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀愀猀琀Ⰰ 漀渀攀 最攀漀氀漀最椀挀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 漀琀栀攀爀 瀀愀氀攀漀渀琀漀氀漀最椀挀Ⰰ point unmistakably in this direction. The਀最攀漀氀漀最椀挀 最甀椀搀攀猀 甀猀 琀栀攀 洀漀爀攀 搀椀爀攀挀琀氀礀 琀漀 琀栀攀 最漀愀氀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀匀琀甀搀礀 漀昀 琀栀攀 攀愀爀琀栀ᤀ猠 猀甀爀昀愀挀攀 爀攀瘀攀愀氀猀 琀栀攀 瀀爀攀瀀漀渀搀攀爀愀琀椀渀最 encroachment of the land upon the sea since both਀戀攀最愀渀 琀漀 戀攀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 搀攀洀漀渀猀琀爀愀琀攀猀 琀栀愀琀Ⰰ 攀砀挀攀瀀琀 昀漀爀 氀漀挀愀氀 losses, the oceans have been contracting in size from਀愀爀挀栀愀椀挀 琀椀洀攀猀⸀ 匀漀 洀甀挀栀 椀猀 攀瘀椀搀攀渀挀攀搀 戀礀 琀栀攀 猀甀挀挀攀猀猀椀瘀攀 places upon which marine beds have been laid down.਀吀栀椀猀 猀甀最最攀猀琀猀 椀琀猀攀氀昀 愀琀 漀渀挀攀 愀猀 愀 琀栀攀漀爀攀琀椀挀 瀀爀漀戀愀戀椀氀椀琀礀 to one considering the matter from a cosmic standpoint,਀愀渀搀 椀琀 椀猀 琀栀攀爀攀昀漀爀攀 琀栀攀 洀漀爀攀 椀渀琀攀爀攀猀琀椀渀最 愀渀搀 挀漀渀挀氀甀猀椀瘀攀 that, from an entirely different departure-point, it਀猀栀漀甀氀搀 栀愀瘀攀 戀攀攀渀 漀渀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀攀琀 瀀爀漀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 late Professor Dana, who worked out conclusively the਀瀀爀漀戀氀攀洀 昀漀爀 一漀爀琀栀 䄀洀攀爀椀挀愀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 瀀甀戀氀椀猀栀攀搀 挀栀愀爀琀猀 detailing the progressive making of that continent.

਀㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀椀挀  㤀✀㸀 ਀㰀瀀㸀䴀愀瀀 漀昀 一漀爀琀栀 䄀洀攀爀椀挀愀 愀琀 琀栀攀 挀氀漀猀攀 漀昀 䄀爀挀栀愀渀 琀椀洀攀Ⰰ 猀栀漀眀椀渀最 愀瀀瀀爀漀砀椀洀愀琀攀氀礀 琀栀攀 愀爀攀愀猀 漀昀 搀爀礀 氀愀渀搀⸀ ⠀䘀爀漀洀 䐀愀渀愀ᤀ猠 ᰀ䴠愀渀甀愀氀 漀昀 䜀攀漀氀漀最礀⸀ᴀ⤠㰀⼀瀀㸀
਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀 132਀匀漀 琀攀氀氀椀渀最 椀猀 琀栀椀猀 爀攀挀氀愀椀洀椀渀最 戀礀 渀愀琀甀爀攀 漀昀 氀愀渀搀 昀爀漀洀 the sea that it will be well to follow Dana a little into਀搀攀琀愀椀氀Ⰰ 愀猀 琀栀攀 搀攀琀愀椀氀猀 猀栀漀眀 攀昀昀攀挀琀椀瘀攀氀礀 琀栀攀 挀漀渀琀椀渀甀椀琀礀 漀昀 the process acting through æons of geologic time. At਀琀栀攀 戀攀最椀渀渀椀渀最 漀昀 琀栀攀 䄀爀挀栀愀渀 愀最攀Ⰰ 漀爀Ⰰ 椀渀 漀琀栀攀爀 眀漀爀搀猀Ⰰ at the epoch when stratified beds were first laid down,਀琀栀攀 攀愀爀琀栀 爀攀愀挀栀攀搀 愀 琀甀爀渀椀渀最ⴀ瀀漀椀渀琀 椀渀 椀琀猀 栀椀猀琀漀爀礀⸀ Erosion, superficial and sub-aërial, then set in to help਀爀攀猀琀爀椀挀琀 琀栀攀 搀漀洀愀椀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀攀愀⸀ 䄀琀 琀栀椀猀 樀甀渀挀琀甀爀攀 一漀爀琀栀 America consisted of a sickle of terrane inclosing Hudson’s਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㌀㌀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㌀㌀✀㸀㄀㌀㌀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 Bay and coming down at its apex to a point not਀洀甀挀栀 爀攀洀漀瘀攀搀 昀爀漀洀 眀栀攀爀攀 伀琀琀愀眀愀 渀漀眀 猀琀愀渀搀猀Ⰰ 椀渀 about latitude 45°—a Labradorian North America਀漀渀氀礀⸀ 吀栀椀猀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 欀攀爀渀攀氀 漀昀 琀栀攀 昀甀琀甀爀攀 挀漀渀琀椀渀攀渀琀Ⰰ 挀甀爀椀漀甀猀氀礀 symbolized the form that continent was later to਀琀愀欀攀⸀ 䘀漀爀 椀琀猀 攀愀猀琀攀爀渀 攀搀最攀 眀愀猀 爀漀甀最栀氀礀 瀀愀爀愀氀氀攀氀 琀漀 琀栀攀 present Atlantic coastline, although much within and਀琀漀 琀栀攀 渀漀爀琀栀 漀昀 椀琀Ⰰ 眀栀椀氀攀 椀琀猀 眀攀猀琀攀爀渀 漀渀攀 眀愀猀 猀椀洀椀氀愀爀氀礀 aligned afar off to the now Pacific slope. Besides this਀挀漀渀琀椀渀攀渀琀 瀀爀漀瀀攀爀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 䄀瀀瀀愀氀愀挀栀椀愀渀Ⰰ 刀漀挀欀礀 䴀漀甀渀琀愀椀渀Ⰰ Sierra Nevada, and Sierra Madre chains stood out of the਀漀挀攀愀渀 椀渀 氀漀渀最Ⰰ 渀愀爀爀漀眀 爀椀搀最攀猀 漀昀 搀攀琀愀挀栀攀搀 氀愀渀搀Ⰰ 漀甀琀氀椀渀椀渀最 in skeleton the bones of the continent that was to be.਀吀栀攀 䈀氀愀挀欀 䠀椀氀氀猀 漀昀 䐀愀欀漀琀愀 愀渀搀 漀琀栀攀爀 栀椀最栀氀愀渀搀猀 洀愀搀攀 here and there islets in the sea.

Much the same backbone-showing of continents yet਀琀漀 戀攀 昀椀氀氀攀搀 漀甀琀 眀愀猀 琀爀甀攀 漀昀 䔀甀爀漀瀀攀Ⰰ 䄀猀椀愀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 匀漀甀琀栀 America. In Europe the northern countries constituted਀愀氀氀 琀栀愀琀 挀漀甀氀搀 戀攀 挀愀氀氀攀搀 挀漀渀琀椀渀攀渀琀愀氀 氀愀渀搀⸀ 䴀漀猀琀 漀昀 Norway, Sweden, Finland, Lapland, existed then, while਀琀栀攀 渀漀爀琀栀攀爀渀 栀愀氀昀 漀昀 匀挀漀琀氀愀渀搀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 漀甀琀攀爀 䠀攀戀爀椀搀攀猀Ⰰ 瀀漀爀琀椀漀渀猀 of Ireland, England, France, and Germany stood਀漀甀琀 愀猀 搀攀琀愀挀栀攀搀 椀猀氀愀渀搀猀⸀ 䘀爀漀洀 琀栀椀猀Ⰰ 眀栀椀挀栀 椀猀 愀 昀愀椀爀 sample of the proportion of land then to land now over਀琀栀攀 漀琀栀攀爀 挀漀渀琀椀渀攀渀琀猀 猀漀 昀愀爀 愀猀 琀栀攀礀 愀爀攀 最攀漀氀漀最椀挀愀氀氀礀 known, we turn to consider more in detail the history਀漀昀 一漀爀琀栀 䄀洀攀爀椀挀愀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀 134਀䈀礀 琀栀攀 琀椀洀攀 琀栀攀 唀瀀瀀攀爀 匀椀氀甀爀椀愀渀 瀀攀爀椀漀搀 挀愀洀攀 椀渀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 Appalachian highlands there had been greatly extended਀愀渀搀 樀漀椀渀攀搀 琀漀 琀栀攀 䰀愀戀爀愀搀漀爀椀愀渀 洀愀椀渀氀愀渀搀 戀礀 挀漀渀琀椀渀甀漀甀猀 territory; otherwise, no important addition had occurred,਀琀栀漀甀最栀 椀猀氀愀渀搀猀 攀洀攀爀最攀搀 椀渀 伀栀椀漀Ⰰ 䬀攀渀琀甀挀欀礀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 Missouri.

਀㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀椀挀 ㄀ ✀㸀 ਀㰀瀀㸀一漀爀琀栀 䄀洀攀爀椀挀愀 愀琀 琀栀攀 漀瀀攀渀椀渀最 漀昀 琀栀攀 唀瀀瀀攀爀 匀椀氀甀爀椀愀渀⸀ ⠀䘀爀漀洀 䐀愀渀愀ᤀ猠 ᰀ䴠愀渀甀愀氀 漀昀 䜀攀漀氀漀最礀⸀ᴀ⤠㰀⼀瀀㸀
਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䄀琀 琀栀攀 挀漀洀洀攀渀挀攀洀攀渀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 䌀愀爀戀漀渀椀挀 攀爀愀 眀栀愀琀 愀爀攀 now the Middle states had begun to fill up from the਀渀漀爀琀栀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 一攀眀昀漀甀渀搀氀愀渀搀Ⰰ 昀爀漀洀 愀 猀洀愀氀氀 椀猀氀愀渀搀 椀渀 琀栀攀 Upper Silurian, had become a great promontory of਀䰀愀戀爀愀搀漀爀Ⰰ 眀栀椀氀攀 琀栀攀 䔀愀猀琀攀爀渀 猀琀愀琀攀猀 爀攀最椀漀渀 愀渀搀 一漀瘀愀 Scotia had risen into being. The movements closing਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㌀㔀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㌀㔀✀㸀㄀㌀㔀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 Paleozoic time upheaved from low islands the Appalachian਀挀栀愀椀渀⸀ 吀栀攀 攀愀爀琀栀ᤀ猠 挀爀甀猀琀 栀攀爀攀 挀爀甀洀瀀氀攀搀 by contraction upon itself; and the movement ended,਀愀猀 䐀愀渀愀 猀愀礀猀Ⰰ 戀礀 洀愀欀椀渀最 搀爀礀 氀愀渀搀 漀昀 琀栀攀 眀栀漀氀攀 攀愀猀琀攀爀渀 half of the continent, along substantially its present਀氀椀渀攀猀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀搀椀瘀 椀搀㴀✀椀开戀开㄀㌀㔀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀昀椀最挀攀渀琀攀爀✀㸀
਀㰀椀洀最 猀爀挀㴀✀椀洀愀最攀猀⼀椀开戀开㄀㌀㔀⸀樀瀀最✀ 愀氀琀㴀✀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀椀最 ㄀㄀✀ ⼀㸀

Map of North America after the Appalachian Revolution. (From Dana’s “Manual of Geology.”)

਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀

Mesozoic time was the period of the making of the਀圀攀猀琀⸀ 䤀琀 眀愀猀 愀渀 攀爀愀 漀昀 搀攀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀 愀渀搀 挀漀椀渀挀椀搀攀渀琀 猀甀戀猀椀搀攀渀挀攀Ⰰ when the western land had its nose just above਀眀愀琀攀爀 愀琀 漀渀攀 洀漀洀攀渀琀 琀漀 戀攀 猀甀戀洀攀爀最攀搀 琀栀攀 渀攀砀琀⸀ Though on the whole this part of the continent was਀攀洀攀爀最椀渀最Ⰰ 琀栀攀 昀愀挀琀 眀愀猀 琀栀愀琀Ⰰ 猀礀渀挀栀爀漀渀漀甀猀氀礀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 136਀猀椀渀欀椀渀最 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀攀愀Ⰰ 洀甀挀栀 漀昀 琀栀攀 氀愀渀搀 昀爀漀洀 琀椀洀攀 琀漀 琀椀洀攀 sank too. The contraction which raised the Appalachian਀漀昀 琀栀攀 刀漀挀欀椀攀猀 愀琀 椀琀猀 挀氀漀猀攀 漀瘀攀爀搀椀搀 琀栀攀 渀攀挀攀猀猀椀琀椀攀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 case and caused subsidence elsewhere. The southeastern਀瀀漀爀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 挀漀渀琀椀渀攀渀琀 猀甀昀昀攀爀攀搀 洀漀猀琀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 圀攀猀琀 on the whole materially gaining. In the Triassic and਀䨀甀爀愀猀猀椀挀 攀爀愀猀 琀栀攀 最愀椀渀 眀愀猀 瀀爀漀渀漀甀渀挀攀搀㬀 椀琀 漀挀挀甀爀爀攀搀 椀渀 the Cretaceous also, but with much alternation of loss.਀䘀椀渀愀氀氀礀Ⰰ 愀琀 琀栀攀 挀氀漀猀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 䌀爀攀琀愀挀攀漀甀猀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 挀漀渀琀椀渀攀渀琀Ⰰ except for a prolonged Gulf of Mexico and vast internal਀氀愀欀攀猀Ⰰ 眀愀猀 猀甀戀猀琀愀渀琀椀愀氀氀礀 挀漀洀瀀氀攀琀攀⸀ Mountains at the beginning of the period and that਀漀昀 琀栀攀 刀漀挀欀椀攀猀 愀琀 椀琀猀 挀氀漀猀攀 漀瘀攀爀搀椀搀 琀栀攀 渀攀挀攀猀猀椀琀椀攀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 case and caused subsidence elsewhere. The southeastern਀瀀漀爀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 挀漀渀琀椀渀攀渀琀 猀甀昀昀攀爀攀搀 洀漀猀琀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 圀攀猀琀 on the whole materially gaining. In the Triassic and਀䨀甀爀愀猀猀椀挀 攀爀愀猀 琀栀攀 最愀椀渀 眀愀猀 瀀爀漀渀漀甀渀挀攀搀㬀 椀琀 漀挀挀甀爀爀攀搀 椀渀 the Cretaceous also, but with much alternation of loss.਀䘀椀渀愀氀氀礀Ⰰ 愀琀 琀栀攀 挀氀漀猀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 䌀爀攀琀愀挀攀漀甀猀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 挀漀渀琀椀渀攀渀琀Ⰰ except for a prolonged Gulf of Mexico and vast internal਀氀愀欀攀猀Ⰰ 眀愀猀 猀甀戀猀琀愀渀琀椀愀氀氀礀 挀漀洀瀀氀攀琀攀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀搀椀瘀 椀搀㴀✀椀开戀开㄀㌀㘀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀昀椀最挀攀渀琀攀爀✀㸀

਀㰀椀洀最 猀爀挀㴀✀椀洀愀最攀猀⼀椀开戀开㄀㌀㘀⸀樀瀀最✀ 愀氀琀㴀✀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀椀最 ㄀㈀✀ ⼀㸀

North America in the Cretaceous period. (From Dana’s “Manual of Geology.”)

਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀

The filling up of these lakes and the reclaiming of਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㌀㜀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㌀㜀✀㸀㄀㌀㜀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 land from the Gulf of Mexico constituted the land-making਀眀漀爀欀 漀昀 吀攀爀琀椀愀爀礀 琀椀洀攀猀⸀ 吀栀攀 攀砀琀攀渀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 lakes in the Eocene era is held to show that the general਀氀攀瘀攀氀 漀昀 琀栀攀 洀漀甀渀琀愀椀渀 瀀氀愀琀攀愀甀 眀愀猀 氀漀眀 愀渀搀 爀漀猀攀 氀愀琀攀爀⸀ So that the gain by the land at this time was greater਀琀栀愀渀 琀栀攀 洀愀瀀 愀氀氀漀眀猀 琀漀 愀瀀瀀攀愀爀⸀ 䈀礀 琀栀攀 戀攀最椀渀渀椀渀最 漀昀 the Quaternary epoch the continents had assumed਀琀栀攀椀爀 瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀 最攀渀攀爀愀氀 愀爀攀愀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 猀椀渀挀攀 琀栀攀渀 琀栀攀椀爀 椀渀琀攀爀渀愀氀 features have alone suffered change.

਀㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀椀挀 ㄀㌀✀㸀 ਀㰀瀀㸀䴀愀瀀 漀昀 一漀爀琀栀 䄀洀攀爀椀挀愀Ⰰ 猀栀漀眀椀渀最 琀栀攀 瀀愀爀琀猀 甀渀搀攀爀 眀愀琀攀爀 椀渀 琀栀攀 吀攀爀琀椀愀爀礀 䔀爀愀㬀 琀栀攀 瘀攀爀琀椀挀愀氀氀礀 氀椀渀攀搀 椀猀 琀栀攀 䔀漀挀攀渀攀⸀ ⠀䘀爀漀洀 䐀愀渀愀ᤀ猠 ᰀ䴠愀渀甀愀氀 漀昀 䜀攀漀氀漀最礀⸀ᴀ⤠㰀⼀瀀㸀
਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䄀 猀椀洀椀氀愀爀 爀椀猀椀渀最 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 猀攀愀 昀攀氀氀 琀漀 琀栀攀 氀漀琀 漀昀 䔀甀爀漀瀀攀Ⰰ though it has not been detailed with so much care. The਀猀欀攀氀攀琀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀愀琀 挀漀渀琀椀渀攀渀琀 眀愀猀 愀琀 琀栀攀 戀攀最椀渀渀椀渀最 漀昀 depositary time much what it is to-day, but a great inland਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㌀㠀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㌀㠀✀㸀㄀㌀㠀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 sea occupied the centre of it, which, as time went਀漀渀Ⰰ 眀愀猀 最爀愀搀甀愀氀氀礀 猀椀氀琀攀搀 椀渀 愀渀搀 攀瘀愀瀀漀爀愀琀攀搀 愀眀愀礀Ⰰ notably during the Upper Silurian period.

From all this it is pretty clear that, side by side with਀愀氀琀攀爀渀愀琀椀渀最 爀椀猀椀渀最猀 愀渀搀 猀椀渀欀椀渀最猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 氀愀渀搀Ⰰ 琀栀攀爀攀 眀愀猀 a tolerably steady gain in the contest by which dry਀最爀漀甀渀搀 搀椀猀瀀漀猀猀攀猀猀攀搀 琀栀攀 猀攀愀⸀ 圀攀 洀愀礀Ⰰ 漀昀 挀漀甀爀猀攀Ⰰ credit this to a general deepening of the ocean bottoms਀搀甀攀 琀漀 挀爀甀洀瀀氀椀渀最 漀昀 琀栀攀 挀爀甀猀琀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 眀攀 洀愀礀 愀氀猀漀 椀洀瀀甀琀攀 it to a loss of water, and that the latter is, at least for਀愀 瀀愀爀琀Ⰰ 椀渀 琀栀攀 攀砀瀀氀愀渀愀琀椀漀渀 琀栀攀 挀漀渀搀椀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 䴀漀漀渀 and Mars makes probable.

Paleontology has the same story of reclamation to਀琀攀氀氀 愀猀 最攀漀氀漀最礀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 眀椀琀栀 愀猀 洀甀挀栀 挀攀爀琀愀椀渀琀礀Ⰰ 琀栀漀甀最栀 椀琀猀 evidence is circumstantial instead of direct and speaks਀昀漀爀 琀栀攀 最爀漀眀椀渀最 椀洀瀀漀爀琀愀渀挀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 氀愀渀搀 椀渀 琀栀攀 最氀漀戀攀ᤀ猠 economy since the beginning of depositary time, and਀琀栀甀猀 椀渀昀攀爀攀渀琀椀愀氀氀礀 琀漀 椀琀猀 椀渀挀爀攀愀猀椀渀最 攀砀琀攀渀琀⸀ 䘀漀猀猀椀氀 remains of the plants and creatures that have one after਀琀栀攀 漀琀栀攀爀 椀渀栀愀戀椀琀攀搀 琀栀攀 攀愀爀琀栀 猀栀漀眀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 氀愀渀搀 栀愀猀 been steadily rising both in floral and faunal estimation਀愀猀 愀 栀愀戀椀琀愀琀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 攀愀爀氀椀攀猀琀 愀最攀猀 琀漀 琀栀攀 瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀 搀愀礀⸀ The record lies imprinted in the strata consecutively਀氀愀椀搀 搀漀眀渀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 攀砀挀攀瀀琀 昀漀爀 最愀瀀猀 爀攀愀搀猀 愀猀 搀椀爀攀挀琀氀礀 漀渀 椀渀 bettering domicile as in evolutionary development.

In Archæan times we find no undisputed evidence਀漀昀 氀椀昀攀 攀椀琀栀攀爀 瘀攀最攀琀愀氀 漀爀 愀渀椀洀愀氀⸀ 䈀甀琀 戀攀搀猀 漀昀 最爀愀瀀栀椀琀攀 139਀愀渀搀 漀昀 氀椀洀攀猀琀漀渀攀 瀀漀椀渀琀 琀漀 琀栀攀 瀀漀猀猀椀戀氀攀 攀砀椀猀琀攀渀挀攀 漀昀 戀漀琀栀⸀ Even anthracite has been found in Archæan rocks in਀一漀爀眀愀礀 愀渀搀 愀氀猀漀 椀渀 刀栀漀搀攀 䤀猀氀愀渀搀⸀ 圀栀攀琀栀攀爀 䐀愀眀猀漀渀ᤀ猠 Eozoon Canadense be a rhizopod or a crystal, doctors਀漀昀 猀挀椀攀渀挀攀 搀椀猀愀最爀攀攀⸀ 䐀愀渀愀Ⰰ 眀栀椀氀攀 愀搀洀椀琀琀椀渀最 渀漀琀栀椀渀最 specific, deems it antecedently probable that algæ਀愀渀搀 氀愀琀攀爀 洀椀挀爀漀猀挀漀瀀椀挀 昀甀渀最椀 爀攀氀愀琀攀搀 琀漀 戀愀挀琀攀爀椀愀 攀砀椀猀琀攀搀 then, living in water well up toward the boiling-point.਀䤀渀搀攀攀搀Ⰰ 椀琀 椀猀 瀀爀愀挀琀椀挀愀氀氀礀 挀攀爀琀愀椀渀 琀栀愀琀 椀渀瘀攀爀琀攀戀爀愀琀攀 氀椀昀攀 existed, because of its already well-developed character਀椀渀 琀栀攀 渀攀砀琀 攀爀愀⸀ 吀栀攀 氀椀欀攀 愀渀琀攀搀愀琀椀渀最 椀猀 椀渀昀攀爀愀戀氀攀 昀漀爀 the whole record of the rocks. Relatively their history਀椀猀 甀渀搀漀甀戀琀攀搀氀礀 昀愀椀爀氀礀 愀挀挀甀爀愀琀攀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 愀戀猀漀氀甀琀攀氀礀 椀琀 洀甀猀琀 be shifted bodily backward into the next preceding era਀琀漀 挀漀爀爀攀猀瀀漀渀搀 眀椀琀栀 昀愀挀琀 渀漀琀 礀攀琀 甀渀攀愀爀琀栀攀搀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䤀渀 琀栀攀 䰀漀眀攀爀 䌀愀洀戀爀椀愀渀Ⰰ 眀栀攀渀 昀椀爀猀琀 琀栀攀 攀砀椀猀琀攀渀挀攀 漀昀 life becomes a certainty, that life, so far as known, was਀眀栀漀氀氀礀 椀渀瘀攀爀琀攀戀爀愀琀攀 愀渀搀 眀栀漀氀氀礀 洀愀爀椀渀攀㬀 爀栀椀稀漀瀀漀搀猀 (probably), sponges and corals, echinoderms, worms,਀戀爀愀挀栀椀漀瀀漀搀猀Ⰰ 洀漀氀氀甀猀欀猀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 挀爀甀猀琀愀挀攀愀渀猀 最爀攀眀 愀洀椀搀 primitive seaweed and have left their houses in the shape਀漀昀 猀栀攀氀氀猀 眀栀椀氀攀 瀀攀爀椀猀栀椀渀最 琀栀攀洀猀攀氀瘀攀猀⸀ 吀栀攀椀爀 琀爀愀挀欀猀 too have thus survived. The trilobites, crustaceans਀猀漀洀攀眀栀愀琀 爀攀猀攀洀戀氀椀渀最 漀甀爀 栀漀爀猀攀猀栀漀攀 挀爀愀戀Ⰰ 眀攀爀攀 琀栀攀 lords of the Cambrian seas and marked the point to਀眀栀椀挀栀 漀爀最愀渀椀挀 攀瘀漀氀甀琀椀漀渀 栀愀搀 琀栀攀渀 愀琀琀愀椀渀攀搀⸀ 吀栀攀椀爀 aquatic character as well as their simple type is shown਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㐀 ✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㐀 ✀㸀㄀㐀 㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 by their thoracic legs having each a natatory appendage.

In the next era, the Lower Silurian, the fauna and਀昀氀漀爀愀 眀攀爀攀 猀琀椀氀氀 洀愀爀椀渀攀Ⰰ 愀氀琀栀漀甀最栀 漀昀 愀 栀椀最栀攀爀 漀爀搀攀爀 琀栀愀渀 before, and in the Trenton period, the upper part of the਀攀爀愀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 攀愀爀氀椀攀猀琀 瘀攀爀琀攀戀爀愀琀攀猀Ⰰ 昀椀猀栀攀猀Ⰰ 挀漀洀攀 甀瀀漀渀 琀栀攀 猀挀攀渀攀㨀 ganoids and possibly sharks. Nothing terrestrial of਀琀栀椀猀 瀀攀爀椀漀搀 栀愀猀 礀攀琀 眀椀琀栀 挀攀爀琀愀椀渀琀礀 戀攀攀渀 甀渀攀愀爀琀栀攀搀 椀渀 America. Europe would seem to have either been more਀愀搀瘀愀渀挀攀搀 琀栀攀渀 漀爀 戀攀琀琀攀爀 猀琀甀搀椀攀搀 猀椀渀挀攀Ⰰ 昀漀爀 琀栀攀爀攀 琀栀攀 first plant higher than a seaweed has been dug up, one਀漀昀 愀 昀爀攀猀栀ⴀ眀愀琀攀爀 最攀渀甀猀 戀攀琀漀欀攀渀椀渀最 琀栀攀 氀愀渀搀㬀 眀栀椀氀攀 椀渀 keeping with this the first insect, an hemipter, also has਀戀攀攀渀 搀椀猀椀渀琀攀爀爀攀搀⸀ 䈀漀琀栀 琀栀攀 最攀漀最爀愀瀀栀礀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 氀椀昀攀 漀昀 the Eopaleozoic period Dana styles “thalassic.”

Neopaleozoic time, beginning with the Upper Silurian,਀洀愀爀欀攀搀 琀栀攀 攀洀攀爀最攀渀挀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 挀漀渀琀椀渀攀渀琀猀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 昀漀氀氀漀眀椀渀最 them the emergence of life from the water on to਀琀栀椀猀 氀愀渀搀⸀ 䤀渀 琀栀攀 氀漀眀攀爀 戀攀搀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 唀瀀瀀攀爀 匀椀氀甀爀椀愀渀 椀渀 America we find only the aquatic forms of previous਀猀琀爀愀琀愀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 椀渀 愀 栀椀最栀攀爀 漀渀攀 眀攀 挀漀洀攀 椀渀 洀愀爀猀栀攀猀 甀瀀漀渀 plants related to the equiseta or horsetails. In਀䔀渀最氀愀渀搀 氀愀渀搀 瀀氀愀渀琀猀 愀瀀瀀攀愀爀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀 昀椀爀猀琀 琀椀洀攀 椀渀 琀栀攀猀攀 latest Silurian beds and in the schists of Angers have਀戀攀攀渀 瀀爀攀猀攀爀瘀攀搀 昀攀爀渀猀⸀ 䤀渀 戀漀琀栀 琀栀攀 漀氀搀 眀漀爀氀搀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 new fossil fishes are found and the oldest terrestrial਀猀瀀攀挀椀攀猀 漀昀 猀挀漀爀瀀椀漀渀猀⸀ 䈀甀琀 琀栀攀 最爀攀愀琀 戀甀氀欀 漀昀 昀漀爀洀猀 眀愀猀 141਀猀琀椀氀氀 洀愀爀椀渀攀㬀 挀漀爀愀氀猀Ⰰ 挀爀椀渀漀椀搀猀Ⰰ 戀爀愀挀栀椀漀瀀漀搀猀Ⰰ 琀爀椀氀漀戀椀琀攀猀 constituting the principal inhabitants. At this time਀琀栀攀 猀攀愀猀 眀攀爀攀 眀愀爀洀Ⰰ 栀愀瘀椀渀最 洀甀挀栀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 琀攀洀瀀攀爀愀琀甀爀攀 between 65° and 80° north as between 30° and 45°;਀琀栀攀 瀀爀攀瘀愀氀攀渀挀攀 漀昀 愀 最攀渀攀爀愀氀 琀攀洀瀀攀爀愀琀攀 琀爀漀瀀椀挀愀氀椀琀礀 戀攀椀渀最 shown by the fact that the common tropical chain਀挀漀爀愀氀猀 氀椀瘀攀搀 椀渀 氀愀琀椀琀甀搀攀 㠀㈀뀀 渀漀爀琀栀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䤀渀 琀栀攀 䐀攀瘀漀渀椀愀渀 攀爀愀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 伀氀搀 刀攀搀 匀愀渀搀猀琀漀渀攀Ⰰ 昀椀猀栀攀猀 grew and multiplied, increasing in size apparently਀琀栀爀漀甀最栀 琀栀攀 攀爀愀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 椀渀 琀栀攀 氀愀猀琀 瀀攀爀椀漀搀 漀昀 椀琀 爀攀愀挀栀椀渀最 their culminating point. These pelagic vertebrates਀洀甀挀栀 猀甀爀瀀愀猀猀攀搀 椀渀 猀琀爀甀挀琀甀爀攀 琀栀攀 琀攀爀爀攀猀琀爀椀愀氀 瀀漀瀀甀氀愀琀椀漀渀 of the time, which was of a low type and consisted of਀椀渀瘀攀爀琀攀戀爀愀琀攀猀 猀甀挀栀 愀猀 洀礀爀椀愀瀀漀搀猀Ⰰ 猀瀀椀搀攀爀猀Ⰰ 猀挀漀爀瀀椀漀渀猀Ⰰ and insects; for the land was only making. In the਀洀椀搀ⴀ䐀攀瘀漀渀椀愀渀Ⰰ 昀漀爀攀猀琀猀 漀昀 愀 瀀爀椀洀椀琀椀瘀攀 欀椀渀搀 挀漀瘀攀爀攀搀 猀甀挀栀 country as there was, an amphibious land, composed਀漀昀 樀甀渀最氀攀猀 愀渀搀 眀椀搀攀猀瀀爀攀愀搀 洀愀爀猀栀攀猀⸀ 吀爀攀攀 昀攀爀渀猀 洀愀搀攀 the bulk of the vegetation, but among them grew also਀挀礀挀愀搀猀 愀渀搀 礀攀眀猀⸀ 䴀愀洀洀漀琀栀 洀愀礀ⴀ昀氀椀攀猀 昀氀椀琀琀攀搀 琀栀爀漀甀最栀 the gloom of these old forests, but no vertebrate as yet਀栀愀搀 氀攀昀琀 琀栀攀 猀攀愀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䘀漀氀氀漀眀椀渀最 甀瀀漀渀 琀栀攀 伀氀搀 刀攀搀 匀愀渀搀猀琀漀渀攀 眀攀爀攀 氀愀椀搀 down the Carbonic strata, and with the Carbonic entered਀甀瀀漀渀 琀栀攀 猀挀攀渀攀 琀栀攀 愀搀瘀愀渀挀攀 猀挀漀甀琀猀 漀昀 愀渀 愀爀洀礀 of progress evolutionarily impelled to spy out the land—the਀昀椀爀猀琀 愀洀瀀栀椀戀椀愀渀猀⸀ 吀栀攀礀 洀愀搀攀 琀栀攀椀爀 搀戀甀琀 椀渀 琀栀攀 142਀匀甀戀挀愀爀戀漀渀椀昀攀爀漀甀猀 猀攀挀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 攀爀愀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 漀氀搀攀猀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 three periods into which the Carbonic is divided,਀挀爀愀眀氀椀渀最 漀甀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀攀愀 琀漀 爀攀琀甀爀渀 愀最愀椀渀 愀渀搀 氀攀愀瘀椀渀最 戀甀琀 footprints at first on the sands of time. In the second਀瀀攀爀椀漀搀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 䌀漀愀氀ⴀ洀攀愀猀甀爀攀猀 瀀爀漀瀀攀爀Ⰰ 琀栀攀礀 瘀攀渀琀甀爀攀搀 猀漀 昀愀爀 as to leave their skeletons on terra firma, or rather਀椀渀昀椀爀洀愀Ⰰ 眀栀椀氀攀 琀栀攀椀爀 琀爀愀挀欀猀 琀栀攀爀攀 猀栀漀眀 琀栀攀洀 琀漀 栀愀瘀攀 been now in great numbers. In this manner the ancestors਀漀昀 琀栀攀 漀氀搀攀猀琀 氀愀渀搀 椀渀栀愀戀椀琀愀渀琀猀 戀攀最愀渀 琀漀 猀琀爀甀最最氀攀 out of the sea. In the Permian, the third and latest਀瀀攀爀椀漀搀 漀昀 瀀愀氀攀漀稀漀椀挀 琀椀洀攀猀Ⰰ 眀攀 昀椀渀搀 琀栀攀椀爀 搀攀猀挀攀渀搀愀渀琀猀 established in their new habitat, for in it we come upon਀琀栀攀 昀椀爀猀琀 爀攀瀀琀椀氀攀猀⸀ 匀甀挀栀 瀀漀猀猀攀猀猀椀漀渀 洀愀爀欀猀 愀 搀椀猀琀椀渀挀琀 step up in function as in fact, for while amphibians਀瘀椀猀椀琀攀搀 搀爀礀 氀愀渀搀Ⰰ 爀攀瀀琀椀氀攀猀 洀愀搀攀 椀琀 琀栀攀椀爀 栀漀洀攀⸀ 吀栀攀 getting out of the water had now, in the case of the਀洀漀爀攀 攀瘀漀氀瘀攀搀 昀漀爀洀猀Ⰰ 戀攀挀漀洀攀 愀渀 愀挀挀漀洀瀀氀椀猀栀攀搀 昀愀挀琀⸀ The reptiles were, indeed, the lowest and most generalized਀漀昀 琀栀攀椀爀 挀氀愀猀猀Ⰰ 刀栀礀渀挀栀漀挀攀瀀栀愀氀椀愀渀猀Ⰰ ᰀ戠攀愀欀ⴀ栀攀愀搀攀搀ᴀ species that by their teeth proclaim their marine਀漀爀椀最椀渀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀椀爀 爀攀氀愀琀椀漀渀猀栀椀瀀 琀漀 琀栀攀 最爀攀愀琀 愀洀瀀栀椀戀椀愀渀猀 that still felt undecided where to stay. Meanwhile,਀椀渀 䔀甀爀漀瀀攀 搀爀愀最漀渀ⴀ昀氀椀攀猀Ⰰ 琀眀漀 昀攀攀琀 愀挀爀漀猀猀Ⰰ 瀀漀猀猀攀猀猀攀搀 琀栀攀 air; while amphibians there, as here, ancestrally preceded਀爀攀瀀琀椀氀攀猀 椀渀 漀挀挀甀瀀礀椀渀最 琀栀攀 氀愀渀搀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䴀攀猀漀稀漀椀挀 琀椀洀攀猀 眀攀爀攀Ⰰ 㰀椀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 氀愀渀最㴀∀昀爀∀ 砀洀氀㨀氀愀渀最㴀∀昀爀∀㸀瀀愀爀 攀砀挀攀氀氀攀渀挀攀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀椀㸀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 愀最攀 漀昀 洀漀渀猀琀攀爀猀㬀 for the Triassic (the New Red Sandstone),਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㐀㌀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㐀㌀✀㸀㄀㐀㌀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 Jurassic and Cretaceous eras marked the reign of the਀爀攀瀀琀椀氀攀猀⸀ 䜀爀攀愀琀 搀椀渀漀猀愀甀爀猀 猀氀攀攀瀀 猀琀椀氀氀 椀渀 琀栀攀 吀爀椀愀猀猀椀挀 strata of the Atlantic border and in the Jurassic of the਀圀攀猀琀攀爀渀 猀琀愀琀攀猀Ⰰ 琀漀 戀攀 甀渀攀愀爀琀栀攀搀 昀爀漀洀 琀椀洀攀 琀漀 琀椀洀攀 and be given mausolea in our museums. Gigantic਀琀栀攀礀 眀攀爀攀 愀渀搀 瘀攀爀礀 氀椀琀攀爀愀氀氀礀 瀀漀猀猀攀猀猀攀搀 琀栀攀 攀愀爀琀栀⸀ 䤀渀 Europe they were substantially as in America during਀琀栀攀猀攀 洀攀猀漀稀漀椀挀 攀爀愀猀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 猀栀漀眀攀搀 琀栀攀椀爀 搀漀洀椀渀愀渀挀攀 戀礀 long survival in time as well as world-wide distribution਀椀渀 猀瀀愀挀攀㬀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀礀 氀椀瘀攀搀 愀氀氀 琀栀攀 眀愀礀 昀爀漀洀 䬀愀渀猀愀猀 琀漀 New Zealand and from the Trias to the Upper Cretaceous.਀䤀琀 椀猀 猀甀瀀瀀漀猀攀搀 戀礀 倀爀漀昀攀猀猀漀爀 伀猀戀漀爀渀 琀栀愀琀 洀愀渀礀 of them, like the herbivorous brontosaurus, waded in਀洀愀爀猀栀攀猀Ⰰ 渀漀琀 眀栀漀氀氀礀 甀渀氀椀欀攀 椀渀 栀愀戀椀琀 琀漀 琀栀攀 洀漀搀攀爀渀 hippopotamus. Others were land-stalking carnivores,਀氀椀欀攀 琀栀攀 洀攀最愀氀漀猀愀甀爀猀 漀昀 愀 氀椀琀琀氀攀 氀愀琀攀爀 搀愀琀攀⸀ 伀昀 攀渀漀爀洀漀甀猀 size, the largest exceeded any animal which has ever਀氀椀瘀攀搀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 眀栀愀氀攀猀 愀氀漀渀攀 攀砀挀攀瀀琀攀搀㬀 琀栀攀 戀椀最最攀猀琀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 atlantosaurus and the brontosaurus, reaching a length਀漀昀 猀椀砀琀礀 昀攀攀琀⸀ 䘀漀爀 愀氀氀 琀栀攀椀爀 戀甀氀欀 琀栀攀礀 栀愀搀 猀挀愀渀琀 戀爀愀椀渀猀Ⰰ just enough to enable them to feed and wallow, probably.਀䤀琀 椀猀 椀渀琀攀爀攀猀琀椀渀最 琀漀 渀漀琀攀 琀栀愀琀 洀愀渀礀 漀昀 琀栀攀 爀攀瀀琀椀氀攀猀Ⰰ the less adventurous, apparently reverted to the਀猀攀愀⸀ 䘀漀爀 琀栀漀甀最栀 琀栀攀 挀爀漀挀漀搀椀氀椀愀渀猀 攀砀椀猀琀攀搀 愀氀爀攀愀搀礀 椀渀 the Trias, the plesiosaurians did not come in till the਀䴀椀搀搀氀攀 吀爀椀愀猀 椀渀 䔀甀爀漀瀀攀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 猀攀愀ⴀ猀攀爀瀀攀渀琀猀 ⠀洀漀猀愀猀愀甀爀甀猀⤀ till the Upper Cretaceous.

਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㐀㐀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㐀㐀✀㸀㄀㐀㐀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 Though the dinosaurs dominated life in those days,਀栀椀最栀攀爀 昀漀爀洀猀Ⰰ 琀栀攀椀爀 搀攀猀挀攀渀搀愀渀琀猀Ⰰ 甀渀渀漀琀椀挀攀搀 眀攀爀攀 最爀愀搀甀愀氀氀礀 creeping in, eventually to supplant them. For਀戀爀愀椀渀 眀愀猀 洀愀欀椀渀最 椀琀猀 眀愀礀 甀渀漀戀琀爀甀猀椀瘀攀氀礀 椀渀 琀栀攀 攀愀爀氀椀攀猀琀 of the mammals, diminutive creatures at first and of the਀氀漀眀攀猀琀 琀礀瀀攀⸀ 䘀椀爀猀琀 愀瀀瀀攀愀爀椀渀最 椀渀 琀栀攀 吀爀椀愀猀 愀猀 猀漀洀攀琀栀椀渀最 approaching the missing link between reptiles਀愀渀搀 洀愀洀洀愀氀猀Ⰰ 琀栀攀礀 氀愀琀攀爀 搀攀瘀攀氀漀瀀攀搀 椀渀琀漀 洀漀渀漀琀爀攀洀攀猀 and marsupials, not rising in differentiation above the਀氀愀琀琀攀爀 漀爀搀攀爀 琀漀 琀栀攀 攀渀搀 漀昀 䴀攀猀漀稀漀椀挀 琀椀洀攀猀⸀ 䄀渀搀 琀栀椀猀 both in the old world and the new. In the Jurassic, too,਀昀氀礀椀渀最 氀椀稀愀爀搀猀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 昀椀爀猀琀 戀椀爀搀猀 愀瀀瀀攀愀爀攀搀Ⰰ 猀栀漀眀椀渀最 their pedigree in their teeth.

With Cenozoic times we come upon the first true or਀瀀氀愀挀攀渀琀愀氀 洀愀洀洀愀氀猀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀椀爀 挀甀氀洀椀渀愀琀椀漀渀 甀瀀 琀漀 搀愀琀攀 in man. In the Eocene they were of a primitive type;਀琀栀攀礀 眀攀爀攀 愀氀猀漀 漀昀 愀 挀漀洀瀀爀攀栀攀渀猀椀瘀攀 漀渀攀Ⰰ 昀椀琀琀攀搀 琀漀 攀愀琀 愀渀礀琀栀椀渀最⸀ From this they specialized, some evolving and਀猀漀洀攀 漀渀 琀栀攀 眀栀漀氀攀 搀攀瘀漀氀瘀椀渀最㬀 琀栀攀 眀栀愀氀攀Ⰰ 昀漀爀 椀渀猀琀愀渀挀攀Ⰰ taking to the water in the Eocene through the same਀搀攀最攀渀攀爀愀琀攀 瀀爀漀挀氀椀瘀椀琀礀 琀栀愀琀 栀愀搀 挀栀愀爀愀挀琀攀爀椀稀攀搀 琀栀攀 猀攀愀ⴀ猀愀甀爀椀愀渀猀 ages before. The earth was growing colder,਀琀栀漀甀最栀 猀琀椀氀氀 昀愀椀爀氀礀 眀愀爀洀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 昀愀氀氀 椀渀 琀攀洀瀀攀爀愀琀甀爀攀 the higher types of life antithetically rose, evolution਀最爀愀搀甀愀氀氀礀 昀椀琀琀椀渀最 琀栀攀洀 琀漀 挀漀瀀攀 眀椀琀栀 洀漀爀攀 愀搀瘀愀渀挀攀搀 conditions. In this manner did the land supplant the਀猀攀愀 愀猀 琀栀攀 攀猀猀攀渀琀椀愀氀 昀攀愀琀甀爀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 攀愀爀琀栀ᤀ猠 猀甀爀昀愀挀攀Ⰰ 昀椀爀猀琀Ⰰ 145਀椀渀 挀漀洀椀渀最 椀渀琀漀 戀攀椀渀最Ⰰ 愀渀搀 琀栀攀渀Ⰰ 戀礀 漀昀昀攀爀椀渀最 挀漀渀搀椀琀椀漀渀猀 fraught with greater possibilities, as the habitat of the਀洀漀猀琀 愀搀瘀愀渀挀攀搀 昀漀爀洀猀 漀昀 氀椀昀攀Ⰰ 戀漀琀栀 瀀氀愀渀琀猀 愀渀搀 愀渀椀洀愀氀猀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀吀栀攀 瀀漀猀猀椀戀椀氀椀琀礀 漀昀 愀搀瘀愀渀挀攀 椀渀 攀瘀漀氀甀琀椀漀渀 眀愀猀 氀愀爀最攀氀礀 due to the fact that the land did thus supplant the sea.਀匀瀀漀渀琀愀渀攀漀甀猀 瘀愀爀椀愀琀椀漀渀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 愀猀 礀攀琀 甀渀攀砀瀀氀愀椀渀攀搀 㰀椀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 氀愀渀最㴀∀氀愀∀ 砀洀氀㨀氀愀渀最㴀∀氀愀∀㸀瀀爀椀洀甀洀 mobile in the genesis of species, is probably to be਀爀攀昀攀爀爀攀搀 琀漀 挀栀攀洀椀猀洀 愀渀搀 椀猀 氀椀欀攀氀礀 氀愀琀攀爀 琀漀 爀攀挀攀椀瘀攀 椀琀猀 solution at the hands of that science. In the meanwhile਀椀琀 椀猀 攀瘀椀搀攀渀琀 琀栀愀琀 甀渀氀攀猀猀 琀栀攀 瘀愀爀椀愀琀椀漀渀 漀戀琀愀椀渀 攀渀挀漀甀爀愀最攀洀攀渀琀 from the environment no advance in type occurs.਀一漀眀 琀栀攀 氀愀渀搀 漀昀昀攀爀猀 琀漀 愀渀 漀爀最愀渀椀猀洀 猀甀昀昀椀挀椀攀渀琀氀礀 攀瘀漀氀瘀攀搀 to benefit by it, opportunities the sea does not possess.਀䘀椀爀猀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀猀攀Ⰰ 甀渀搀漀甀戀琀攀搀氀礀Ⰰ 椀猀 琀栀攀 挀愀爀攀 椀琀 攀渀愀戀氀攀猀 琀漀 戀攀 given to the young. To cast one’s brood upon the਀眀愀琀攀爀猀 椀猀 渀漀琀 琀栀攀 戀攀猀琀 洀攀琀栀漀搀 漀昀 椀渀猀甀爀椀渀最 椀琀猀 戀爀椀渀最椀渀最 甀瀀⸀ There is too much of the uncertainties of wave and current਀琀漀 洀愀欀攀 琀栀攀 瀀爀漀挀攀猀猀 愀 栀攀愀氀琀栀礀 漀渀攀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 攀瘀攀渀 眀栀攀渀 attached to rocks and seaweed, the attachment to a਀洀漀琀栀攀爀 椀猀 琀漀 戀攀 瀀爀攀昀攀爀爀攀搀⸀ 圀椀琀栀漀甀琀 愀 瀀攀爀椀漀搀 漀昀 椀渀昀愀渀挀礀Ⰰ when the young is unable to do for itself, no great਀搀攀瘀攀氀漀瀀洀攀渀琀 椀猀 瀀漀猀猀椀戀氀攀⸀ 䤀渀 琀栀攀 漀渀氀礀 猀琀爀椀欀椀渀最 攀砀挀攀瀀琀椀漀渀Ⰰ the case of the whales, dolphins, and porpoises,਀猀椀稀攀 栀愀猀 瀀爀漀戀愀戀氀礀 挀漀甀渀琀攀搀 昀漀爀 洀甀挀栀 椀渀 琀栀攀 洀愀琀琀攀爀Ⰰ 眀栀椀氀攀 the development of the cetaceans is far behind that਀漀昀 琀栀攀 洀愀樀漀爀椀琀礀 漀昀 氀愀渀搀 洀愀洀洀愀氀猀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䌀栀愀渀最攀 漀昀 瀀氀愀挀攀Ⰰ 渀漀琀 椀渀 搀椀猀琀愀渀挀攀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 椀渀 瘀愀爀椀攀琀礀Ⰰ 椀猀 146਀愀渀漀琀栀攀爀 昀愀挀琀漀爀⸀ 吀栀攀 猀攀愀 椀猀 猀愀洀攀 愀猀 愀 栀愀戀椀琀愀琀Ⰰ 漀渀攀 猀焀甀愀爀攀 mile of it being much like another, except for gradually਀挀栀愀渀最椀渀最 琀攀洀瀀攀爀愀琀甀爀攀⸀ 吀栀攀 氀愀渀搀Ⰰ 漀渀 琀栀攀 漀琀栀攀爀 栀愀渀搀Ⰰ from its accidented surface, presents all manner of਀搀椀瘀攀爀猀椀琀礀 椀渀 琀栀攀 挀漀渀搀椀琀椀漀渀猀⸀ 䄀渀搀 琀栀攀 洀漀爀攀 瘀愀爀椀攀搀 琀栀攀 conditions to which the organism is exposed, the greater਀椀琀猀 漀眀渀 挀漀洀瀀氀攀砀椀琀礀 洀甀猀琀 戀攀 琀漀 攀渀愀戀氀攀 椀琀 琀漀 洀攀攀琀 琀栀攀洀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀吀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 琀攀爀爀攀猀琀爀椀愀氀 猀琀愀最攀 漀昀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀愀爀礀 搀攀瘀攀氀漀瀀洀攀渀琀 is subsequent to the terraqueous one, and must of਀渀攀挀攀猀猀椀琀礀 猀甀挀挀攀攀搀 椀琀 椀昀 琀栀攀 氀愀琀琀攀爀 攀瘀攀爀 攀砀椀猀琀 漀渀 愀 戀漀搀礀Ⰰ follows from the loss of internal heat on the one hand਀愀渀搀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 欀椀渀攀琀椀挀 琀栀攀漀爀礀 漀昀 最愀猀攀猀 漀渀 琀栀攀 漀琀栀攀爀⸀ 吀漀 which of the two to attribute the lion’s share in the਀戀甀猀椀渀攀猀猀 椀猀 洀愀琀琀攀爀 昀漀爀 搀漀甀戀琀㬀 戀甀琀 琀栀愀琀 戀漀琀栀 洀甀猀琀 戀攀 concerned in it we may take for certain.

So long as the internal heat suffices to keep the body਀昀氀甀椀搀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 氀椀焀甀椀搀 椀琀猀攀氀昀 猀攀攀猀 琀漀 椀琀 琀栀愀琀 愀氀氀 椀渀琀攀爀猀琀椀挀攀猀 愀爀攀 filled. As the heat dissipates, the body begins to solidify,਀猀琀愀爀琀椀渀最 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 挀爀甀猀琀⸀ 䘀漀爀 挀漀猀洀椀挀 瀀甀爀瀀漀猀攀猀 椀琀 甀渀搀漀甀戀琀攀搀氀礀 still remains plastic, but cracks of relatively਀猀洀愀氀氀 猀椀稀攀 愀爀攀 戀漀琀栀 昀漀爀洀攀搀 愀渀搀 瀀攀爀猀椀猀琀⸀ 䤀渀琀漀 琀栀攀猀攀 琀栀攀 surface water seeps. With continued refrigeration the਀挀爀甀猀琀 琀栀椀挀欀攀渀猀Ⰰ 洀漀爀攀 挀爀愀挀欀猀 愀爀攀 漀瀀攀渀攀搀 愀渀搀 洀漀爀攀 眀愀琀攀爀 given lodgment within, to the impoverishment of the਀猀攀愀猀⸀ 吀栀攀 瀀爀漀挀攀猀猀 眀漀甀氀搀 挀漀渀琀椀渀甀攀 琀椀氀氀 琀栀攀 瀀爀攀猀猀甀爀攀 漀昀 the crust itself rendered plastic all that lay below, beyond਀眀栀椀挀栀Ⰰ 漀昀 挀漀甀爀猀攀Ⰰ 渀漀 昀椀猀猀甀爀攀猀 挀漀甀氀搀 戀攀 昀漀爀洀攀搀⸀ 147਀䠀漀眀 挀漀洀瀀攀琀攀渀琀 琀漀 猀眀愀氀氀漀眀 愀氀氀 琀栀攀 猀攀愀猀 猀甀挀栀 攀愀爀琀栀 挀甀琀椀挀氀攀 cracks may be we ignore; for we cannot be said to਀欀渀漀眀 洀甀挀栀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀爀漀挀攀猀猀⸀ 圀攀 挀愀渀 漀渀氀礀 椀渀昀攀爀 琀栀愀琀 琀漀 a certain extent internal absorption of surface seas਀洀甀猀琀 洀愀爀欀 愀 猀琀愀最攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 攀瘀漀氀甀琀椀漀渀 戀礀 眀栀椀挀栀 愀 猀琀愀爀 becomes a world and then an inert mass, one of the਀搀愀爀欀 戀漀搀椀攀猀 漀昀 眀栀椀挀栀 猀瀀愀挀攀 椀猀 昀甀氀氀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀伀昀 琀栀攀 漀琀栀攀爀 洀攀愀渀猀 眀攀 欀渀漀眀 洀漀爀攀⸀ 圀攀 愀爀攀 挀攀爀琀愀椀渀 that it must take place, though we are in doubt as to਀琀栀攀 愀洀漀甀渀琀 椀琀 栀愀猀 愀氀爀攀愀搀礀 愀挀挀漀洀瀀氀椀猀栀攀搀⸀ 吀栀椀猀 洀攀琀栀漀搀 of depletion is by the departure of the water in the form਀漀昀 最愀猀Ⰰ 椀渀 挀漀渀猀攀焀甀攀渀挀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 洀漀氀攀挀甀氀愀爀 洀漀琀椀漀渀猀⸀ 䤀昀 眀攀 knew the temperature and the age of Mars and also਀琀栀攀 愀洀漀甀渀琀 漀昀 愀琀洀漀猀瀀栀攀爀攀 漀爀椀最椀渀愀氀氀礀 猀甀爀爀漀甀渀搀椀渀最 椀琀Ⰰ we could possibly predicate its state. Reversely, we਀挀愀渀 椀渀昀攀爀 猀漀洀攀琀栀椀渀最 愀猀 琀漀 愀最攀 愀渀搀 琀攀洀瀀攀爀愀琀甀爀攀 昀爀漀洀 its present condition.

148਀  㰀栀㈀ 椀搀㴀✀挀栀㄀㌀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㘀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀砀氀愀爀最攀✀㸀䌀䠀䄀倀吀䔀刀 堀䤀䤀䤀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀 㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀吀䠀䔀 刀䔀䐀䐀䤀匀䠀ⴀ伀䌀䠀刀䔀 吀刀䄀䌀吀匀㰀⼀栀㈀㸀

Both for their evidence and their extent the great਀漀挀栀爀攀 猀琀爀攀琀挀栀攀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 搀椀猀欀 挀氀愀椀洀 愀琀琀攀渀琀椀漀渀 昀椀爀猀琀⸀ Largely unchangeable, these show essentially the same਀搀愀礀 愀昀琀攀爀 搀愀礀 愀渀搀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 礀攀愀爀ᤀ猠 戀攀最椀渀渀椀渀最 琀漀 椀琀猀 攀渀搀⸀ In hue they range from sand color to a brick red; some਀瀀愀爀琀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀 戀攀椀渀最 最椀瘀攀渀 琀漀 琀栀攀 漀渀攀 琀椀渀琀Ⰰ 猀漀洀攀 to the other. It is to the latter that the fiery tint of਀䴀愀爀猀 琀漀 琀栀攀 渀愀欀攀搀 攀礀攀 椀猀 搀甀攀⸀ 吀栀攀 搀椀昀昀攀爀攀渀挀攀猀 椀渀 挀漀洀瀀氀攀砀椀漀渀 are local and peculiar, both in place and time.਀䘀漀爀 琀栀漀甀最栀 猀愀昀昀爀漀渀 戀攀猀琀 瀀愀椀渀琀猀 琀栀攀 最爀攀愀琀攀爀 瀀愀爀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 light areas, certain localities present at times a red਀氀椀欀攀 琀栀愀琀 漀昀 漀甀爀 爀攀搀 猀愀渀搀猀琀漀渀攀⸀ 䠀攀氀氀愀猀 椀猀 漀渀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀猀攀 ruddy regions and Aeria another. It is only on occasion਀琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀礀 琀栀甀猀 猀栀漀眀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 琀漀 眀栀愀琀 琀漀 愀猀猀椀最渀 琀栀攀椀爀 瘀愀爀椀愀戀椀氀椀琀礀 is as yet matter of conjecture. Possibly it is਀漀眀椀渀最 琀漀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 洀攀琀攀漀爀漀氀漀最椀挀 挀漀渀搀椀琀椀漀渀㬀 瀀漀猀猀椀戀氀礀 to something else. But whatever its origin, the change਀椀猀 渀漀琀 猀漀 洀甀挀栀 挀漀渀琀爀愀搀椀挀琀漀爀礀 漀昀Ⰰ 愀猀 猀甀瀀瀀氀攀洀攀渀琀愀爀礀 琀漀Ⰰ the general fact of unalterableness, which is after all਀琀栀攀 戀愀猀椀挀 琀爀愀椀琀 愀戀漀甀琀 琀栀攀洀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 欀攀礀渀漀琀攀 琀漀 琀栀攀椀爀 condition.

਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㐀㤀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㐀㤀✀㸀㄀㐀㤀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 Land the ochre regions have generally been taken for,਀愀渀搀 氀愀渀搀 琀栀攀礀 猀琀椀氀氀 洀愀欀攀 最漀漀搀 琀栀攀椀爀 挀氀愀椀洀 琀漀 戀攀 挀漀渀猀椀搀攀爀攀搀⸀ For the better they are seen, the greater the਀最爀漀甀渀搀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀 戀攀氀椀攀昀⸀ 䤀渀搀攀攀搀Ⰰ 琀栀攀礀 猀攀攀洀 琀漀 戀攀 渀漀琀栀椀渀最 but ground, or, in other words, deserts. Their਀挀漀氀漀爀 昀椀爀猀琀 瀀漀椀渀琀猀 琀栀攀洀 漀甀琀 昀漀爀 猀甀挀栀⸀ 吀栀攀 瀀愀氀攀 猀愀氀洀漀渀 hue, which best reproduces in drawings the general਀琀椀渀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀椀爀 猀甀爀昀愀挀攀Ⰰ 椀猀 琀栀愀琀 眀栀椀挀栀 漀甀爀 漀眀渀 搀攀猀攀爀琀猀 眀攀愀爀⸀ The Sahara has this look; still more it finds its counterpart਀椀渀 琀栀攀 昀愀爀 愀猀瀀攀挀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 倀愀椀渀琀攀搀 䐀攀猀攀爀琀 漀昀 northern Arizona. To one standing on the summit of਀琀栀攀 匀愀渀 䘀爀愀渀挀椀猀挀漀 倀攀愀欀猀 愀渀搀 最愀稀椀渀最 漀昀昀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀愀琀 椀猀漀氀愀琀攀搀 height upon this other isolation of aridity, the਀爀攀猀攀洀戀氀愀渀挀攀 漀昀 椀琀猀 氀愀洀戀攀渀琀 猀愀昀昀爀漀渀 琀漀 琀栀攀 琀攀氀攀猀挀漀瀀椀挀 tints of the Martian globe is strikingly impressive.਀䘀愀爀 昀漀爀攀猀琀 愀渀搀 猀琀椀氀氀 昀愀爀琀栀攀爀 搀攀猀攀爀琀 愀爀攀 琀爀愀渀猀洀甀琀攀搀 戀礀 distance into mere washes of color, the one robin’s-egg਀戀氀甀攀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 漀琀栀攀爀 爀漀猀攀愀琀攀 漀挀栀爀攀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 猀漀 戀愀琀栀攀搀Ⰰ 戀漀琀栀Ⰰ 椀渀 the flood of sunshine from out a cloudless burnished਀猀欀礀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀椀爀 琀椀渀琀猀 爀椀瘀愀氀 琀栀漀猀攀 漀昀 愀 昀椀爀攀ⴀ漀瀀愀氀⸀ 一漀渀攀 otherwise do the Martian colors stand out upon the਀搀椀猀欀 愀琀 琀栀攀 昀愀爀 攀渀搀 漀昀 琀栀攀 樀漀甀爀渀攀礀 搀漀眀渀 琀栀攀 琀攀氀攀猀挀漀瀀攀ᤀ猠 tube. Even in its mottlings the one expanse recalls਀琀栀攀 漀琀栀攀爀⸀ 吀漀 琀栀攀 倀愀椀渀琀攀搀 䐀攀猀攀爀琀 椀琀猀 瀀爀攀搀漀洀椀渀愀琀椀渀最 tint is given by the new red sandstone of the Trias,਀琀栀攀 猀琀爀愀琀甀洀 栀攀爀攀 攀砀瀀漀猀攀搀㬀 愀渀搀 琀栀椀猀 猀栀漀眀猀 椀渀 愀氀氀 椀琀猀 pristine nakedness because of the lack of water to clothe਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㔀 ✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㔀 ✀㸀㄀㔀 㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 it with any but the sparsest growth. Limestones that਀挀爀漀瀀 漀甀琀 戀攀猀椀搀攀 椀琀 愀爀攀 氀椀最栀琀攀爀 礀攀氀氀漀眀Ⰰ 眀栀椀琀椀猀栀 愀渀搀 猀琀攀攀氀ⴀ最爀愀礀Ⰰ and seen near give the terrane the look of a਀瀀愀椀渀琀攀爀ᤀ猠 瀀愀氀攀琀琀攀⸀ 匀攀攀渀 昀爀漀洀 昀愀爀 琀栀攀礀 栀愀瘀攀 爀愀琀栀攀爀 琀栀攀 tint of sand; and the one effect, like the other, is Martian਀椀渀 氀漀漀欀⸀ 䄀渀搀 愀猀 椀昀 琀漀 愀猀猀椀洀椀氀愀琀攀 琀栀攀 琀眀漀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀愀爀礀 appearances the more, the thread of blue-green that਀愀琀琀攀渀琀椀漀渀 琀爀愀挀攀猀 愀琀栀眀愀爀琀 琀栀攀 倀愀椀渀琀攀搀 䐀攀猀攀爀琀 洀愀爀欀猀 the line of cottonwoods along the banks of the Little਀䌀漀氀漀爀愀搀漀 刀椀瘀攀爀᐀搠攀猀攀爀琀猀 戀漀琀栀Ⰰ 椀昀 氀漀漀欀 戀攀 愀渀礀 最甀愀爀愀渀琀攀攀 of character, with verdure banding them.

In other ways these earthly deserts offer a parallel਀琀漀 琀栀攀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀⸀ 一漀 搀攀猀攀爀琀 漀渀 琀栀攀 䔀愀爀琀栀 椀猀 愀戀猀漀氀甀琀攀氀礀 devoid of life of some kind, vegetal and animal. The਀眀漀爀猀琀 挀漀渀搀椀琀椀漀渀攀搀 愀爀攀 渀漀琀 眀栀愀琀 漀渀攀 椀猀 琀愀甀最栀琀 椀渀 挀栀椀氀搀栀漀漀搀 to believe a desert to be—a vast waste of sand,਀眀椀琀栀 愀 挀愀洀攀氀 愀渀搀 愀 瀀愀氀洀 琀栀爀漀眀渀 椀渀 琀漀 栀攀椀最栀琀攀渀 琀栀攀 sterility. In all Saharas outside of the pages of the਀猀挀栀漀漀氀 戀漀漀欀猀 猀漀洀攀 瘀攀最攀琀愀琀椀漀渀 最爀漀眀猀Ⰰ 琀栀漀甀最栀 椀琀 椀猀 挀漀洀洀漀渀氀礀 not of a kind to boast of, being rather a succés਀搀ᤀ攠猀琀椀洀攀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀椀㸀Ⰰ 愀猀 猀愀最攀戀爀甀猀栀Ⰰ 挀愀挀琀椀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 氀椀欀攀⸀ 䈀甀琀 眀栀愀琀 is of interest here in the connection is its color. For਀椀琀 椀猀 挀漀洀洀漀渀氀礀 漀昀 愀 洀漀爀攀 漀挀栀爀攀椀猀栀 琀椀渀琀 琀栀愀渀 甀猀甀愀氀Ⰰ 椀渀 keeping with its surroundings, a paling out of the green਀琀漀 猀漀洀攀琀栀椀渀最 洀漀爀攀 琀愀眀渀礀Ⰰ 椀渀搀椀挀愀琀椀渀最 愀 爀攀氀愀琀椀瘀攀 爀攀搀甀挀琀椀漀渀 of the chlorophyll and an increase of the lipochromes਀椀渀 琀栀攀 琀椀猀猀甀攀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀琀Ⰰ 猀椀渀挀攀 琀栀攀 漀渀攀 最椀瘀攀猀 151਀琀栀攀 最爀攀攀渀 琀椀渀琀 琀漀 琀栀攀 氀攀愀瘀攀猀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 漀琀栀攀爀 琀栀攀 礀攀氀氀漀眀⸀ 䄀猀 this vegetation, poor as it is, has its annual history,਀椀琀 洀甀猀琀 愀氀琀攀爀 琀栀攀 氀漀漀欀 漀昀 琀栀攀 搀攀猀攀爀琀 愀琀 琀椀洀攀猀 愀渀搀 瀀爀漀搀甀挀攀 precisely those slight variations in tint observable਀漀渀 䴀愀爀猀 椀渀 氀椀欀攀 挀椀爀挀甀洀猀琀愀渀挀攀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀吀栀攀 䄀爀椀稀漀渀愀 搀攀猀攀爀琀 搀愀琀攀猀 昀爀漀洀 渀漀 昀甀爀琀栀攀爀 戀愀挀欀 琀栀愀渀 early Tertiary times, as the limestone of the Cretaceous਀琀栀攀爀攀 瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀 猀栀漀眀猀⸀ 圀愀琀攀爀 琀栀攀渀 猀琀爀攀琀挀栀攀搀 眀栀攀爀攀 desert now is, and the limestone beds were laid down in਀椀琀⸀ 䠀漀眀 漀氀搀 琀栀攀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 匀愀栀愀爀愀猀 愀爀攀 眀攀 栀愀瘀攀 渀漀 洀攀愀渀猀 of knowing. But one thing we may predicate about਀戀漀琀栀㨀 愀 搀攀猀攀爀琀 椀猀 渀漀琀 愀渀 漀爀椀最椀渀愀氀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 愀渀 愀挀焀甀椀爀攀搀Ⰰ 挀漀渀搀椀琀椀漀渀 of a planet’s surface, demonstrably so in the case਀漀昀 愀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀 眀栀椀挀栀 栀愀猀 栀愀搀 愀 猀攀搀椀洀攀渀琀愀爀礀 攀瀀漀挀栀 椀渀 椀琀猀 life-history. In the Arizona desert the surface is composed਀漀昀 搀攀瀀漀猀椀琀愀爀礀 爀漀挀欀猀 漀昀 䴀攀猀漀稀漀椀挀 琀椀洀攀猀Ⰰ 攀砀挀攀瀀琀 where lava streams have flowed down over it since਀琀栀攀渀⸀ 吀栀攀 氀愀渀搀Ⰰ 琀栀攀渀Ⰰ 眀愀猀 漀渀挀攀 甀渀搀攀爀 眀愀琀攀爀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 cannot but have been fertile for some time after it਀攀洀攀爀最攀搀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䈀甀琀 眀攀 愀爀攀 渀漀琀 氀攀昀琀 琀漀 椀渀昀攀爀攀渀挀攀 椀渀 琀栀攀 洀愀琀琀攀爀Ⰰ 栀漀眀攀瘀攀爀 good that inference may be. A little to the south਀漀昀 琀栀攀 倀愀椀渀琀攀搀 䐀攀猀攀爀琀Ⰰ 椀渀 琀栀攀 洀椀搀猀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 戀愀爀爀攀渀 瀀氀愀琀攀愀甀 of northern Arizona, of which the former makes a part,਀猀琀愀渀搀 琀栀攀 爀攀洀愀椀渀猀 漀昀 愀 瀀攀琀爀椀昀椀攀搀 昀漀爀攀猀琀⸀ 䠀甀最攀 挀栀愀氀挀攀搀漀渀礀 trunks of trees, so savingly transmuted into stone਀琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀椀爀 最攀渀甀猀 椀猀 猀琀椀氀氀 搀攀挀椀瀀栀攀爀愀戀氀攀Ⰰ 氀椀攀 猀挀愀琀琀攀爀攀搀 栀攀爀攀 152਀漀瘀攀爀 琀栀攀 戀愀爀爀攀渀 最爀漀甀渀搀 椀渀 眀愀猀琀攀 瀀爀漀昀甀猀椀漀渀Ⰰ 漀渀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀洀 still spanning a cañon just as it fell in that, to it, destructive਀搀愀礀 漀昀 愀 昀愀爀 瀀爀攀栀椀猀琀漀爀椀挀 瀀愀猀琀⸀ 吀栀攀 爀漀挀欀 stratum on which their remains lie is of Triassic and਀䌀爀攀琀愀挀攀漀甀猀 琀椀洀攀猀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 瀀攀琀爀椀昀椀挀愀琀椀漀渀猀 猀栀漀眀 琀栀愀琀 椀渀 the Cretaceous a stately forest overspread the land.਀䤀渀 琀栀漀猀攀 搀愀礀猀 愀琀 氀攀愀猀琀 琀栀攀 猀瀀漀琀 眀愀猀 昀攀爀琀椀氀攀 眀栀攀爀攀 渀漀眀 sparse sagebrush and cacti find a living hard. Not here਀愀氀漀渀攀 眀栀攀爀攀 琀栀攀 戀氀漀挀欀猀 愀爀攀 猀漀 挀漀渀猀瀀椀挀甀漀甀猀 愀猀 琀漀 椀渀瘀椀琀攀 their carrying away is a former flourishing growth of਀瘀攀最攀琀愀琀椀漀渀 愀琀琀攀猀琀攀搀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 漀瘀攀爀 氀愀爀最攀 愀搀樀漀椀渀椀渀最 愀爀攀愀猀 漀昀 desert search has brought the like past tenancy to light.਀䘀爀愀最洀攀渀琀猀 漀昀 眀栀愀琀 漀渀挀攀 眀攀爀攀 琀爀攀攀猀 栀愀瘀攀 戀攀攀渀 瀀椀挀欀攀搀 up in the Little Colorado basin and in the neighborhood਀漀昀 䄀猀栀 䘀漀爀欀Ⰰ 漀渀 戀漀琀栀 猀椀搀攀猀Ⰰ 琀栀愀琀 椀猀Ⰰ 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀 forest crown that covers the higher part of the plateau਀昀爀漀洀 眀栀椀挀栀 爀椀猀攀 琀栀攀 匀愀渀 䘀爀愀渀挀椀猀挀漀 倀攀愀欀猀⸀ 䤀渀 琀栀攀 戀氀甀攀 distance the mountains look down verdure-clad upon਀愀 渀漀眀 攀渀挀椀爀挀氀椀渀最 眀愀猀琀攀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 漀渀攀 眀栀椀挀栀 椀渀 攀愀爀氀椀攀爀 攀爀愀猀 was as pine-bearing as they. Their lofty oasis is all਀琀栀愀琀 椀猀 渀漀眀 氀攀昀琀 漀昀 愀 漀渀挀攀 昀攀爀琀椀氀攀 挀漀甀渀琀爀礀㬀 琀栀攀 爀攀琀爀攀愀琀 of the trees up the slopes in consequence of a diminishing਀爀愀椀渀昀愀氀氀Ⰰ 甀渀琀椀氀 愀 爀椀猀攀 漀昀 琀眀漀 琀栀漀甀猀愀渀搀 昀攀攀琀 昀爀漀洀 what once was timber-land is necessary to reach the਀琀爀攀攀ⴀ氀椀渀攀 漀昀 琀漀搀愀礀Ⰰ 戀攀椀渀最 琀礀瀀椀挀愀氀 漀昀 搀攀猀攀爀琀 氀愀渀搀猀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 testifying to greater aqueous affluence in the past.਀䤀渀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 洀愀渀渀攀爀 猀琀爀攀愀洀猀 搀攀猀挀攀渀搀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 挀攀搀愀爀ⴀ挀氀愀搀 153਀爀愀渀最攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 䰀攀戀愀渀漀渀 琀漀 氀漀猀攀 琀栀攀洀猀攀氀瘀攀猀 椀渀 琀栀攀 Arabian desert just without the doors of Damascus;਀愀渀搀 倀愀氀攀猀琀椀渀攀 栀愀猀 搀攀猀椀挀挀愀琀攀搀 眀椀琀栀椀渀 栀椀猀琀漀爀礀 琀椀洀攀猀⸀ Palestine, a land once flowing with milk and honey,਀挀愀渀 栀愀爀搀氀礀 昀氀漀眀 瀀漀漀爀 眀愀琀攀爀 渀漀眀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 昀甀爀渀椀猀栀攀猀 愀渀漀琀栀攀爀 straw to mark the ebbing of the water supply.

This making of deserts is not a sporadic, accidental,਀漀爀 氀漀挀愀氀 洀愀琀琀攀爀Ⰰ 愀氀琀栀漀甀最栀 氀漀挀愀氀 挀愀甀猀攀猀 栀愀瘀攀 愀戀攀琀琀攀搀 漀爀 hindered it. On the contrary, it is an inevitable result਀漀昀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀愀爀礀 攀瘀漀氀甀琀椀漀渀Ⰰ 愀 瀀栀愀猀攀 漀昀 琀栀愀琀 攀瘀漀氀甀琀椀漀渀 眀栀椀挀栀 follows from what has been said in Chapter XII on਀琀栀攀 愀戀愀渀搀漀渀洀攀渀琀 漀昀 愀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀 戀礀 椀琀猀 眀愀琀攀爀⸀ 䐀攀猀攀爀琀猀 are simply another sign of the same process. The very਀愀最椀渀最 眀栀椀挀栀 戀攀最愀渀 戀礀 搀攀瀀爀椀瘀椀渀最 愀 戀漀搀礀 漀昀 椀琀猀 猀攀愀猀 takes from it later its forest and its grass. A growing਀猀挀愀爀挀椀琀礀 漀昀 眀愀琀攀爀 椀猀 戀漀甀渀搀 琀漀 搀攀瀀愀甀瀀攀爀愀琀攀 琀栀攀 漀渀攀Ⰰ 愀猀 椀琀 depletes the other. We have positive proof of the਀愀挀琀椀漀渀 椀渀 漀甀爀 漀眀渀 搀攀猀攀爀琀猀⸀ 䘀漀爀 琀栀攀猀攀 戀攀愀爀 琀攀猀琀椀洀漀渀礀Ⰰ in places at least, to not having always been so, but਀琀漀 栀愀瘀攀 最爀愀搀甀愀氀氀礀 戀攀挀漀洀攀 猀漀 眀椀琀栀椀渀 爀攀氀愀琀椀瘀攀氀礀 爀攀挀攀渀琀 times. But we have more general proof of the action਀昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀 漀挀挀甀瀀椀攀搀 漀渀 琀栀攀 攀愀爀琀栀ᤀ猠 猀甀爀昀愀挀攀 戀礀 椀琀猀 deserts.

The significant fact about the desert-making so਀猀琀攀愀氀琀栀椀氀礀 最漀椀渀最 漀渀 椀猀 琀栀愀琀 漀渀氀礀 挀攀爀琀愀椀渀 稀漀渀攀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 earth’s surface are affected. Those belting the two਀琀爀漀瀀椀挀猀 漀昀 䌀愀渀挀攀爀 愀渀搀 䌀愀瀀爀椀挀漀爀渀Ⰰ 昀漀爀 猀攀瘀攀爀愀氀 搀攀最爀攀攀猀 154਀漀渀 攀椀琀栀攀爀 猀椀搀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀洀Ⰰ 洀漀猀琀 攀砀栀椀戀椀琀 琀栀攀 瀀栀攀渀漀洀攀渀漀渀⸀ Such positioning of the deserts is not due to chance.਀䐀椀爀攀挀琀氀礀Ⰰ 漀昀 挀漀甀爀猀攀Ⰰ 搀攀猀攀爀琀椀猀洀 椀猀 搀甀攀 琀漀 搀攀愀爀琀栀 漀昀 爀愀椀渀⸀ This in turn depends on the character and condition਀漀昀 琀栀攀 眀椀渀搀猀⸀ 䤀昀 愀 眀椀渀搀 氀愀搀攀渀 眀椀琀栀 洀漀椀猀琀甀爀攀 琀爀愀瘀攀氀 into a colder region of the globe, its moisture is precipitated਀椀渀 爀愀椀渀 愀渀搀 眀攀 栀愀瘀攀 愀 昀攀爀琀椀氀攀 挀漀甀渀琀爀礀㬀 椀昀 椀琀 voyage into a warmer clime it takes up what little਀洀漀椀猀琀甀爀攀 洀愀礀 戀攀 琀栀攀爀攀 愀氀爀攀愀搀礀 愀渀搀 愀 搀攀猀攀爀琀 椀猀 琀栀攀 result.

Now our system of winds is such as to produce a fall਀漀昀 爀愀椀渀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀 搀椀昀昀攀爀攀渀琀 氀愀琀椀琀甀搀攀猀Ⰰ 愀猀 琀愀戀甀氀愀琀攀搀 戀礀 Supan, thus:—

਀ ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㈀㘀✀㸀䤀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀䰀椀琀琀氀攀 爀愀椀渀 椀渀 猀甀洀洀攀爀 戀甀琀 洀甀挀栀 椀渀 眀椀渀琀攀爀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㈀㘀✀㸀䤀䤀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀䰀椀琀琀氀攀 爀愀椀渀 愀琀 愀氀氀 猀攀愀猀漀渀猀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㈀㘀✀㸀䤀䤀䤀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀䰀椀琀琀氀攀 爀愀椀渀 椀渀 眀椀渀琀攀爀 戀甀琀 洀甀挀栀 椀渀 猀甀洀洀攀爀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㈀㘀✀㸀䤀嘀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀䄀戀甀渀搀愀渀琀 爀愀椀渀 愀琀 愀氀氀 猀攀愀猀漀渀猀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㈀㘀✀㸀嘀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀䰀椀琀琀氀攀 爀愀椀渀 椀渀 眀椀渀琀攀爀 戀甀琀 洀甀挀栀 椀渀 猀甀洀洀攀爀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㈀㘀✀㸀嘀䤀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀䰀椀琀琀氀攀 爀愀椀渀 愀琀 愀氀氀 猀攀愀猀漀渀猀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㈀㘀✀㸀嘀䤀䤀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀䰀椀琀琀氀攀 爀愀椀渀 椀渀 猀甀洀洀攀爀 戀甀琀 洀甀挀栀 椀渀 眀椀渀琀攀爀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀愀戀氀攀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㈀㜀✀ 㸀娀漀渀攀猀 䤀䤀 愀渀搀 嘀䤀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 稀漀渀攀猀 漀昀 洀椀渀椀洀甀洀 爀愀椀渀昀愀氀氀Ⰰ 愀爀攀 also those in which the deserts occur. The northern਀漀渀攀 琀爀愀瘀攀爀猀攀猀 猀漀甀琀栀攀爀渀 䌀愀氀椀昀漀爀渀椀愀Ⰰ 䄀爀椀稀漀渀愀Ⰰ 一攀眀 䴀攀砀椀挀漀Ⰰ the Sahara, Arabia, and the Desert of Gobi; the southern,਀倀攀爀甀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 匀漀甀琀栀 䄀昀爀椀挀愀渀 瘀攀氀搀琀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 挀攀渀琀爀愀氀 䄀甀猀琀爀愀氀椀愀⸀ The belts are wavy bands which by their਀昀漀爀洀 戀攀琀爀愀礀 戀漀琀栀 愀 最攀渀攀爀愀氀 甀渀搀攀爀氀礀椀渀最 琀爀攀渀搀 琀漀 搀爀漀甀最栀琀 155਀愀琀 琀栀攀猀攀 瀀愀爀愀氀氀攀氀猀 愀渀搀 愀氀猀漀 琀栀攀 攀昀昀攀挀琀 漀昀 氀漀挀愀氀 琀漀瀀漀最爀愀瀀栀礀 in the matter.

From being distributed thus in belts, it is evident that਀琀栀攀 搀攀猀攀爀琀猀 愀爀攀 最攀渀攀爀愀氀 最氀漀戀攀 瀀栀攀渀漀洀攀渀愀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀椀爀 being found only in the zones of least rainfall, that the਀攀愀爀琀栀 栀愀猀 椀琀猀攀氀昀 攀渀琀攀爀攀搀Ⰰ 琀栀漀甀最栀 渀漀琀 昀愀爀 愀猀 礀攀琀Ⰰ 甀瀀漀渀 the desert stage of its history. Once begun, the desert਀愀爀攀愀猀 洀甀猀琀 瀀攀爀昀漀爀挀攀 猀瀀爀攀愀搀 愀猀 眀愀琀攀爀 戀攀挀漀洀攀猀 猀挀愀爀挀攀Ⰰ invading and occupying territory in proportion as the਀爀愀椀渀昀愀氀氀 琀栀攀爀攀 最爀漀眀猀 猀洀愀氀氀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀一漀眀 琀栀攀 愀砀椀愀氀 琀椀氀琀 漀昀 䴀愀爀猀 椀猀 愀氀洀漀猀琀 攀砀愀挀琀氀礀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 as that of our Earth, the latest determinations from਀琀栀攀 攀渀猀攀洀戀氀攀 漀昀 洀攀愀猀甀爀攀猀 最椀瘀椀渀最 ㈀㐀뀀 昀漀爀 椀琀⸀ 䠀攀爀攀Ⰰ 琀栀攀渀Ⰰ we have initial conditions reproducing those of the਀攀愀爀琀栀⸀ 䈀甀琀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 猀洀愀氀氀攀爀 猀椀稀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀 琀栀愀琀 body would age the earlier, since it would lose its internal਀栀攀愀琀 琀栀攀 洀漀爀攀 爀愀瀀椀搀氀礀Ⰰ 樀甀猀琀 愀猀 愀 猀洀愀氀氀 猀琀漀渀攀 挀漀漀氀猀 sooner than a larger one. On general principles,਀琀栀攀爀攀昀漀爀攀Ⰰ 椀琀 猀栀漀甀氀搀 渀漀眀 戀攀 洀漀爀攀 愀搀瘀愀渀挀攀搀 椀渀 椀琀猀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀愀爀礀 career. In consequence, desertism should have਀漀瘀攀爀琀愀欀攀渀 洀漀爀攀 漀昀 椀琀猀 猀甀爀昀愀挀攀 琀栀愀渀 栀愀猀 礀攀琀 栀愀瀀瀀攀渀攀搀 on earth, and instead of narrow belts of sterility we਀猀栀漀甀氀搀 攀砀瀀攀挀琀 琀漀 昀椀渀搀 琀栀攀爀攀 匀愀栀愀爀愀猀 漀昀 爀攀氀愀琀椀瘀攀氀礀 瘀愀猀琀 extent.

Now, such a state of things is precisely what the਀琀攀氀攀猀挀漀瀀攀 爀攀瘀攀愀氀猀⸀ 吀栀攀 漀挀栀爀攀 琀爀愀挀琀猀 漀挀挀甀瀀礀 渀椀渀攀 琀攀渀琀栀猀 of the northern hemisphere and a third of the southern.਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㔀㘀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㔀㘀✀㸀㄀㔀㘀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 Three fifths, therefore, of the whole surface of the਀瀀氀愀渀攀琀 椀猀 愀 搀攀猀攀爀琀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀搀椀瘀 椀搀㴀✀椀开戀开㄀㔀㘀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀昀椀最挀攀渀琀攀爀✀㸀

਀㰀椀洀最 猀爀挀㴀✀椀洀愀最攀猀⼀椀开戀开㄀㔀㘀⸀樀瀀最✀ 愀氀琀㴀✀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀椀最 ㄀㐀✀ ⼀㸀

Desert areas.

਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀

Of cosmic as well as of particular import is the correlation਀琀栀甀猀 洀愀搀攀 攀瘀椀搀攀渀琀 戀攀琀眀攀攀渀 琀栀攀 瀀栀礀猀椀挀愀氀 瀀爀椀渀挀椀瀀氀攀猀 that effect the aging of a planet and the aspect਀䴀愀爀猀 瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀猀⸀ 䔀砀瀀攀爀椀洀攀渀琀愀氀 挀漀爀爀漀戀漀爀愀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀漀猀攀 laws is thus afforded, while, reversely, confidence in਀琀栀攀椀爀 愀瀀瀀氀椀挀愀戀椀氀椀琀礀 椀猀 椀渀挀爀攀愀猀攀搀⸀ 圀椀琀栀 挀漀渀琀椀渀甀攀搀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀愀琀椀漀渀 the planet appears more desiccate as improved਀挀漀渀搀椀琀椀漀渀猀 戀爀椀渀最 椀琀 渀攀愀爀攀爀⸀ 䐀爀礀 氀愀渀搀 愀猀 椀琀 157਀眀愀猀 琀栀漀甀最栀琀 琀漀 戀攀 瀀爀漀瘀攀猀 攀瘀攀渀 搀爀椀攀爀Ⰰ 猀漀洀攀琀栀椀渀最 眀栀椀挀栀 lacks water for the ordinary necessities of a living਀眀漀爀氀搀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀搀椀瘀 椀搀㴀✀椀开戀开㄀㔀㜀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀昀椀最挀攀渀琀攀爀✀㸀

਀㰀椀洀最 猀爀挀㴀✀椀洀愀最攀猀⼀椀开戀开㄀㔀㜀⸀樀瀀最✀ 愀氀琀㴀✀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀椀最 ㄀㔀✀ ⼀㸀

Desert areas.

਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀

The picture the planet offers to us is thus arid beyond਀瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀 愀渀愀氀漀最甀攀 漀渀 䔀愀爀琀栀⸀ 倀椀琀椀氀攀猀猀 愀猀 漀甀爀 搀攀猀攀爀琀猀 are, they are but faint forecasts of the state of things਀攀砀椀猀琀攀渀琀 漀渀 䴀愀爀猀 愀琀 琀栀攀 瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀 琀椀洀攀⸀ 伀渀氀礀 琀栀漀猀攀 眀栀漀 as travelers have had experience of our own Saharas਀挀愀渀 愀搀攀焀甀愀琀攀氀礀 瀀椀挀琀甀爀攀 眀栀愀琀 䴀愀爀猀 椀猀 氀椀欀攀 愀渀搀 眀栀愀琀 猀漀 waterless a condition means. Only such can understand਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㔀㠀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㔀㠀✀㸀㄀㔀㠀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 what is implied in having the local and avoidable thus਀攀砀琀攀渀搀攀搀 椀渀琀漀 琀栀攀 甀渀攀猀挀愀瀀愀戀氀攀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 眀漀爀氀搀ⴀ眀椀搀攀㬀 愀渀搀 what a terrible significance for everything Martian lies਀椀渀 琀栀愀琀 猀椀渀最氀攀 眀漀爀搀㨀 㰀攀洀㸀搀攀猀攀爀琀㰀⼀攀洀㸀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀栀愀瀀琀攀爀✀㸀 ਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㔀㤀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㔀㤀✀㸀㄀㔀㤀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀

CHAPTER XIV

SUMMARY

਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀搀爀漀瀀ⴀ挀愀瀀愀 开㈀开 开㜀 挀 ㄀㔀✀     㸀䤀昀Ⰰ 渀漀眀Ⰰ 眀攀 爀攀瘀椀攀眀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 洀椀渀搀ᤀ猠 攀礀攀 琀栀攀 猀攀瘀攀爀愀氀 features of Mars which we have surveyed with the਀戀漀搀椀氀礀 漀渀攀Ⰰ 眀攀 猀栀愀氀氀 戀攀 猀甀爀瀀爀椀猀攀搀 琀漀 昀椀渀搀 琀漀 眀栀愀琀 琀栀攀礀 commit us. Suggestive as each is considered by itself,਀琀栀攀 㰀椀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 氀愀渀最㴀∀昀爀∀ 砀洀氀㨀氀愀渀最㴀∀昀爀∀㸀攀渀猀攀洀戀氀攀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀椀㸀 椀渀琀漀 眀栀椀挀栀 琀栀攀礀 挀漀洀戀椀渀攀 瀀爀漀瘀攀猀 漀昀 洀甀氀琀椀瀀氀椀挀愀琀攀 force in its implication. For each turns out਀琀漀 昀椀琀 椀渀琀漀 瀀氀愀挀攀 椀渀 漀渀攀 挀漀渀猀椀猀琀攀渀琀 眀栀漀氀攀Ⰰ 愀 猀挀栀攀洀攀 漀昀 things in which are present all the conditions necessary਀琀漀 琀栀攀 攀砀椀猀琀攀渀挀攀 愀渀搀 挀漀渀琀椀渀甀愀渀挀攀 漀昀 琀栀漀猀攀 瀀爀漀挀攀猀猀攀猀 which constitute what we call life. In short, we are਀挀漀渀搀甀挀琀攀搀 眀椀琀栀 愀 挀漀最攀渀挀礀Ⰰ 眀栀椀挀栀 最爀漀眀猀 愀猀 眀攀 挀漀渀猀椀搀攀爀 it, to the conclusion that Mars is habitable.

Two ways of appreciating this cogency are open to us.਀圀攀 洀愀礀 琀爀攀愀琀 椀琀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 猀椀洀瀀氀攀 爀攀愀猀漀渀椀渀最 漀昀 挀漀洀洀漀渀ⴀ猀攀渀猀攀Ⰰ as we should a dissected map or a piece of machinery਀椀渀 眀栀椀挀栀 眀攀 爀攀愀氀椀稀攀 眀攀 愀爀攀 爀椀最栀琀 眀栀攀渀 琀栀攀 several parts at last fit together and the picture stands਀爀攀瘀攀愀氀攀搀 漀爀 琀栀攀 洀愀挀栀椀渀攀 眀漀爀欀猀⸀ 伀爀 眀攀 洀愀礀 猀甀戀樀攀挀琀 the evidence to quantitative estimates for and against਀戀礀 琀栀攀 搀漀挀琀爀椀渀攀 漀昀 瀀爀漀戀愀戀椀氀椀琀椀攀猀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 琀栀甀猀 攀瘀愀氀甀愀琀攀 the chances of its being correct. Consciously or unconsciously,਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㘀 ✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㘀 ✀㸀㄀㘀 㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 this is what we are about in our decisions਀攀瘀攀爀礀 搀愀礀 漀昀 漀甀爀 氀椀瘀攀猀⸀ 䄀琀 琀栀攀 漀渀攀 攀渀搀 漀昀 琀栀攀 氀椀渀攀 愀爀攀 those skillful judgments where the balance is so keen-edged਀琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 氀攀愀猀琀 漀瘀攀爀眀攀椀最栀琀 漀渀 琀栀攀 漀渀攀 猀椀搀攀 搀椀瀀猀 琀栀攀 scales to a conclusion. At the other extremity stand਀琀栀漀猀攀 搀攀搀甀挀琀椀漀渀猀 眀栀椀挀栀 眀攀 甀猀甀愀氀氀礀 猀瀀攀愀欀 漀昀 愀猀 瀀爀漀瘀攀搀Ⰰ such as the law of gravitation. But both assurances਀爀攀猀琀 爀攀愀氀氀礀 甀瀀漀渀 瀀爀漀戀愀戀椀氀椀琀礀 愀渀搀 搀椀昀昀攀爀 漀渀氀礀 椀渀 搀攀最爀攀攀⸀ What we mean by proof of anything is that a supposition਀愀搀瘀愀渀挀攀搀 琀漀 愀挀挀漀甀渀琀 昀漀爀 椀琀 攀砀瀀氀愀椀渀猀 愀氀氀 琀栀攀 昀愀挀琀猀 and is not opposed to any of them, and that the balance਀漀昀 瀀爀漀戀愀戀椀氀椀琀礀 椀渀 挀漀渀猀攀焀甀攀渀挀攀 椀猀 瘀攀爀礀 氀愀爀最攀氀礀 椀渀 椀琀猀 昀愀瘀漀爀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀一漀眀Ⰰ 椀昀 猀攀瘀攀爀愀氀 瀀椀攀挀攀猀 漀昀 攀瘀椀搀攀渀挀攀Ⰰ 搀椀猀琀椀渀挀琀 椀渀 琀栀攀椀爀 origin, concur to a given conclusion, the probability਀琀栀愀琀 琀栀愀琀 挀漀渀挀氀甀猀椀漀渀 椀猀 挀漀爀爀攀挀琀 椀猀 昀愀爀 最爀攀愀琀攀爀 琀栀愀渀 眀栀愀琀 results from each alone; and mounts up soon to something਀洀甀挀栀 攀砀挀攀攀搀椀渀最 眀栀愀琀 戀攀琀琀漀爀猀 愀琀 爀愀挀攀猀 挀愀氀氀 挀攀爀琀愀椀渀琀礀 odds. However unversed the average man may਀戀攀 椀渀 挀愀氀挀甀氀愀琀椀渀最 琀栀攀 瀀爀漀戀愀戀椀氀椀琀礀Ⰰ 栀攀 爀攀挀漀最渀椀稀攀猀 琀栀攀 昀愀挀琀 in his dealings with his fellows by the way he attaches਀眀攀椀最栀琀 琀漀 挀漀渀挀甀爀爀攀渀琀 琀攀猀琀椀洀漀渀礀⸀ 䤀琀 椀猀 猀甀挀栀 挀漀渀挀甀爀爀攀渀琀 evidence that we have now to consider. To this end਀眀攀 眀椀氀氀 洀愀爀猀栀愀氀 琀栀攀 猀攀瘀攀爀愀氀 昀愀挀琀猀 愀猀挀攀爀琀愀椀渀攀搀 椀渀 愀 猀甀洀洀愀爀椀稀攀搀 list for their easier intercomparison.

These facts are:—

(1) Mars turns on its axis in 24 h. 37 m. 22.65 s. with਀爀攀昀攀爀攀渀挀攀 琀漀 琀栀攀 猀琀愀爀猀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 椀渀 ㈀㐀 栀⸀ ㌀㤀 洀⸀ ㌀㔀⸀  猀⸀ ⠀愀猀 愀 161਀洀攀愀渀⤀ 眀椀琀栀 爀攀最愀爀搀 琀漀 琀栀攀 匀甀渀⸀ 䤀琀猀 搀愀礀Ⰰ 琀栀攀爀攀昀漀爀攀Ⰰ is only about forty minutes longer than ours.

(2) Its axis is tilted to the plane of its orbit by about਀㈀㌀뀀 㔀㤀㈀†⠀洀漀猀琀 爀攀挀攀渀琀 搀攀琀攀爀洀椀渀愀琀椀漀渀Ⰰ ㄀㤀 㔀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㜀崀⤀⸀ 吀栀椀猀 最椀瘀攀猀 the planet seasons almost the counterpart of our own਀椀渀 挀栀愀爀愀挀琀攀爀㬀 戀甀琀 椀渀 氀攀渀最琀栀 渀攀愀爀氀礀 搀漀甀戀氀攀 漀甀爀猀Ⰰ 昀漀爀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀⠀㌀⤀ 䤀琀猀 礀攀愀爀 挀漀渀猀椀猀琀猀 漀昀 㘀㠀㜀 漀昀 漀甀爀 搀愀礀猀Ⰰ 㘀㘀㤀 漀昀 椀琀猀 own.

(4) Polar caps are plainly visible which melt in the਀䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 猀甀洀洀攀爀 琀漀 昀漀爀洀 愀最愀椀渀 椀渀 琀栀攀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 眀椀渀琀攀爀Ⰰ thus implying the presence of a substance deposited਀戀礀 挀漀氀搀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀⠀㔀⤀ 䄀猀 琀栀攀 瀀漀氀愀爀 挀愀瀀猀 洀攀氀琀Ⰰ 琀栀攀礀 愀爀攀 戀漀爀搀攀爀攀搀 戀礀 愀 blue belt, which retreats with them. This excludes the਀瀀漀猀猀椀戀椀氀椀琀礀 漀昀 琀栀攀椀爀 戀攀椀渀最 昀漀爀洀攀搀 漀昀 挀愀爀戀漀渀 搀椀漀砀椀搀攀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 shows that of all the substances we know the material਀挀漀洀瀀漀猀椀渀最 琀栀攀洀 洀甀猀琀 戀攀 眀愀琀攀爀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀⠀㘀⤀ 䤀渀 琀栀攀 挀愀猀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀漀甀琀栀攀爀渀 挀愀瀀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 戀氀甀攀 戀攀氀琀 栀愀猀 widenings in it in places. These occur where the blue-green਀愀爀攀愀猀 戀漀爀搀攀爀椀渀最 甀瀀漀渀 琀栀攀 瀀漀氀愀爀 挀愀瀀 愀爀攀 氀愀爀最攀猀琀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀⠀㜀⤀ 吀栀攀 攀砀琀攀渀猀椀瘀攀 猀栀爀椀渀欀愀最攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀漀氀愀爀 猀渀漀眀猀 猀栀漀眀猀 their quantity to be inconsiderable, and points to਀猀挀愀渀琀礀 搀攀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀 搀甀攀 琀漀 搀攀愀爀琀栀 漀昀 眀愀琀攀爀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀⠀㠀⤀ 吀栀攀 洀攀氀琀椀渀最 琀愀欀攀猀 瀀氀愀挀攀 氀漀挀愀氀氀礀 愀昀琀攀爀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 general order and method, Martian year after year,਀戀漀琀栀 椀渀 琀栀攀 猀漀甀琀栀 挀愀瀀Ⰰ㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀⠀㤀⤀ 䄀渀搀 椀渀 琀栀攀 渀漀爀琀栀 漀渀攀⸀ 吀栀椀猀 椀猀 攀瘀椀搀攀渀挀攀搀 戀礀 琀栀攀 162਀爀攀挀甀爀爀攀渀挀攀 漀昀 爀椀昀琀猀 椀渀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 瀀氀愀挀攀猀 愀渀渀甀愀氀氀礀 椀渀 攀愀挀栀⸀ The water thus let loose can, therefore, be locally਀挀漀甀渀琀攀搀 漀渀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀⠀㄀ ⤀ 吀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 猀漀甀琀栀 瀀漀氀愀爀 挀愀瀀 椀猀 最椀瘀攀渀 琀漀 最爀攀愀琀攀爀 extremes than the north one, implies again, in view਀漀昀 琀栀攀 攀挀挀攀渀琀爀椀挀椀琀礀 漀昀 琀栀攀 漀爀戀椀琀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 琀椀氀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 愀砀椀猀Ⰰ that deposition in both caps is light.

(11) The polar seas at the edges of the caps being਀琀攀洀瀀漀爀愀爀礀 愀昀昀愀椀爀猀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 眀愀琀攀爀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀洀 洀甀猀琀 戀攀 昀爀攀猀栀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀⠀㄀㈀⤀ 吀栀攀 洀攀氀琀椀渀最 漀昀 琀栀攀 挀愀瀀猀 漀渀 琀栀攀 漀渀攀 栀愀渀搀 愀渀搀 their reforming on the other affirm the presence of਀眀愀琀攀爀 瘀愀瀀漀爀 椀渀 琀栀攀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 愀琀洀漀猀瀀栀攀爀攀Ⰰ 漀昀 眀栀愀琀攀瘀攀爀 else that air consist.

(13) Since water vapor is present, of which the਀洀漀氀攀挀甀氀愀爀 眀攀椀最栀琀 椀猀 ㄀㠀Ⰰ 椀琀 昀漀氀氀漀眀猀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 欀椀渀攀琀椀挀 theory of gases that nitrogen, oxygen, and carbonic਀愀挀椀搀Ⰰ 漀昀 洀漀氀攀挀甀氀愀爀 眀攀椀最栀琀猀 ㈀㠀Ⰰ ㌀㈀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 ㌀㠀 爀攀猀瀀攀挀琀椀瘀攀氀礀Ⰰ are probably there, too, owing to being heavier.

(14) The limb-light bears testimony to this atmosphere.

(15) The planet’s low albedo points to a density਀昀漀爀 琀栀攀 愀琀洀漀猀瀀栀攀爀攀 瘀攀爀礀 洀甀挀栀 氀攀猀猀 琀栀愀渀 漀甀爀 漀眀渀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀⠀㄀㘀⤀ 吀栀攀 愀瀀瀀愀爀攀渀琀 攀瘀椀搀攀渀挀攀 漀昀 愀 琀眀椀氀椀最栀琀 最漀攀猀 琀漀 挀漀渀昀椀爀洀 this.

(17) Permanent markings show upon the disk, proving਀琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 猀甀爀昀愀挀攀 椀琀猀攀氀昀 椀猀 瘀椀猀椀戀氀攀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀⠀㄀㠀⤀ 伀甀琀猀椀搀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀漀氀愀爀 挀愀瀀 琀栀攀 搀椀猀欀 椀猀 搀椀瘀椀搀攀搀 椀渀琀漀 163਀爀攀搀ⴀ漀挀栀爀攀 愀渀搀 戀氀甀攀ⴀ最爀攀攀渀 爀攀最椀漀渀猀⸀ 吀栀攀 爀攀搀ⴀ漀挀栀爀攀 stretches have the same appearance as our deserts਀猀攀攀渀 昀爀漀洀 愀昀愀爀Ⰰ㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀⠀㄀㤀⤀ 䄀渀搀 戀攀栀愀瘀攀 愀猀 猀甀挀栀Ⰰ 戀攀椀渀最 戀甀琀 氀椀琀琀氀攀 愀昀昀攀挀琀攀搀 by change.

(20) The blue-green areas were once thought਀琀漀 戀攀 猀攀愀猀⸀ 䈀甀琀 琀栀攀礀 挀愀渀渀漀琀 戀攀 猀甀挀栀Ⰰ 戀攀挀愀甀猀攀 琀栀攀礀 change in tint according to the Martian season, and the਀愀爀攀愀 愀渀搀 愀洀漀甀渀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 氀椀最栀琀攀渀椀渀最 椀猀 渀漀琀 漀昀昀猀攀琀 愀琀 琀栀攀 time by corresponding darkening elsewhere;

(21) Nor by any augmentation of the other polar਀挀愀瀀 漀爀 瀀爀攀挀椀瀀椀琀愀琀椀漀渀 椀渀琀漀 挀氀漀甀搀⸀ 䤀琀 挀愀渀渀漀琀Ⰰ 琀栀攀爀攀昀漀爀攀Ⰰ be due to shift of substance.

(22) Furthermore, they are all seamed by lines and਀猀瀀漀琀猀 搀愀爀欀攀爀 琀栀愀渀 琀栀攀洀猀攀氀瘀攀猀 眀栀椀挀栀 愀爀攀 瀀攀爀洀愀渀攀渀琀 椀渀 place; so that there can be no bodies of water on the਀瀀氀愀渀攀琀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀⠀㈀㌀⤀ 伀渀 琀栀攀 漀琀栀攀爀 栀愀渀搀Ⰰ 琀栀攀椀爀 挀漀氀漀爀Ⰰ 戀氀甀攀ⴀ最爀攀攀渀Ⰰ 椀猀 that of vegetation; this regularly fades out, as vegetation਀眀漀甀氀搀Ⰰ 琀漀 漀挀栀爀攀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀 洀漀猀琀 瀀愀爀琀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 椀渀 瀀氀愀挀攀猀 changes to a chocolate-brown.

(24) The change that comes over them is seasonal਀椀渀 瀀攀爀椀漀搀Ⰰ 愀猀 琀栀愀琀 漀昀 瘀攀最攀琀愀琀椀漀渀 眀漀甀氀搀 戀攀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀⠀㈀㔀⤀ 䔀愀挀栀 栀攀洀椀猀瀀栀攀爀攀 甀渀搀攀爀最漀攀猀 琀栀椀猀 洀攀琀愀洀漀爀瀀栀漀猀椀猀 in turn.

(26) That it is recurrent is again proof positive of਀愀渀 愀琀洀漀猀瀀栀攀爀攀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀 164਀⠀㈀㜀⤀ 吀栀攀 挀栀愀渀最攀猀 愀爀攀 洀攀琀愀戀漀氀椀挀Ⰰ 猀椀渀挀攀 琀栀漀猀攀 椀渀 漀渀攀 direction are later reversed to a restoration of the original਀猀琀愀琀甀猀⸀ 䄀渀愀戀漀氀椀挀 愀猀 眀攀氀氀 愀猀 欀愀琀愀戀漀氀椀挀 瀀爀漀挀攀猀猀攀猀 thus go on there; that is, growth as well as decay takes਀瀀氀愀挀攀⸀ 吀栀椀猀 瀀爀漀瘀攀猀 琀栀攀洀 漀昀 瘀攀最攀琀愀氀 漀爀椀最椀渀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀⠀㈀㠀⤀ 吀栀攀 攀砀椀猀琀攀渀挀攀 漀昀 瘀攀最攀琀愀琀椀漀渀 猀栀漀眀猀 琀栀愀琀 挀愀爀戀漀渀椀挀 acid, oxygen, and undoubtedly nitrogen, are present in਀琀栀攀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 愀琀洀漀猀瀀栀攀爀攀Ⰰ 猀椀渀挀攀 瀀氀愀渀琀猀 最椀瘀攀 漀甀琀 漀砀礀最攀渀 and take in carbonic acid.

(29) The changes in the dark areas follow upon the਀洀攀氀琀椀渀最 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀漀氀愀爀 挀愀瀀猀Ⰰ 渀漀琀 漀挀挀甀爀爀椀渀最 甀渀琀椀氀 愀昀琀攀爀 that melting is under way;

(30) And not immediately then, but only after the਀氀愀瀀猀攀 漀昀 愀 挀攀爀琀愀椀渀 琀椀洀攀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀⠀㌀㄀⤀ 吀栀漀甀最栀 渀漀琀 猀攀愀猀 渀漀眀Ⰰ 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀椀爀 氀漀漀欀 琀栀攀 搀愀爀欀 areas suggest old sea bottoms, and when on the terminator਀愀瀀瀀攀愀爀 愀猀 搀攀瀀爀攀猀猀椀漀渀猀 ⠀眀栀攀琀栀攀爀 戀攀挀愀甀猀攀 爀攀愀氀氀礀 at a lower level or because of less illumination is not਀挀攀爀琀愀椀渀⤀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀⠀㌀㈀⤀ 吀栀愀琀 琀栀攀礀 愀爀攀 渀漀眀 琀栀攀 瀀愀爀琀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀 琀漀 support vegetation hints the same past office, as water਀眀漀甀氀搀 渀愀琀甀爀愀氀氀礀 搀爀愀椀渀 椀渀琀漀 琀栀攀洀⸀ 吀栀愀琀 猀甀挀栀 愀 洀攀琀愀洀漀爀瀀栀漀猀椀猀 should occur with planetary aging is in਀欀攀攀瀀椀渀最 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 欀椀渀攀琀椀挀 琀栀攀漀爀礀 漀昀 最愀猀攀猀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀⠀㌀㌀⤀ 吀攀爀洀椀渀愀琀漀爀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀愀琀椀漀渀猀 瀀爀漀瘀攀 挀漀渀挀氀甀猀椀瘀攀氀礀 that there are no mountains on Mars, but that the਀猀甀爀昀愀挀攀 椀猀 猀甀爀瀀爀椀猀椀渀最氀礀 昀氀愀琀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀 165਀⠀㌀㐀⤀ 䈀甀琀 琀栀攀礀 搀漀 爀攀瘀攀愀氀 挀氀漀甀搀猀 眀栀椀挀栀 愀爀攀 甀猀甀愀氀氀礀 rare and are often, if not always, dust-storms.

(35) White spots are occasionally visible, lasting਀甀渀挀栀愀渀最攀搀 昀漀爀 眀攀攀欀猀Ⰰ 椀渀 琀栀攀 琀爀漀瀀椀挀 愀渀搀 琀攀洀瀀攀爀愀琀攀 爀攀最椀漀渀猀Ⰰ showing that the climate is apparently cold,

(36) But at the same time proving that most of the਀猀甀爀昀愀挀攀 栀愀猀 愀 琀攀洀瀀攀爀愀琀甀爀攀 愀戀漀瘀攀 琀栀攀 昀爀攀攀稀椀渀最ⴀ瀀漀椀渀琀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀⠀㌀㜀⤀ 䤀渀 眀椀渀琀攀爀 琀栀攀 琀攀洀瀀攀爀愀琀攀 稀漀渀攀猀 愀爀攀 洀漀爀攀 漀爀 less covered by a whitish veil, which may be hoar-frost਀漀爀 洀愀礀 戀攀 挀氀漀甀搀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀⠀㌀㠀⤀ 䄀 猀瀀爀椀渀最 栀愀稀攀 猀甀爀爀漀甀渀搀猀 琀栀攀 渀漀爀琀栀 瀀漀氀愀爀 挀愀瀀 during the weeks that follow its most extensive melting.

(39) Otherwise the Martian sky is perfectly clear;਀氀椀欀攀 琀栀愀琀 漀昀 愀 搀爀礀 愀渀搀 搀攀猀攀爀琀 氀愀渀搀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀吀栀攀 眀愀礀 椀渀 眀栀椀挀栀 琀栀攀猀攀 琀栀椀爀琀礀ⴀ渀椀渀攀 愀爀琀椀挀氀攀猀 昀椀琀 椀渀琀漀 one another to a mortised whole is striking enough at਀昀椀爀猀琀 猀椀最栀琀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 戀攀挀漀洀攀猀 洀漀爀攀 愀渀搀 洀漀爀攀 椀洀瀀爀攀猀猀椀瘀攀 琀栀攀 more one considers it. For some are due to one kind਀漀昀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀愀琀椀漀渀Ⰰ 猀漀洀攀 琀漀 愀渀漀琀栀攀爀⸀ 䤀渀 琀栀攀 琀愀欀椀渀最 琀栀攀礀 are unrelated; yet in the result they agree. Equally਀瀀爀攀最渀愀渀琀 椀猀 琀栀攀 栀椀猀琀漀爀礀 漀昀 琀栀攀椀爀 愀挀焀甀椀猀椀琀椀漀渀⸀ 䴀漀猀琀 漀昀 them were detected as the outcome of observations at਀琀栀攀 漀瀀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 ㄀㠀㤀㐀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㄀崀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 氀攀搀 琀漀 琀栀攀 琀栀攀漀爀礀 眀栀椀挀栀 眀愀猀 published in the writer’s first book on the subject.਀伀琀栀攀爀猀 愀爀攀 琀栀攀 爀攀猀甀氀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 昀椀瘀攀 漀瀀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀猀 琀栀愀琀 栀愀瘀攀 since occurred. These have proved entirely corroborative਀漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀爀攀瘀椀漀甀猀 漀渀攀猀 愀渀搀 漀昀 琀栀攀 琀栀攀漀爀礀 琀栀攀渀 搀攀搀甀挀攀搀Ⰰ 166਀愀渀搀 琀栀愀琀 椀渀 琀眀漀 搀椀猀琀椀渀挀琀 眀愀礀猀㨀 昀椀爀猀琀Ⰰ 戀礀 琀栀攀 愀挀挀甀洀甀氀愀琀攀搀 evidence they have brought to the matter along਀琀栀攀 漀氀搀 氀椀渀攀猀㬀 愀渀搀Ⰰ 猀攀挀漀渀搀氀礀Ⰰ 戀礀 眀栀愀琀 琀栀攀礀 栀愀瘀攀 爀攀瘀攀愀氀攀搀 in new directions. Of these thirty-nine articles of਀䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 猀挀椀攀渀琀椀昀椀挀 昀愀椀琀栀 椀渀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀愀琀椀漀渀 漀爀 搀攀搀甀挀琀椀漀渀Ⰰ ⠀㤀⤀Ⰰ (10), (21), (22), (25), (27), (28), (30), (33), (35), (36),਀愀渀搀 ⠀㌀㠀⤀ 愀爀攀 椀渀 眀栀漀氀攀 漀爀 瀀愀爀琀 渀攀眀⸀ 吀栀愀琀 挀漀渀琀椀渀甀攀搀 scrutiny is thus corroborative of the earlier results, both਀愀氀漀渀最 琀栀攀 漀氀搀 愀渀搀 愀氀漀渀最 渀攀眀 氀椀渀攀猀 漀昀 椀渀瘀攀猀琀椀最愀琀椀漀渀Ⰰ 眀愀爀爀愀渀琀猀 additional confidence in the conclusion.

Considering, now, these counts, we see that they਀洀愀欀攀 爀攀愀猀漀渀愀戀氀礀 攀瘀椀搀攀渀琀 漀渀 䴀愀爀猀 琀栀攀 瀀爀攀猀攀渀挀攀 漀昀㨀᐀㰠⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀㄀⸀ 䐀愀礀猀 愀渀搀 猀攀愀猀漀渀猀 猀甀戀猀琀愀渀琀椀愀氀氀礀 氀椀欀攀 漀甀爀 漀眀渀㬀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀㈀⸀ 䄀渀 愀琀洀漀猀瀀栀攀爀攀 挀漀渀琀愀椀渀椀渀最 眀愀琀攀爀 瘀愀瀀漀爀Ⰰ 挀愀爀戀漀渀椀挀 acid, and oxygen;

3. Water in great scarcity;

4. A temperature colder than ours, but above the਀䘀愀栀爀攀渀栀攀椀琀 昀爀攀攀稀椀渀最ⴀ瀀漀椀渀琀Ⰰ 攀砀挀攀瀀琀 椀渀 眀椀渀琀攀爀 愀渀搀 椀渀 琀栀攀 extreme polar regions;

5. Vegetation.

First and foremost of these is air. In order to make਀椀琀 瀀漀猀猀椀戀氀攀 昀漀爀 瘀椀琀愀氀 瀀爀漀挀攀猀猀攀猀 漀昀 愀渀礀 猀漀爀琀 琀漀 琀愀欀攀 瀀氀愀挀攀Ⰰ the body of a planet must be clothed with an atmosphere,਀戀礀 琀栀攀 洀漀搀攀猀琀礀 漀昀 渀愀琀甀爀攀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 漀氀搀 愀猀琀爀漀渀漀洀攀爀猀 would have said. Such a covering subserves two purposes:਀椀琀 欀攀攀瀀猀 漀甀琀 琀栀攀 挀漀氀搀 漀昀 猀瀀愀挀攀Ⰰ 琀栀甀猀 瀀攀爀洀椀琀琀椀渀最 the maintenance of a temperature sufficient to support਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㘀㜀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㘀㜀✀㸀㄀㘀㜀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 life, and it affords a medium through which metabolism਀挀愀渀 最漀 漀渀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀一漀眀 琀栀攀 瀀爀攀猀攀渀挀攀 漀昀 愀椀爀 椀猀 愀琀琀攀猀琀攀搀 昀椀爀猀琀 愀渀搀 昀漀爀攀洀漀猀琀 by the fact of change in the Martian markings, (12),਀⠀㄀㌀⤀Ⰰ ⠀㈀㘀⤀Ⰰ ⠀㈀㠀⤀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 ⠀㌀㔀⤀⸀ 吀栀攀 挀栀愀渀最攀猀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀攀搀 愀爀攀 conspicuous; are both inorganic (in the case of the polar਀挀愀瀀猀⤀Ⰰ ⠀㄀㈀⤀Ⰰ ⠀㄀㌀⤀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 ⠀㌀㔀⤀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 洀攀琀愀戀漀氀椀挀 漀爀 漀爀最愀渀椀挀Ⰰ ⠀㈀㘀⤀ and (28), (in the case of the blue-green areas); that is,਀琀栀攀礀 挀漀渀猀椀猀琀 漀昀 戀甀椀氀搀椀渀最 甀瀀 愀猀 眀攀氀氀 愀猀 漀昀 瀀甀氀氀椀渀最 搀漀眀渀 and are planet-wide in occurrence. Such changes਀挀漀甀氀搀 渀漀琀 漀挀挀甀爀 椀渀 琀栀攀 愀戀猀攀渀挀攀 漀昀 愀渀 愀琀洀漀猀瀀栀攀爀攀⸀ 吀栀攀礀 show that this atmosphere consists of water vapor, (5),਀挀愀爀戀漀渀椀挀 愀挀椀搀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 漀砀礀最攀渀Ⰰ ⠀㈀㠀⤀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀吀栀攀 氀椀洀戀ⴀ氀椀最栀琀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 愀瀀瀀愀爀攀渀琀 攀瘀椀搀攀渀挀攀 漀昀 愀 琀眀椀氀椀最栀琀 arc and the planet’s low albedo indicate that this atmosphere਀椀猀 琀栀椀渀⸀ 吀栀攀 愀瀀瀀攀愀爀愀渀挀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀甀爀昀愀挀攀Ⰰ ⠀㌀㔀⤀Ⰰ 猀甀最最攀猀琀猀 cold, indicative again of a thin air. Such tenuity਀椀猀 椀渀 愀挀挀漀爀搀 眀椀琀栀 眀栀愀琀 㰀椀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 氀愀渀最㴀∀氀愀∀ 砀洀氀㨀氀愀渀最㴀∀氀愀∀㸀愀 瀀爀椀漀爀椀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀椀㸀 瀀爀椀渀挀椀瀀氀攀猀 眀漀甀氀搀 氀攀愀搀 us to expect, and tends to show that reliance on general਀瀀爀椀渀挀椀瀀氀攀猀 椀猀 栀攀爀攀 渀漀琀 洀椀猀瀀氀愀挀攀搀Ⰰ 愀 瀀漀椀渀琀 漀昀 猀漀洀攀 椀渀琀攀爀攀猀琀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䰀愀猀琀氀礀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 漀挀挀甀爀爀攀渀挀攀 漀昀 挀氀漀甀搀猀Ⰰ ⠀㌀㐀⤀Ⰰ 瘀椀猀椀戀氀礀 昀氀漀愀琀椀渀最 and traveling over the surface, and haze at times, (38),਀瀀爀漀瘀攀猀 椀渀 愀渀漀琀栀攀爀 眀愀礀 琀栀攀 攀砀椀猀琀攀渀挀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 洀攀搀椀甀洀 椀渀 which alone this could be possible.

Water is the next substance vital to planetary life.਀䄀猀 琀漀 椀琀猀 愀挀琀甀愀氀 瀀爀攀猀攀渀挀攀 琀栀攀 瀀漀氀愀爀 挀愀瀀猀Ⰰ ⠀㐀⤀ⴀ⠀㄀㈀⤀Ⰰ 栀愀瘀攀 168਀洀漀猀琀 琀漀 猀愀礀㬀 愀猀 琀漀 椀琀猀 爀攀氀愀琀椀瘀攀 愀戀猀攀渀挀攀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 爀攀猀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 disk, (17)-(22). The forthright conception of the polar਀挀愀瀀猀 愀猀 挀漀洀瀀漀猀攀搀 漀昀 猀渀漀眀 愀渀搀 椀挀攀 椀猀 戀漀爀渀攀 漀甀琀 戀礀 昀甀爀琀栀攀爀 investigation into what could cause the observed phenomenon.਀䌀愀爀戀漀渀椀挀 愀挀椀搀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 漀渀氀礀 漀琀栀攀爀 猀甀戀猀琀愀渀挀攀 眀攀 know capable in any way of resembling what we see,਀琀甀爀渀猀 漀甀琀 渀漀琀 挀愀瀀愀戀氀攀 漀昀 瀀爀漀搀甀挀椀渀最 漀渀攀 椀洀瀀漀爀琀愀渀琀 搀攀琀愀椀氀 of the caps’ appearance, the blue band, (5), which਀愀挀挀漀洀瀀愀渀椀攀猀 琀栀攀洀 椀渀 琀栀攀椀爀 爀攀琀爀攀愀琀⸀ 圀愀琀攀爀 愀氀漀渀攀 could do this.

The melting of the caps shows that water vapor must਀戀攀 愀 挀漀渀猀琀椀琀甀攀渀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 愀琀洀漀猀瀀栀攀爀攀⸀ 䴀漀爀攀漀瘀攀爀Ⰰ as the molecular weight of water vapor is less਀琀栀愀渀 琀栀愀琀 漀昀 漀砀礀最攀渀 漀爀 渀椀琀爀漀最攀渀 漀爀 挀愀爀戀漀渀 搀椀漀砀椀搀攀Ⰰ if the former can exist in the atmosphere of the planet,਀㰀椀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 氀愀渀最㴀∀氀愀∀ 砀洀氀㨀氀愀渀最㴀∀氀愀∀㸀愀 昀漀爀琀椀漀爀椀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀椀㸀 洀甀猀琀 琀栀攀猀攀 漀琀栀攀爀 最愀猀攀猀⸀ 匀漀 琀栀愀琀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀椀猀 we have knowledge of the possibility of the presence਀漀昀 漀砀礀最攀渀Ⰰ 渀椀琀爀漀最攀渀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 挀愀爀戀漀渀 搀椀漀砀椀搀攀 琀栀攀爀攀⸀ 䘀爀漀洀 (28) we saw that their actual existence is demonstrated.

The next step is the ascertainment that the water is਀椀渀 瘀攀爀礀 猀洀愀氀氀 愀洀漀甀渀琀⸀ 吀栀攀 攀砀琀攀渀猀椀瘀攀 洀攀氀琀椀渀最 漀昀 琀栀攀 caps, (7), shows their quantity to be inconsiderable,਀眀栀椀挀栀 椀猀 琀栀攀 昀椀爀猀琀 昀愀挀琀 瀀漀椀渀琀椀渀最 琀漀 愀 搀攀愀爀琀栀 漀昀 眀愀琀攀爀⸀ The second comes from the aspect and behavior of the਀爀攀搀搀椀猀栀ⴀ漀挀栀爀攀 爀攀最椀漀渀猀 眀栀椀挀栀 瀀爀漀挀氀愀椀洀 琀栀攀洀 搀攀猀攀爀琀猀Ⰰ ⠀㄀㠀⤀ and (19); the third from the detection of the character਀漀昀 琀栀攀 戀氀甀攀ⴀ最爀攀攀渀 愀爀攀愀猀 愀猀 渀漀琀 猀攀愀猀Ⰰ ⠀㈀ ⤀Ⰰ ⠀㈀㄀⤀Ⰰ 169਀愀渀搀 ⠀㈀㈀⤀⸀ 䤀渀 猀攀瘀攀爀愀氀 搀椀昀昀攀爀攀渀琀 眀愀礀猀Ⰰ 猀琀甀搀礀 漀昀 琀栀攀猀攀 regions asserts their non-aquatic constitution, the਀攀愀猀椀攀猀琀 琀漀 愀瀀瀀爀攀挀椀愀琀攀 戀攀椀渀最 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀礀 愀爀攀 琀爀愀瘀攀爀猀攀搀 by permanent dark lines and other equally sedentary਀洀愀爀欀椀渀最猀Ⰰ ⠀㈀㈀⤀⸀ 一漀 戀漀搀椀攀猀 漀昀 眀愀琀攀爀Ⰰ 琀栀攀爀攀昀漀爀攀Ⰰ 愀爀攀 琀漀 be seen outside of the ephemeral polar seas, immediately਀猀甀爀爀漀甀渀搀椀渀最 琀栀攀 挀愀瀀猀 愀猀 琀栀攀礀 洀攀氀琀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀吀栀椀猀 氀攀愀搀猀 甀猀 琀漀 琀栀攀 琀栀椀爀搀 瀀爀攀猀攀渀挀攀 漀渀 䴀愀爀猀 椀渀搀椀挀愀琀椀瘀攀 of a living world: vegetation. The other two spoke਀漀昀 猀甀戀猀琀愀渀挀攀猀 渀攀挀攀猀猀愀爀礀 琀漀 氀椀昀攀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 瀀爀攀洀椀猀攀猀 椀渀 琀栀攀 挀愀猀攀Ⰰ this one of organic existence itself, its conclusion. The਀攀瘀椀搀攀渀挀攀 挀漀渀猀椀猀琀猀 漀昀 猀琀愀琀椀挀 琀攀猀琀椀洀漀渀礀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 氀漀漀欀 漀昀 琀栀攀 blue-green areas, (23), and of kinematic derived from਀琀栀攀椀爀 戀攀栀愀瘀椀漀爀Ⰰ ⠀㈀㐀⤀Ⰰ ⠀㈀㔀⤀Ⰰ ⠀㈀㘀⤀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 ⠀㈀㜀⤀⸀ 嘀攀最攀琀愀琀椀漀渀 would present exactly the appearance shown by them,਀愀渀搀 渀漀琀栀椀渀最 琀栀愀琀 眀攀 欀渀漀眀 漀昀 戀甀琀 瘀攀最攀琀愀琀椀漀渀 挀漀甀氀搀⸀ But suggestive as their appearance is, it is as nothing਀挀漀洀瀀愀爀攀搀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 挀漀最攀渀琀 琀攀氀氀琀愀氀攀 挀栀愀爀愀挀琀攀爀 漀昀 琀栀攀椀爀 behavior. The seasonal change that sweeps over them਀椀猀 洀攀琀愀戀漀氀椀挀Ⰰ 挀漀渀猀琀爀甀挀琀椀瘀攀 愀猀 眀攀氀氀 愀猀 搀攀猀琀爀甀挀琀椀瘀攀Ⰰ 琀栀愀琀 椀猀Ⰰ and proclaims an organic constitution for them such as਀漀渀氀礀 瘀攀最攀琀愀琀椀漀渀 挀漀甀氀搀 瀀爀漀搀甀挀攀⸀ 䤀渀 琀椀渀琀 琀栀攀椀爀 洀攀琀愀洀漀爀瀀栀漀猀攀猀 are those of the same substance. For the blue-green਀氀愀瀀猀攀猀 椀渀琀漀 漀挀栀爀攀 愀渀搀 爀攀瘀椀瘀攀猀 愀最愀椀渀 琀漀 戀氀甀攀ⴀ最爀攀攀渀 just as vegetation does on our own Earth at the proper਀猀攀愀猀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 礀攀愀爀Ⰰ 琀愀欀椀渀最 戀漀琀栀 琀栀攀 匀甀渀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 愀搀瘀攀渀琀 of water into the reckoning. Furthermore, certain਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㜀 ✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㜀 ✀㸀㄀㜀 㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 of the largest dark areas turn to a chocolate-brown at਀琀椀洀攀猀Ⰰ 眀栀椀挀栀 椀猀 琀栀攀 挀漀氀漀爀 漀昀 昀愀氀氀漀眀 最爀漀甀渀搀 愀渀搀 猀甀最最攀猀琀椀瘀攀Ⰰ at least, as occurring where the blue-green at other਀猀攀愀猀漀渀猀 椀猀 琀栀攀 洀漀猀琀 瀀爀漀渀漀甀渀挀攀搀⸀ 䰀愀猀琀氀礀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 挀栀愀渀最攀 occurs at the epoch at which, from a knowledge of the਀洀攀氀琀椀渀最 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀漀氀愀爀 挀愀瀀猀Ⰰ 琀栀攀漀爀礀 搀攀洀漀渀猀琀爀愀琀攀猀 琀栀愀琀 椀琀 ought to take place if it be due to the action of਀瘀攀最攀琀愀琀椀漀渀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀吀栀愀琀 琀栀椀猀 眀愀猀 琀栀攀 挀愀猀攀 眀愀猀 攀瘀椀搀攀渀琀 昀爀漀洀 洀甀挀栀 氀攀猀猀 information than is forthcoming today; but what is਀猀椀最渀椀昀椀挀愀渀琀Ⰰ 攀愀挀栀 渀攀眀 昀愀挀琀 搀椀猀挀漀瘀攀爀攀搀 愀戀漀甀琀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀 goes to show that it is unquestionably true.

171਀  㰀栀㈀ 椀搀㴀✀瀀㈀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㘀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀砀氀愀爀最攀✀㸀倀䄀刀吀 䤀䤀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀 㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀一伀一ⴀ一䄀吀唀刀䄀䰀 䘀䔀䄀吀唀刀䔀匀㰀⼀栀㈀㸀
173਀  㰀栀㈀ 椀搀㴀✀挀栀㄀㔀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㘀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀砀氀愀爀最攀✀㸀䌀䠀䄀倀吀䔀刀 堀嘀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀 㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀吀䠀䔀 䌀䄀一䄀䰀匀㰀⼀栀㈀㸀

From the detection of the main markings that diversify਀琀栀攀 猀甀爀昀愀挀攀 漀昀 䴀愀爀猀 眀攀 渀漀眀 瀀愀猀猀 琀漀 愀 搀椀猀挀漀瘀攀爀礀 of so unprecedented a character that the scientific਀眀漀爀氀搀 眀愀猀 愀琀 昀椀爀猀琀 氀漀愀琀栀 琀漀 愀挀挀攀瀀琀 椀琀⸀ 伀渀氀礀 瀀攀爀猀椀猀琀攀渀琀 corroboration has finally broken down distrust; and,਀攀瘀攀渀 猀漀Ⰰ 搀漀甀戀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 最攀渀甀椀渀攀渀攀猀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀栀攀渀漀洀攀渀愀 still lingers in the minds of many who have not themselves਀猀攀攀渀 琀栀攀 猀椀最栀琀 戀攀挀愀甀猀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 椀渀栀攀爀攀渀琀 搀椀昀昀椀挀甀氀琀礀 of the observations. For it is not one where confirmation਀洀愀礀 戀攀 猀甀洀洀漀渀攀搀 椀渀 琀栀攀 氀愀戀漀爀愀琀漀爀礀 愀琀 眀椀氀氀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 one demanding that the watcher should wait upon the਀猀欀礀Ⰰ 眀椀琀栀 洀漀爀攀 琀栀愀渀 漀爀搀椀渀愀爀礀 愀挀甀洀攀渀⸀ 吀栀椀猀 氀愀琀琀攀爀ⴀ搀愀礀 revelation is the discovery of the canals.

Quite unlike in look to the main features of the planet’s਀昀愀挀攀 椀猀 琀栀椀猀 猀攀挀漀渀搀 猀攀琀 漀昀 洀愀爀欀椀渀最猀 眀栀椀挀栀 琀爀愀瘀攀爀猀攀 its disk, and which the genius of Schiaparelli disclosed.਀唀渀渀愀琀甀爀愀氀 琀栀攀礀 洀愀礀 眀攀氀氀 戀攀 搀攀攀洀攀搀㬀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀礀 愀爀攀 渀漀琀 in the least what one would expect to see. They਀搀椀昀昀攀爀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 昀椀爀猀琀 挀氀愀猀猀Ⰰ 渀漀琀 椀渀 搀攀最爀攀攀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 椀渀 欀椀渀搀㬀 and the kind is of a wholly unparalleled sort. While਀琀栀攀 昀漀爀洀攀爀 戀攀愀爀 愀 昀愀洀椀氀礀 爀攀猀攀洀戀氀愀渀挀攀 琀漀 琀栀漀猀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 174਀攀愀爀琀栀㬀 琀栀攀 氀愀琀琀攀爀 愀爀攀 瀀攀挀甀氀椀愀爀 琀漀 䴀愀爀猀Ⰰ 昀椀渀搀椀渀最 渀漀 挀漀甀渀琀攀爀瀀愀爀琀 upon the earth at all.

Introduction to the mystery came about in this wise,਀愀渀搀 眀椀氀氀 戀攀 爀攀瀀攀愀琀攀搀 昀漀爀 栀椀洀 眀栀漀 椀猀 猀甀挀挀攀猀猀昀甀氀 椀渀 栀椀猀 search. When a fairly acute eyed observer sets himself਀琀漀 猀挀愀渀 琀栀攀 琀攀氀攀猀挀漀瀀椀挀 搀椀猀欀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀 椀渀 猀琀攀愀搀礀 愀椀爀Ⰰ he will, after noting the dazzling contour of the white਀瀀漀氀愀爀 挀愀瀀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 猀栀愀爀瀀 漀甀琀氀椀渀攀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 戀氀甀攀ⴀ最爀攀攀渀 猀攀愀猀Ⰰ of a sudden be made aware of a vision as of a thread਀猀琀爀攀琀挀栀攀搀 猀漀洀攀眀栀攀爀攀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 戀氀甀攀ⴀ最爀攀攀渀 愀挀爀漀猀猀 琀栀攀 orange areas of the disk. Gone as quickly as it came,਀栀攀 眀椀氀氀 椀渀猀琀椀渀挀琀椀瘀攀氀礀 搀漀甀戀琀 栀椀猀 漀眀渀 攀礀攀猀椀最栀琀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 挀爀攀搀椀琀 to illusion what can so unaccountably disappear. Gaze਀愀猀 栀愀爀搀 愀猀 栀攀 眀椀氀氀Ⰰ 渀漀 瀀漀眀攀爀 漀昀 栀椀猀 挀愀渀 爀攀挀愀氀氀 椀琀Ⰰ 眀栀攀渀Ⰰ with the same startling abruptness, the thing stands਀戀攀昀漀爀攀 栀椀猀 攀礀攀猀 愀最愀椀渀⸀ 䌀漀渀瘀椀渀挀攀搀Ⰰ 愀昀琀攀爀 琀栀爀攀攀 漀爀 昀漀甀爀 such showings, that the vision is real, he will still be਀氀攀昀琀 眀漀渀搀攀爀椀渀最 眀栀愀琀 愀渀搀 眀栀攀爀攀 椀琀 眀愀猀⸀ 䘀漀爀 猀漀 猀栀漀爀琀 and sudden are its apparitions that the locating of਀椀琀 椀猀 搀甀戀椀漀甀猀氀礀 栀愀爀搀⸀ 䤀琀 椀猀 最漀渀攀 攀愀挀栀 琀椀洀攀 戀攀昀漀爀攀 栀攀 has got its bearings.

By persistent watch, however, for the best instants਀漀昀 搀攀昀椀渀椀琀椀漀渀Ⰰ 戀愀挀欀攀搀 戀礀 琀栀攀 欀渀漀眀氀攀搀最攀 漀昀 眀栀愀琀 栀攀 椀猀 to see, he will find its coming more frequent, more਀挀攀爀琀愀椀渀 愀渀搀 洀漀爀攀 搀攀琀愀椀氀攀搀⸀ 䄀琀 氀愀猀琀 猀漀洀攀 瀀愀爀琀椀挀甀氀愀爀氀礀 propitious moment will disclose its relation to well-known਀瀀漀椀渀琀猀 愀渀搀 椀琀猀 瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀 戀攀 愀猀猀甀爀攀搀⸀ 䘀椀爀猀琀 漀渀攀 175਀猀甀挀栀 琀栀爀攀愀搀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀渀 愀渀漀琀栀攀爀 眀椀氀氀 洀愀欀攀 椀琀猀 瀀爀攀猀攀渀挀攀 evident; and then he will note that each always appears਀椀渀 瀀氀愀挀攀⸀ 刀攀瀀攀琀椀琀椀漀渀 㰀椀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 氀愀渀最㴀∀氀愀∀ 砀洀氀㨀氀愀渀最㴀∀氀愀∀㸀椀渀 猀椀琀甀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀椀㸀 眀椀氀氀 挀漀渀瘀椀渀挀攀 栀椀洀 琀栀愀琀 these strange visitants are as real as the main markings,਀愀渀搀 愀爀攀 愀猀 瀀攀爀洀愀渀攀渀琀 愀猀 琀栀攀礀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀匀甀挀栀 椀猀 琀栀攀 攀砀瀀攀爀椀攀渀挀攀 攀瘀攀爀礀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀攀爀 漀昀 琀栀攀洀 栀愀猀 had; and success depends upon the acuteness of the਀漀戀猀攀爀瘀攀爀ᤀ猠 攀礀攀 愀渀搀 甀瀀漀渀 琀栀攀 瀀攀爀猀椀猀琀攀渀挀攀 眀椀琀栀 眀栀椀挀栀 栀攀 watches for the best moments in the steadiest air. Certain਀愀猀 瀀攀爀猀椀猀琀攀渀挀攀 椀猀 琀漀 戀攀 爀攀眀愀爀搀攀搀 愀琀 氀愀猀琀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 搀椀昀昀椀挀甀氀琀礀 inherent in the observations is ordinarily great.਀一漀琀 攀瘀攀爀礀戀漀搀礀 挀愀渀 猀攀攀 琀栀攀猀攀 搀攀氀椀挀愀琀攀 昀攀愀琀甀爀攀猀 愀琀 昀椀爀猀琀 sight, even when pointed out to them; and to perceive਀琀栀攀椀爀 洀漀爀攀 洀椀渀甀琀攀 搀攀琀愀椀氀猀 琀愀欀攀猀 愀 琀爀愀椀渀攀搀 愀猀 眀攀氀氀 愀猀 愀渀 acute eye, observing under the best conditions. When਀猀漀 瘀椀攀眀攀搀Ⰰ 栀漀眀攀瘀攀爀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 搀椀猀欀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀 琀愀欀攀猀 漀渀 愀 most singular appearance. It looks as if it had been਀挀漀戀眀攀戀戀攀搀 愀氀氀 漀瘀攀爀⸀ 匀甀最最攀猀琀椀瘀攀 漀昀 愀 猀瀀椀搀攀爀ᤀ猠 眀攀戀 猀攀攀渀 against the grass of a spring morning, a mesh of fine਀爀攀琀椀挀甀氀愀琀攀搀 氀椀渀攀猀 漀瘀攀爀猀瀀爀攀愀搀猀 椀琀Ⰰ 眀栀椀挀栀 眀椀琀栀 愀琀琀攀渀琀椀漀渀 proves to compass the globe from one pole to the other.਀吀栀攀 挀栀椀攀昀 搀椀昀昀攀爀攀渀挀攀 戀攀琀眀攀攀渀 椀琀 愀渀搀 愀 猀瀀椀搀攀爀ᤀ猠 眀漀爀欀 椀猀 one of size, supplemented by greater complexity, but਀戀漀琀栀 愀爀攀 樀漀礀猀 漀昀 最攀漀洀攀琀爀椀挀 戀攀愀甀琀礀⸀ 䘀漀爀 琀栀攀 氀椀渀攀猀 愀爀攀 漀昀 individually uniform width, of exceeding tenuity, and of਀最爀攀愀琀 氀攀渀最琀栀⸀ 吀栀攀猀攀 愀爀攀 琀栀攀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 挀愀渀愀氀猀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀吀眀漀 猀琀愀最攀猀 椀渀 琀栀攀 爀攀挀漀最渀椀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 爀攀愀氀椀琀礀 挀漀渀昀爀漀渀琀 176਀琀栀攀 瀀攀爀猀攀瘀攀爀椀渀最 瀀氀漀搀搀攀爀㨀 昀椀爀猀琀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 瀀攀爀挀攀瀀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 canals at all; and, second, the realization of their਀瘀攀爀礀 搀攀昀椀渀椀琀攀 挀栀愀爀愀挀琀攀爀⸀ 䤀琀 椀猀 眀栀漀氀氀礀 搀甀攀 琀漀 氀愀挀欀 漀昀 suitable conditions that the true form of the Martian਀氀椀渀攀猀 椀猀 甀猀甀愀氀氀礀 洀椀猀猀攀搀⸀ 䜀椀瘀攀渀 琀栀攀 瀀爀漀瀀攀爀 瀀爀攀爀攀焀甀椀猀椀琀攀猀 of location or of eye, and their pencil-mark peculiarity਀猀琀愀渀搀猀 昀漀爀琀栀 甀渀洀椀猀琀愀欀愀戀氀礀 挀漀渀昀攀猀猀攀搀⸀ 䤀琀 椀猀 漀渀氀礀 眀栀攀爀攀 the seeing or the sight is at fault that the canals either਀昀愀椀氀 琀漀 猀栀漀眀 漀爀 愀瀀瀀攀愀爀 愀猀 搀椀昀昀甀猀攀 猀琀爀攀愀欀猀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 氀愀琀琀攀爀 戀攀椀渀最 a halfway revelation between the reality and their not਀戀攀椀渀最 爀攀瘀攀愀氀攀搀 愀琀 愀氀氀⸀ 䴀甀挀栀 洀椀猀挀漀渀挀攀瀀琀椀漀渀 攀砀椀猀琀猀 漀渀 this point. It has been supposed that improved atmospheric਀挀漀渀搀椀琀椀漀渀猀 猀椀洀瀀氀礀 愀洀漀甀渀琀 琀漀 戀爀椀渀最椀渀最 琀栀攀 object nearer by permitting greater magnification without਀愀氀琀攀爀椀渀最 琀栀攀 栀愀稀礀 氀漀漀欀 漀昀 椀琀猀 搀攀琀愀椀氀⸀㰀愀 椀搀㴀✀爀㈀✀ ⼀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀昀㈀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㈀㈀✀㸀㰀猀甀瀀㸀嬀㈀崀㰀⼀猀甀瀀㸀㰀⼀愀㸀 一漀琀 猀漀⸀ 吀栀攀礀 do much more than this. They steady the object much਀愀猀 椀昀 愀 瀀愀最攀 漀昀 瀀爀椀渀琀 昀爀漀洀 戀攀椀渀最 瘀椀漀氀攀渀琀氀礀 猀栀愀欀攀渀 猀栀漀甀氀搀 suddenly be held still. The observer would at once਀爀攀愀搀 眀栀愀琀 戀攀昀漀爀攀 栀愀搀 攀猀挀愀瀀攀搀 栀椀洀 昀漀爀 戀攀椀渀最 愀 戀氀甀爀⸀ So is it with the canals. In reality, pencilings of extreme਀琀攀渀甀椀琀礀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 愀最椀琀愀琀椀漀渀猀 漀昀 漀甀爀 漀眀渀 愀椀爀 猀瀀爀攀愀搀 琀栀攀洀 into diffuse streaks; an effect of which any one may਀愀猀猀甀爀攀 栀椀洀猀攀氀昀 戀礀 猀甀昀昀椀挀椀攀渀琀氀礀 爀愀瀀椀搀 洀漀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 愀 搀爀愀眀椀渀最 in which they are depicted sharp and distinct, when he਀眀椀氀氀 猀攀攀 琀栀攀洀 琀愀欀攀 漀渀 琀栀攀 猀琀爀攀愀欀礀 氀漀漀欀⸀ 䄀猀 琀栀攀 眀爀椀琀攀爀 has observed them under both aspects, and has seen਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㜀㜀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㜀㜀✀㸀㄀㜀㜀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 them pass from the indefinite to the defined as the਀猀攀攀椀渀最 椀洀瀀爀漀瘀攀搀Ⰰ 栀攀 栀愀猀 栀愀搀 瀀爀愀挀琀椀挀愀氀 瀀爀漀漀昀 漀昀 琀栀攀 昀愀挀琀Ⰰ and this not once, but an untold number of times.

Atmospheric conditions far superior to what are good਀攀渀漀甀最栀 昀漀爀 洀漀猀琀 愀猀琀爀漀渀漀洀椀挀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀愀琀椀漀渀猀 愀爀攀 渀攀攀搀攀搀 for such planetary decipherment, and the observer਀攀砀瀀攀爀椀攀渀挀攀搀 椀渀 琀栀攀 猀甀戀樀攀挀琀 攀瘀攀渀琀甀愀氀氀礀 氀攀愀爀渀猀 栀漀眀 愀氀氀ⴀ椀洀瀀漀爀琀愀渀琀 this is. Under these conditions the testimony਀漀昀 栀椀猀 漀眀渀 攀礀攀猀椀最栀琀 甀瀀漀渀 琀栀攀 挀栀愀爀愀挀琀攀爀 漀昀 琀栀攀猀攀 markings is definite and complete. And the first trait਀琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀渀 攀洀攀爀最攀猀 昀爀漀洀 挀漀渀昀甀猀椀漀渀 椀猀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 洀愀爀欀椀渀最猀 are lines; not simply lines in the sense that any sufficiently਀渀愀爀爀漀眀 愀渀搀 挀漀渀琀椀渀甀漀甀猀 洀愀爀欀椀渀最 洀愀礀 猀漀 戀攀 called, but lines in the far more precise sense in which਀最攀漀洀攀琀爀礀 甀猀攀猀 琀栀攀 琀攀爀洀⸀ 吀栀攀礀 愀爀攀 昀甀爀琀栀攀爀洀漀爀攀 猀琀爀愀椀最栀琀 lines. As Schiaparelli said of them: they look to have਀戀攀攀渀 氀愀椀搀 搀漀眀渀 戀礀 爀甀氀攀 愀渀搀 挀漀洀瀀愀猀猀⸀ 吀栀攀 瘀攀爀礀 洀愀爀瘀攀氀 of the sight has been its own stumbling-block to recognition,਀樀漀椀渀攀搀 琀漀 琀栀攀 搀椀昀昀椀挀甀氀琀礀 漀昀 椀琀猀 搀攀琀攀挀琀椀漀渀⸀ 䘀漀爀 渀漀琀 only is the average observatory not equipped by nature਀昀漀爀 琀栀攀 琀愀猀欀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 眀栀愀琀 椀猀 渀漀琀 最漀漀搀 愀椀爀 漀昀琀攀渀 洀愀猀焀甀攀爀愀搀攀猀 as such. Trains of air waves exist at times so fine਀愀猀 琀漀 挀漀渀昀甀猀攀 琀栀椀猀 搀攀琀愀椀氀Ⰰ 漀爀 攀瘀攀渀 琀漀 漀戀氀椀琀攀爀愀琀攀 椀琀 攀渀琀椀爀攀氀礀㬀 while at the same time they leave the disk seemingly਀猀栀愀爀瀀ⴀ挀甀琀Ⰰ 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 爀攀猀甀氀琀 琀栀愀琀 漀渀攀 渀漀琀 眀攀氀氀 瘀攀爀猀攀搀 in such vagaries thinks to see well when in truth he is਀搀攀戀愀爀爀攀搀 昀爀漀洀 猀攀攀椀渀最 愀琀 愀氀氀⸀ 圀栀攀渀 猀琀甀搀礀 漀昀 琀栀攀 挀漀渀搀椀琀椀漀渀猀 178਀昀椀渀愀氀氀礀 攀渀搀猀 椀渀 瀀甀琀琀椀渀最 栀椀洀 甀瀀漀渀 琀栀攀 爀椀最栀琀 爀漀愀搀Ⰰ the sight that rewards him can hardly be too graphically਀搀攀猀挀爀椀戀攀搀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀一攀砀琀 琀漀 琀栀攀 昀愀挀琀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀礀 愀爀攀 㰀攀洀㸀氀椀渀攀猀㰀⼀攀洀㸀Ⰰ 搀攀昀椀渀椀琀攀渀攀猀猀 漀昀 direction is the chief of their characteristics to strike਀琀栀攀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀攀爀⸀ 吀栀攀 氀椀渀攀猀 爀甀渀 猀琀爀愀椀最栀琀 琀栀爀漀甀最栀漀甀琀 琀栀攀椀爀 course. This is absolutely true of ninety per cent of਀琀栀攀洀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 瀀爀愀挀琀椀挀愀氀氀礀 猀漀 漀昀 琀栀攀 爀攀洀愀椀渀椀渀最 琀攀渀 瀀攀爀 挀攀渀琀Ⰰ since the latter curve in an equally symmetric manner.਀匀甀挀栀 搀椀爀攀挀琀渀攀猀猀 栀愀猀 䤀 欀渀漀眀 渀漀琀 眀栀愀琀 漀昀 椀洀洀攀搀椀愀琀攀 椀洀瀀爀攀猀猀椀瘀攀渀攀猀猀⸀ Quite unlike the aspect of the main਀洀愀爀欀椀渀最猀Ⰰ 眀栀椀挀栀 猀栀漀眀 愀 渀愀琀甀爀愀氀 椀爀爀攀最甀氀愀爀椀琀礀 漀昀 漀甀琀氀椀渀攀Ⰰ these lines offer at the first glance a most unnatural਀爀攀最甀氀愀爀椀琀礀 漀昀 氀漀漀欀⸀ 一漀琀栀椀渀最 漀渀 䔀愀爀琀栀 漀昀 渀愀琀甀爀愀氀 漀爀椀最椀渀 on such a scale bears them analogue. Nor does any਀漀琀栀攀爀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀 猀栀漀眀 琀栀攀 氀椀欀攀⸀ 吀栀攀礀 愀爀攀Ⰰ 椀渀 昀愀挀琀Ⰰ 搀椀猀琀椀渀挀琀椀瘀攀氀礀 Martian phenomena. This is the first point਀椀渀 眀栀椀挀栀 琀栀攀礀 搀椀昀昀攀爀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 洀愀爀欀椀渀最猀 眀攀 栀愀瘀攀 栀椀琀栀攀爀琀漀 described. The others were generic planetary features;਀琀栀攀猀攀 愀爀攀 猀瀀攀挀椀昀椀挀 漀渀攀猀Ⰰ 瀀攀挀甀氀椀愀爀 琀漀 䴀愀爀猀⸀㰀愀 椀搀㴀✀爀㌀✀ ⼀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀昀㌀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㈀㈀✀㸀㰀猀甀瀀㸀嬀㌀崀㰀⼀猀甀瀀㸀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀 179਀䔀焀甀愀氀氀礀 猀琀爀椀欀椀渀最 椀猀 琀栀攀 甀渀椀昀漀爀洀 眀椀搀琀栀 漀昀 攀愀挀栀 氀椀渀攀 昀爀漀洀 its beginning to its end, as it stands out there upon the਀搀椀猀欀⸀ 吀栀攀 氀椀渀攀 瘀愀爀椀攀猀 渀漀琀 椀渀 猀椀稀攀 琀栀爀漀甀最栀漀甀琀 椀琀猀 挀漀甀爀猀攀 any more than it deviates in direction. It counterfeits਀愀 琀攀氀攀最爀愀瀀栀 眀椀爀攀 猀琀爀攀琀挀栀攀搀 昀爀漀洀 瀀漀椀渀琀 琀漀 瀀漀椀渀琀⸀ 䰀椀欀攀 the latter seen afar, the width, too, is telegraphic. For਀椀琀 椀猀 渀漀琀 猀漀 洀甀挀栀 眀椀搀琀栀 愀猀 眀愀渀琀 漀昀 椀琀 琀栀愀琀 椀猀 攀瘀椀搀攀渀琀⸀ Breadth is inferable solely from the fact that the line਀椀猀 猀攀攀渀 愀琀 愀氀氀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 爀攀氀愀琀椀瘀攀 猀椀稀攀 戀礀 搀椀昀昀攀爀攀渀挀攀 漀昀 椀渀猀椀猀琀攀渀挀礀⸀ Indeed, the apparent breadth has been steadily਀挀漀渀琀爀愀挀琀椀渀最 愀猀 琀栀攀 椀渀猀琀爀甀洀攀渀琀愀氀Ⰰ 愀琀洀漀猀瀀栀攀爀椀挀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 瀀攀爀猀漀渀愀氀 conditions have improved. All three of the਀昀愀挀琀漀爀猀 栀愀瘀攀 挀漀渀搀甀挀攀搀 琀漀 猀甀挀栀 攀洀愀挀攀爀愀琀椀漀渀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 琀栀攀 middle one the most. For the air waves spread every਀洀愀爀欀椀渀最Ⰰ 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 攀昀昀攀挀琀 椀猀 爀攀氀愀琀椀瘀攀氀礀 最爀攀愀琀攀猀琀 甀瀀漀渀 琀栀漀猀攀 which are most slender. As the currents of condensation਀愀渀搀 爀愀爀攀昀愀挀琀椀漀渀 瀀甀氀猀攀 愀氀漀渀最Ⰰ 琀栀攀椀爀 搀攀渀猀攀爀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀椀爀 thinner portions refract the rays on either side of their਀琀爀甀攀 瀀氀愀挀攀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 琀栀甀猀 愀琀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 琀椀洀攀 挀漀渀昀甀猀攀 愀 洀愀爀欀椀渀最 and broaden it. The consequence is that the better਀琀栀攀 愀琀洀漀猀瀀栀攀爀椀挀 挀漀渀搀椀琀椀漀渀猀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 洀漀爀攀 琀栀愀琀 栀愀猀 戀攀攀渀 learned about utilizing them, the finer the lines have਀猀栀漀眀渀 琀栀攀洀猀攀氀瘀攀猀 琀漀 戀攀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䠀攀爀攀椀渀 眀攀 栀愀瘀攀 愀 猀瀀攀挀椀昀椀挀 椀渀琀爀椀渀猀椀挀 搀椀昀昀攀爀攀渀挀攀 戀攀琀眀攀攀渀 the fundamental features and these lines: the main਀洀愀爀欀椀渀最猀 栀愀瘀攀 攀砀琀攀渀猀椀漀渀 椀渀 琀眀漀 搀椀洀攀渀猀椀漀渀猀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 氀愀琀琀攀爀 in one.

਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㠀 ✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㠀 ✀㸀㄀㠀 㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 Distinctive as they thus are, they have, in keeping with਀琀栀攀椀爀 愀瀀瀀攀愀爀愀渀挀攀Ⰰ 戀攀攀渀 最椀瘀攀渀 愀 搀椀猀琀椀渀挀琀椀瘀攀 渀愀洀攀Ⰰ 琀栀愀琀 漀昀 canal. Useful as the name is and, as we shall later see,਀愀瀀瀀氀椀挀愀戀氀攀Ⰰ 椀琀 洀甀猀琀 渀漀琀 戀攀 猀甀瀀瀀漀猀攀搀 琀栀愀琀 眀栀愀琀 眀攀 猀攀攀 are such in any simple sense. No observer of them has਀攀瘀攀爀 挀漀渀猀椀搀攀爀攀搀 琀栀攀洀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 搀甀最 氀椀欀攀 琀栀攀 匀甀攀稀 䌀愀渀愀氀 or the phœnix-like Panama one. This supposition਀椀猀 攀砀挀氀甀猀椀瘀攀氀礀 漀昀 挀爀椀琀椀挀 挀爀攀愀琀椀漀渀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀吀栀攀椀爀 瀀爀攀挀椀猀攀 眀椀搀琀栀 椀猀 渀漀琀 瀀爀攀挀椀猀愀戀氀攀⸀ 吀栀攀礀 猀栀漀眀 no measurable breadth and their size, therefore, admits਀昀漀爀 挀攀爀琀愀椀渀 漀渀氀礀 漀昀 愀渀 漀甀琀猀椀搀攀 氀椀洀椀琀⸀ 吀栀攀礀 挀愀渀渀漀琀 be wider than a determinable maximum, but they may਀戀攀 洀甀挀栀 氀攀猀猀 琀栀愀渀 琀栀椀猀⸀ 吀栀攀 猀漀氀攀 洀攀琀栀漀搀 漀昀 攀猀琀椀洀愀琀椀渀最 their width is by comparison of effect with a wire of਀欀渀漀眀渀 挀愀氀椀戀攀爀 愀琀 愀 欀渀漀眀渀 搀椀猀琀愀渀挀攀⸀ 䘀漀爀 琀栀椀猀 瀀甀爀瀀漀猀攀 a telegraph wire was stretched against the sky at਀䘀氀愀最猀琀愀昀昀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀攀爀猀Ⰰ 最漀椀渀最 戀愀挀欀 甀瀀漀渀 琀栀攀 洀攀猀愀Ⰰ observed and recorded its appearance as their stations਀最爀攀眀 爀攀洀漀琀攀⸀ 䤀琀 瀀爀漀瘀攀搀 猀甀爀瀀爀椀猀椀渀最 愀琀 眀栀愀琀 最爀攀愀琀 搀椀猀琀愀渀挀攀猀 a slender wire could be made out when thus਀瀀爀漀樀攀挀琀攀搀 愀最愀椀渀猀琀 琀栀攀 猀欀礀⸀ 吀栀攀 眀椀爀攀 椀渀 琀栀攀 攀砀瀀攀爀椀洀攀渀琀 was but 0.0726 of an inch in diameter and yet could be਀猀攀攀渀 眀椀琀栀 挀攀爀琀愀椀渀琀礀 愀琀 愀 搀椀猀琀愀渀挀攀 漀昀 ㄀㠀   昀攀攀琀Ⰰ 愀琀 眀栀椀挀栀 point its diameter subtended only 0.69 of a second of਀愀爀挀⸀ 䠀漀眀 猀洀愀氀氀 琀栀椀猀 焀甀愀渀琀椀琀礀 椀猀 洀愀礀 戀攀 愀瀀瀀爀攀挀椀愀琀攀搀 from its taking more than ninety such lines laid side਀戀礀 猀椀搀攀 琀漀 洀愀欀攀 愀 眀椀搀琀栀 搀椀瘀椀猀椀戀氀攀 戀礀 琀栀攀 攀礀攀⸀ 匀甀挀栀 181਀猀氀攀渀搀攀爀渀攀猀猀 愀琀 琀栀攀 琀栀攀渀 搀椀猀琀愀渀挀攀 漀昀 䴀愀爀猀 眀漀甀氀搀 挀漀爀爀攀猀瀀漀渀搀Ⰰ under the magnification commonly used, only਀琀漀 琀栀爀攀攀 焀甀愀爀琀攀爀猀 漀昀 愀 洀椀氀攀⸀ 吀栀攀漀爀攀琀椀挀愀氀氀礀Ⰰ 琀栀攀渀Ⰰ 愀 氀椀渀攀 three quarters of a mile wide there should be visible਀琀漀 甀猀⸀ 倀爀愀挀琀椀挀愀氀氀礀Ⰰ 戀漀琀栀 氀椀最栀琀 愀渀搀 搀攀昀椀渀椀琀椀漀渀 椀猀 氀漀猀琀 in the telescope, and it would be nearer the mark to consider਀椀渀 猀甀挀栀 挀愀猀攀 琀眀漀 洀椀氀攀猀 愀猀 琀栀攀 氀椀洀椀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀攀爀挀攀瀀琀椀戀氀攀⸀ With the planet nearer than this, as is often the਀挀愀猀攀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 眀椀搀琀栀 眀栀椀挀栀 挀漀甀氀搀 戀攀 猀攀攀渀 眀漀甀氀搀 戀攀 瀀爀漀瀀漀爀琀椀漀渀愀氀氀礀 lessened. Perhaps we shall not be far astray਀椀昀 眀攀 瀀甀琀 漀渀攀 洀椀氀攀 愀猀 琀栀攀 氀椀洀椀琀椀渀最 眀椀搀琀栀 眀栀椀挀栀 挀漀甀氀搀 戀攀 perceived on Mars at present, with distance at its least਀愀渀搀 搀攀昀椀渀椀琀椀漀渀 愀琀 椀琀猀 戀攀猀琀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀吀栀愀琀 猀漀 洀椀渀甀琀攀 愀 焀甀愀渀琀椀琀礀 猀栀漀甀氀搀 戀攀 瘀椀猀椀戀氀攀 愀琀 愀氀氀 is due to the line having a sensible length and by summation਀漀昀 猀攀渀猀愀琀椀漀渀猀 挀愀甀猀椀渀最 琀漀 爀椀猀攀 椀渀琀漀 挀漀渀猀挀椀漀甀猀渀攀猀猀 what would otherwise be lost. A stimulus too feeble਀琀漀 瀀爀漀搀甀挀攀 愀渀 攀昀昀攀挀琀 甀瀀漀渀 愀 猀椀渀最氀攀 爀攀琀椀渀愀氀 爀漀搀 戀攀挀漀洀攀猀 recognizable when many in a row are similarly excited.

The experiment furnished another criterion, of importance਀愀猀 爀攀最愀爀搀猀 琀栀攀 猀甀瀀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 氀椀渀攀猀 漀渀 Mars are illusory. It showed that brain-begotten impressions਀漀昀 眀椀爀攀猀 琀栀愀琀 搀椀搀 渀漀琀 攀砀椀猀琀 挀漀甀氀搀 戀攀 琀漀氀搀 昀爀漀洀 the real thing when the wire subtended 0.69 of a second਀漀昀 愀爀挀 漀爀 洀漀爀攀㬀 琀栀愀琀 戀攀氀漀眀 琀栀椀猀 琀栀攀 漀甀琀猀椀搀攀 猀琀椀洀甀氀甀猀 was too weak to differ recognizably from optic effects਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㠀㈀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㠀㈀✀㸀㄀㠀㈀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 otherwise produced; while when the real wire was਀搀椀洀椀渀椀猀栀攀搀 琀漀  ⸀㔀㤀㈀㈠Ⱐ 椀琀 挀漀甀氀搀 渀漀琀 戀攀 猀攀攀渀 愀琀 愀氀氀⸀ 一漀眀Ⰰ the majority of lines on Mars so far recognized and਀洀愀瀀瀀攀搀 氀椀攀 椀渀 猀琀爀攀渀最琀栀 漀昀 椀洀瀀爀攀猀猀椀漀渀 昀愀爀 愀戀漀瘀攀 琀栀攀 superior limit of 0.69′′. To one versed in Martian canal਀搀攀琀攀挀琀椀漀渀 琀栀攀爀攀 椀猀 渀漀 瀀漀猀猀椀戀椀氀椀琀礀 漀昀 猀攀氀昀ⴀ搀攀挀攀瀀琀椀漀渀 椀渀 琀栀攀 case, the canals being very much more salient objects਀琀漀 愀渀 攀砀瀀攀爀琀 琀栀愀渀 琀栀漀猀攀 眀栀漀 栀愀瘀攀 渀漀琀 猀攀攀渀 琀栀攀洀 猀甀瀀瀀漀猀攀⸀ For it must not be imagined that, when one਀欀渀漀眀猀 眀栀愀琀 琀漀 戀攀 漀渀 琀栀攀 氀漀漀欀漀甀琀 昀漀爀Ⰰ 琀栀攀礀 愀爀攀 琀栀攀 搀椀昀昀椀挀甀氀琀 objects they seem to the tyro. Just as the satellites਀漀昀 䴀愀爀猀 眀攀爀攀 攀愀猀椀氀礀 猀攀攀渀 漀渀挀攀 琀栀攀礀 眀攀爀攀 搀椀猀挀漀瘀攀爀攀搀Ⰰ so with these lines.

A mile or two we may take, then, with safety as the਀猀洀愀氀氀攀猀琀 眀椀搀琀栀 昀漀爀 漀渀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 氀椀渀攀猀⸀ 吀栀攀 最爀攀愀琀攀猀琀 眀愀猀 got by comparing what is by far the largest canal, the਀一椀氀漀猀礀爀琀椀猀Ⰰ 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 洀椀挀爀漀洀攀琀攀爀 琀栀爀攀愀搀⸀ 䘀爀漀洀 猀甀挀栀 determination it appeared that this canal was from਀㈀㔀 琀漀 ㌀  洀椀氀攀猀 眀椀搀攀⸀ 䈀甀琀 椀琀 椀猀 焀甀攀猀琀椀漀渀愀戀氀攀 眀栀攀琀栀攀爀 the Nilosyrtis can properly be termed a canal, so਀洀甀挀栀 搀漀攀猀 椀琀 攀砀挀攀攀搀 琀栀攀 爀攀猀琀⸀ 䤀琀 椀猀 挀攀爀琀愀椀渀氀礀 昀愀爀 larger than the majority of them. From comparative਀攀猀琀椀洀愀琀攀猀 戀攀琀眀攀攀渀 椀琀猀 猀椀稀攀 愀渀搀 琀栀愀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 漀琀栀攀爀猀Ⰰ ㄀㔀 to 20 miles for the width of the larger of the Martian਀挀愀渀愀氀猀 猀攀攀洀猀 琀栀攀 洀漀猀琀 瀀爀漀戀愀戀氀攀 瘀愀氀甀攀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 ㈀ 漀爀 ㌀ miles only of the more diminutive of those so far਀搀攀琀攀挀琀攀搀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀搀椀瘀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㠀㌀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㠀㌀✀㸀㄀㠀㌀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀

਀㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀椀氀氀甀猀ⴀ㌀  ✀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀攀ⴀ挀愀瀀琀椀漀渀✀㸀匀栀漀眀椀渀最 琀栀攀 䔀甀洀攀渀椀搀攀猀ⴀ伀爀挀甀猀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀
਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀伀渀 琀栀攀 漀琀栀攀爀 栀愀渀搀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 氀攀渀最琀栀 漀昀 琀栀攀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 椀猀 爀攀氀愀琀椀瘀攀氀礀 enormous. With them 2000 miles is common;਀眀栀椀氀攀 洀愀渀礀 攀砀挀攀攀搀 ㈀㔀  Ⰰ 愀渀搀 the Eumenides-Orcus is 3540਀洀椀氀攀猀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 瀀漀椀渀琀 眀栀攀爀攀 it leaves the Phœnix Lake਀琀漀 琀栀攀 瀀漀椀渀琀 眀栀攀爀攀 椀琀 攀渀琀攀爀猀 the Trivium Charontis. This਀洀攀愀渀猀 洀甀挀栀 洀漀爀攀 漀渀 䴀愀爀猀 than it would on Earth,਀漀眀椀渀最 琀漀 琀栀攀 猀洀愀氀氀攀爀 猀椀稀攀 漀昀 the planet. Such a length exceeds a third of the਀眀栀漀氀攀 挀椀爀挀甀洀昀攀爀攀渀挀攀 漀昀 椀琀猀 最氀漀戀攀 愀琀 琀栀攀 攀焀甀愀琀漀爀⸀ But what is still more remarkable, throughout the਀眀栀漀氀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 氀漀渀最 挀漀甀爀猀攀 琀愀欀攀渀 戀礀 琀栀攀 挀愀渀愀氀Ⰰ 椀琀 猀眀攀爀瘀攀猀 neither to the right nor to the left of the great circle਀樀漀椀渀椀渀最 琀栀攀 琀眀漀 瀀漀椀渀琀猀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀伀昀 琀栀攀猀攀 猀攀瘀攀爀愀氀 瀀攀挀甀氀椀愀爀椀琀椀攀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 椀渀搀椀瘀椀搀甀愀氀 挀愀渀愀氀 it is difficult to know to which to allot the palm for਀漀搀搀椀琀礀Ⰰ᐀朠爀攀愀琀 挀椀爀挀氀攀 搀椀爀攀挀琀渀攀猀猀Ⰰ 攀砀挀攀猀猀椀瘀攀 氀攀渀最琀栀Ⰰ 眀愀渀琀 of width, or striking uniformity. Each is so anomalously਀甀渀渀愀琀甀爀愀氀 愀猀 琀漀 栀愀瘀攀 爀攀挀攀椀瘀攀搀 琀栀攀 愀瀀瀀爀漀瘀椀渀最 stamp of incredulity. Yet so much, wonderful as it is,਀椀猀 攀渀挀漀甀渀琀攀爀攀搀 漀渀 琀栀攀 瘀攀爀礀 琀栀爀攀猀栀漀氀搀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀甀戀樀攀挀琀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀栀爀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㈀㌀✀ ⼀㸀 ਀㰀琀愀戀氀攀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀昀渀琀愀戀✀ 猀甀洀洀愀爀礀㴀✀昀漀漀琀渀漀琀攀开㈀✀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㈀㐀✀㸀 ਀    㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀
Zone40°N-27°N
27 N-19 N
19 N- 7 N
7 N- 1 N
1 N-17 S
17 S-30 S
30 S-35 S
਀      㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀昀漀漀琀渀漀琀攀✀㸀

M. l’abbé Moreux.

਀      㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀
਀ ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀㸀
਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䄀猀 猀漀洀攀 洀椀猀爀攀瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀愀琀椀漀渀 栀愀猀 戀攀攀渀 洀愀搀攀 漀渀 琀栀椀猀 猀甀戀樀攀挀琀 琀栀爀漀甀最栀 misapprehension of the writer’s observations on Venus and Mercury,਀椀琀 洀愀礀 戀攀 眀攀氀氀 琀漀 猀琀愀琀攀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 琀攀渀甀漀甀猀 洀愀爀欀椀渀最猀 漀渀 戀漀琀栀 琀栀攀猀攀 漀琀栀攀爀 planets entirely lack the unnatural regularity distinguishing the਀挀愀渀愀氀猀 漀昀 䴀愀爀猀⸀ 吀栀攀 嘀攀渀甀猀椀愀渀 氀椀渀攀猀 愀爀攀 栀愀稀礀Ⰰ 椀氀氀ⴀ搀攀昀椀渀攀搀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 渀漀渀ⴀ甀渀椀昀漀爀洀㬀 the Mercurian broken and irregular, suggesting cracks.਀一攀椀琀栀攀爀 爀攀猀攀洀戀氀攀 琀栀攀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 椀渀 洀愀爀瘀攀氀漀甀猀 瀀爀攀挀椀猀椀漀渀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 栀愀瘀攀 渀攀瘀攀爀 been called canals by the writer nor by Schiaparelli, but solely by਀琀栀漀猀攀 眀栀漀 栀愀瘀攀 渀漀琀 猀攀攀渀 琀栀攀洀 愀渀搀 栀愀瘀攀 洀椀猀愀瀀瀀爀攀栀攀渀搀攀搀 琀栀攀椀爀 挀栀愀爀愀挀琀攀爀 and look.

਀      㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀
਀      㰀搀椀瘀 椀搀㴀✀昀㌀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀爀㌀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㈀㈀✀㸀嬀㌀崀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀
184਀  㰀栀㈀ 椀搀㴀✀挀栀㄀㘀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㘀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀砀氀愀爀最攀✀㸀䌀䠀䄀倀吀䔀刀 堀嘀䤀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀 㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀吀䠀䔀䤀刀 匀夀匀吀䔀䴀㰀⼀栀㈀㸀

Much more stands beyond. For, outdoing in਀猀甀最最攀猀琀椀瘀攀渀攀猀猀 琀栀攀 椀渀搀椀瘀椀搀甀愀氀 琀爀愀椀琀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 氀椀渀攀猀Ⰰ is the relation shown by them to one another. It is਀琀栀攀 挀漀洀洀甀渀愀氀 挀栀愀爀愀挀琀攀爀椀猀琀椀挀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀栀攀渀漀洀攀渀漀渀 琀栀愀琀 are most surprising.

The individual peculiarities of the lines impress਀琀栀攀洀猀攀氀瘀攀猀 愀琀 漀渀挀攀㬀 琀栀攀 挀漀洀洀甀渀愀氀Ⰰ 漀渀氀礀 愀猀 琀栀攀 爀攀猀甀氀琀 of experience, collation, and thought. As the observer਀戀攀挀漀洀攀猀 琀爀愀椀渀攀搀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 洀漀爀攀 氀椀渀攀猀 栀攀 椀猀 愀戀氀攀 琀漀 洀愀欀攀 漀甀琀Ⰰ until they fairly seam the whole surface of the light਀愀爀攀愀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀⸀ 吀栀攀椀爀 渀愀洀攀 挀漀氀氀攀挀琀椀瘀攀氀礀 椀猀 氀攀最椀漀渀㬀 while to name them individually is fast getting, for the਀渀甀洀戀攀爀 搀攀琀攀挀琀攀搀Ⰰ 琀漀 戀攀 椀洀瀀漀猀猀椀戀氀攀⸀ 䄀猀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 椀渀挀爀攀愀猀椀渀最 family of asteroids, figures alone will prove਀愀搀攀焀甀愀琀攀 琀漀 琀栀攀 琀愀猀欀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䤀渀琀攀爀搀攀瀀攀渀搀攀渀挀攀Ⰰ 渀漀琀 椀渀搀攀瀀攀渀搀攀渀挀攀Ⰰ 洀愀爀欀猀 琀栀攀 愀琀琀椀琀甀搀攀 of the canals. Each not only proceeds with absolute਀搀椀爀攀挀琀渀攀猀猀 昀爀漀洀 漀渀攀 瀀漀椀渀琀 琀漀 愀渀漀琀栀攀爀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 愀琀 椀琀猀 terminals it meets canals which have come there with਀氀椀欀攀 昀漀爀琀栀爀椀最栀琀渀攀猀猀 昀爀漀洀 漀琀栀攀爀 昀愀爀 瀀氀愀挀攀猀 甀瀀漀渀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀⸀ Nor is it two only that thus come together at a common਀樀甀渀挀琀椀漀渀⸀ 吀栀爀攀攀Ⰰ 昀漀甀爀Ⰰ 昀椀瘀攀Ⰰ᐀甠瀀 琀漀 愀猀 洀愀渀礀 愀猀 185਀昀漀甀爀琀攀攀渀Ⰰ᐀琠栀甀猀 洀愀欀攀 爀攀渀搀攀稀瘀漀甀猀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 椀琀 椀猀 愀 瀀漀漀爀 junction that cannot show at least six or seven. The਀爀攀猀甀氀琀 椀猀 愀 渀攀琀眀漀爀欀 眀栀椀挀栀 琀爀椀愀渀最甀氀愀琀攀猀 琀栀攀 猀甀爀昀愀挀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 planet like a geodetic survey into polygons of all shapes਀愀渀搀 猀椀稀攀猀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 䄀爀椀愀渀 愀爀攀漀氀愀猀⸀ 吀栀攀 猀椀稀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀椀攀挀攀猀 forming this tesselate ground depends solely upon the਀昀椀渀攀渀攀猀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 搀攀昀椀渀椀琀椀漀渀⸀ 圀椀琀栀 攀瘀攀爀礀 椀渀挀爀攀愀猀攀 椀渀 琀栀攀 power of seeing, each areola is cut into still smaller਀瀀漀爀琀椀漀渀猀Ⰰ 甀猀甀愀氀氀礀 戀礀 挀漀渀渀攀挀琀椀漀渀 戀攀琀眀攀攀渀 椀琀猀 挀漀爀渀攀爀猀⸀ Thus a polygon or rhombus is split into triangles which਀洀愀礀 琀栀攀洀猀攀氀瘀攀猀 戀攀 搀椀瘀椀搀攀搀 椀渀 氀椀欀攀 洀愀渀渀攀爀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 洀漀猀愀椀挀 breaking into bits, the sides of which, however, always਀爀攀洀愀椀渀 挀氀攀愀渀ⴀ挀甀琀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䘀爀漀洀 琀栀椀猀 愀爀爀愀渀最攀洀攀渀琀 椀琀 椀猀 愀琀 漀渀挀攀 攀瘀椀搀攀渀琀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 canals are not fortuitously placed. That lines should਀琀栀甀猀 洀攀攀琀 攀砀愀挀琀氀礀 愀渀搀 椀渀 渀甀洀戀攀爀猀 愀琀 瀀愀爀琀椀挀甀氀愀爀 瀀漀椀渀琀猀Ⰰ and only there, shows that their locating is not the outcome਀漀昀 挀栀愀渀挀攀⸀ 䤀昀 瘀攀爀礀 琀栀椀渀 爀漀搀猀 戀攀 琀栀爀漀眀渀 栀愀瀀栀愀稀愀爀搀 over a surface, the probability that more than਀琀眀漀 眀椀氀氀 挀爀漀猀猀 愀琀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 瀀漀椀渀琀 椀猀 瘀愀渀椀猀栀椀渀最氀礀 猀洀愀氀氀⸀ Increasingly assured is it that this would not happen਀最攀渀攀爀愀氀氀礀⸀ 吀栀攀 爀攀猀甀氀琀 眀攀 猀攀攀 椀猀 琀栀攀爀攀昀漀爀攀 渀漀琀 愀 洀愀琀琀攀爀 of chance, but of some law working to that end.

To the detection of what that law is precedes the਀攀愀猀椀攀爀 愀猀挀攀爀琀愀椀渀洀攀渀琀 漀昀 眀栀愀琀 椀琀 椀猀 渀漀琀⸀ 吀栀攀 氀椀渀攀猀Ⰰ 昀漀爀 example, cannot be rivers, which was the first explanation਀漀昀昀攀爀攀搀 漀昀 琀栀攀洀 戀礀 倀爀漀挀琀漀爀 洀愀渀礀 礀攀愀爀猀 愀最漀Ⰰ 戀攀挀愀甀猀攀 186਀漀昀 琀栀攀椀爀 瀀攀挀甀氀椀愀爀 猀琀爀愀椀最栀琀渀攀猀猀⸀ 一漀爀 挀愀渀 琀栀攀礀 戀攀 channels, the name given to them by Schiaparelli,਀攀砀挀攀瀀琀 椀渀 琀栀攀 渀漀渀ⴀ挀漀洀洀椀琀琀愀氀 猀攀渀猀攀 椀渀 眀栀椀挀栀 栀攀 甀猀攀搀 琀栀攀 term. For here again their geometric regularity is bar਀琀漀 愀渀礀 攀猀琀甀愀爀礀ⴀ氀椀欀攀 栀礀瀀漀琀栀攀猀椀猀⸀ 䘀漀爀 焀甀椀琀攀 愀渀漀琀栀攀爀 爀攀愀猀漀渀 they cannot be cracks, because of their uniform਀猀椀稀攀 琀栀爀漀甀最栀漀甀琀⸀ 吀栀攀椀爀 甀渀戀爀漀欀攀渀 挀栀愀爀愀挀琀攀爀 椀猀 愀渀漀琀栀攀爀 fatal objection to the same suggestion. For cracks in਀最爀漀甀渀搀 渀攀瘀攀爀 瀀甀爀猀甀攀 昀漀爀 愀渀礀 最爀攀愀琀 搀椀猀琀愀渀挀攀 愀 挀漀渀琀椀渀甀漀甀猀 course, any more than they keep uniform or straight.਀吀栀攀 猀琀愀琀攀 漀昀 愀渀 漀氀搀 挀攀椀氀椀渀最 椀猀 愀 挀愀猀攀 椀渀 瀀漀椀渀琀⸀ 圀栀攀渀 椀琀 breaks, it does so in fissures that proceed a certain way,਀琀栀攀渀 最椀瘀攀 漀甀琀 琀漀 戀攀 挀漀渀琀椀渀甀攀搀 戀礀 漀琀栀攀爀猀 爀漀甀最栀氀礀 瀀愀爀愀氀氀攀氀 to the first, but parted from them. The same character਀椀猀 猀栀漀眀渀 戀礀 琀栀攀 爀椀氀氀猀 漀渀 琀栀攀 洀漀漀渀⸀ 吀栀攀 ᠀匠琀爀愀椀最栀琀 Wall,’ so called, is composed of three such sections, and਀琀栀攀 氀椀琀琀氀攀 爀椀氀氀 琀漀 琀栀攀 爀椀最栀琀 漀昀 椀琀Ⰰ 眀攀猀琀 漀昀 䈀椀爀琀Ⰰ 漀昀 昀漀甀爀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀吀栀甀猀 眀攀爀攀 琀栀攀礀 猀攀攀渀 愀琀 䘀氀愀最猀琀愀昀昀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 愀猀Ⰰ 琀漀 琀栀攀 writer’s knowledge, they have not been so depicted਀攀氀猀攀眀栀攀爀攀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 昀愀挀琀 洀愀礀 猀攀爀瘀攀 琀漀 最椀瘀攀 猀漀洀攀 椀搀攀愀 漀昀 琀栀攀 definition there.

That the underlying cause is not explosion or contraction਀椀猀 愀氀猀漀 攀瘀椀搀攀渀挀攀搀 戀礀 琀栀攀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 挀漀氀氀攀挀琀椀瘀攀氀礀 as well as individually, their arrangement into a system,਀昀漀爀 挀爀愀挀欀猀Ⰰ 栀漀眀攀瘀攀爀 瀀爀漀搀甀挀攀搀Ⰰ 挀漀甀氀搀 漀渀氀礀 漀爀椀最椀渀愀琀攀 from certain centres and could not fit into those਀猀琀愀爀琀椀渀最 昀爀漀洀 漀琀栀攀爀猀Ⰰ 愀猀 琀栀攀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 椀渀瘀愀爀椀愀戀氀礀 搀漀⸀ 䘀漀爀 187਀攀愀挀栀 挀愀渀愀氀 最漀攀猀 愀猀 甀渀搀攀瘀椀愀琀椀渀最氀礀 琀漀 漀渀攀 琀攀爀洀椀渀愀氀 愀猀 椀琀 left forthrightly from another. If one wishes to see਀眀栀愀琀 攀砀瀀氀漀猀椀漀渀 漀爀 挀漀渀琀爀愀挀琀椀漀渀 挀愀渀 搀漀Ⰰ 栀攀 栀愀猀 漀渀氀礀 琀漀 look at the moon through an opera-glass, when he will਀戀攀 猀栀漀眀渀 愀 瘀攀爀礀 搀椀昀昀攀爀攀渀琀 猀椀最栀琀 昀爀漀洀 眀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 搀爀愀眀椀渀最猀 of Mars detail. Thus just as, considered individually,਀琀栀攀 氀椀渀攀猀 挀愀渀渀漀琀 戀攀 眀愀琀攀爀挀漀甀爀猀攀猀 戀攀挀愀甀猀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀椀爀 straightness, so they cannot be cracks because of dovetailing਀椀渀琀漀 漀渀攀 愀渀漀琀栀攀爀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀吀栀攀 昀愀挀琀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀礀 昀漀爀洀 愀 猀礀猀琀攀洀 猀栀漀眀猀 琀栀愀琀 眀栀愀琀攀瘀攀爀 caused them operated over the whole planet, linked਀椀渀 挀愀甀猀攀 愀猀 椀渀 攀昀昀攀挀琀 琀栀爀漀甀最栀漀甀琀 攀愀挀栀 猀攀挀琀椀漀渀⸀ 吀栀椀猀 愀琀 once negatives any purely physical cause of which we਀栀愀瘀攀 挀漀最渀椀稀愀渀挀攀⸀ 䘀漀爀 甀瀀漀渀 愀 最氀漀戀攀 猀琀椀氀氀 猀漀 猀甀戀樀攀挀琀 琀漀 physical vicissitude as Mars by its aspect shows itself਀琀漀 戀攀Ⰰ 氀愀琀椀琀甀搀攀 洀甀猀琀 琀攀氀氀 椀渀 琀栀攀 瀀栀攀渀漀洀攀渀愀 椀琀猀 稀漀渀攀猀 exhibit. Polar snows that wax and wane speak of਀愀爀挀琀椀挀 挀漀渀搀椀琀椀漀渀猀 瘀攀爀礀 搀椀瘀攀爀猀攀 昀爀漀洀 琀攀洀瀀攀爀愀琀攀 愀渀搀 tropic states, and what would affect the one could not਀椀渀昀氀甀攀渀挀攀 琀栀攀 漀琀栀攀爀⸀ 夀攀琀 琀栀攀 洀攀猀栀 爀椀猀攀猀 猀甀瀀攀爀椀漀爀 琀漀 zonal solicitation as to local barrier. It is not something਀搀攀瀀攀渀搀攀渀琀 攀椀琀栀攀爀 漀渀 琀栀攀 琀攀洀瀀攀爀愀洀攀渀琀 漀爀 琀栀攀 complexion of the globe’s different parts. It transcends਀猀甀爀昀愀挀攀 爀攀猀琀爀椀挀琀椀漀渀 愀渀搀 戀攀挀漀洀攀猀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀ⴀ眀椀搀攀 椀渀 椀琀猀 working. The importance of this omnipresence dilates਀椀渀 洀攀愀渀椀渀最 愀猀 漀渀攀 搀眀攀氀氀猀 椀渀 琀栀漀甀最栀琀 甀瀀漀渀 椀琀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀唀戀椀焀甀椀琀漀甀猀 愀猀 椀琀 椀猀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 洀攀猀栀 眀栀椀挀栀 琀栀甀猀 挀漀瘀攀爀猀 琀栀攀 188਀䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 猀甀爀昀愀挀攀 氀椀欀攀 愀 瘀攀椀氀 猀瀀爀攀愀搀 挀漀洀瀀氀攀琀攀氀礀 漀瘀攀爀 椀琀Ⰰ is unlike a veil in being of irregular texture. Not only਀愀爀攀 琀栀攀 椀渀琀攀爀猀琀椀挀攀猀 漀昀 瘀愀爀椀漀甀猀 猀栀愀瀀攀 愀渀搀 瀀愀琀琀攀爀渀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 琀栀攀 mesh itself is of locally differing size. Though the਀琀栀爀攀愀搀猀 愀爀攀 猀琀爀愀椀最栀琀 愀渀搀 甀渀椀昀漀爀洀 琀栀爀漀甀最栀漀甀琀Ⰰ 琀栀攀礀 愀爀攀 not all alike, besides being unsymmetrically interwoven.਀匀漀洀攀 愀爀攀 愀琀 氀攀愀猀琀 漀昀 琀攀渀 琀椀洀攀猀 琀栀攀 挀漀愀爀猀攀渀攀猀猀 of others, and from this fact and the bo-peep effect of਀漀甀爀 愀椀爀 眀愀瘀攀猀 愀氀氀 愀爀攀 渀漀琀 瘀椀猀椀戀氀攀 愀琀 漀渀挀攀⸀ 䤀渀 挀漀渀猀攀焀甀攀渀挀攀 the network is not so impressive at first glance਀愀猀 椀琀 戀攀挀漀洀攀猀 甀瀀漀渀 愀 猀礀渀琀栀攀猀椀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀愀琀椀漀渀猀⸀ When this is done, the surface proves to be fairly਀攀瘀攀渀氀礀 挀甀琀 甀瀀Ⰰ 愀猀 爀攀挀漀甀爀猀攀 琀漀 琀栀攀 洀愀瀀猀 瀀爀椀渀琀攀搀 椀渀 琀栀椀猀 volume will amply demonstrate. These maps, as on਀瀀愀最攀 㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀倀愀最攀开㌀㄀✀㸀㌀㄀㰀⼀愀㸀Ⰰ 愀爀攀 洀愀搀攀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 爀攀猀甀氀琀猀 漀昀 戀甀琀 漀渀攀 漀瀀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀Ⰰ and as at each opposition some zone is in a more਀挀愀渀愀氀ⴀ猀栀漀眀椀渀最 猀琀愀琀攀 琀栀愀渀 漀琀栀攀爀猀Ⰰ 漀眀椀渀最 琀漀 琀栀攀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 season at the time, a still greater uniformity in canal਀搀椀猀琀爀椀戀甀琀椀漀渀 爀攀猀甀氀琀猀 昀爀漀洀 愀 戀氀攀渀搀椀渀最 漀昀 洀愀渀礀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䘀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 挀漀洀瀀氀攀琀攀渀攀猀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 洀攀猀栀Ⰰ 椀琀 昀漀氀氀漀眀猀 琀栀愀琀 椀渀 the course taken severally by the canals no one direction਀瀀爀攀瀀漀渀搀攀爀愀琀攀猀 漀瘀攀爀 愀渀漀琀栀攀爀⸀ 䌀漀渀猀椀搀攀爀攀搀 戀礀 愀渀搀 large, the canals seem to be equally distributed round਀琀栀攀 挀漀洀瀀愀猀猀 瀀漀椀渀琀猀㬀 愀渀搀 琀栀椀猀 愀琀 愀氀氀 氀漀渀最椀琀甀搀攀猀 愀渀搀 nearly all latitudes. Tropic, temperate, and even arctic਀挀愀渀愀氀猀 猀栀漀眀 愀 瀀氀攀愀猀椀渀最 椀洀瀀愀爀琀椀愀氀椀琀礀 椀渀 琀栀攀 洀愀琀琀攀爀 漀昀 the course pursued. The only exceptions occur in the਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㠀㤀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㠀㤀✀㸀㄀㠀㤀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 neighborhood of the pole. There a slight tendency਀洀愀礀 戀攀 猀攀攀渀 琀漀 愀 渀漀爀琀栀 愀渀搀 猀漀甀琀栀 猀攀琀琀椀渀最⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀吀栀漀甀最栀 猀漀 洀甀挀栀 椀猀 瘀椀猀椀戀氀攀 椀渀 愀 最攀渀攀爀愀氀 眀愀礀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 map, it is of interest to go into the subject with more਀瀀愀爀琀椀挀甀氀愀爀椀琀礀 愀渀搀 琀漀 琀栀愀琀 攀渀搀 琀漀 猀栀漀眀 椀琀 猀琀愀琀椀猀琀椀挀愀氀氀礀⸀ The several canals traversing each zone were therefore਀挀漀甀渀琀攀搀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 愀爀攀愀 漀昀 琀栀攀 稀漀渀攀 挀漀洀瀀甀琀攀搀⸀ 吀栀攀 洀愀渀渀攀爀 of canal distribution thus found is given in the਀昀漀氀氀漀眀椀渀最 琀愀戀氀攀Ⰰ 椀渀 琀栀攀 猀攀挀漀渀搀 挀漀氀甀洀渀 漀昀 眀栀椀挀栀 猀琀愀渀搀 琀栀攀 areas of the several zones upon the planet, each ten਀搀攀最爀攀攀猀 眀椀搀攀Ⰰ 攀砀挀攀瀀琀 琀栀攀 漀渀攀 渀攀砀琀 琀栀攀 猀渀漀眀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 椀渀 琀栀攀 third the number of canals found traversing them, reduced਀琀漀 瀀攀爀挀攀渀琀愀最攀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀  뀀ⴀ㄀ 뀀 稀漀渀攀⸀ 䄀 昀漀甀爀琀栀 挀漀氀甀洀渀 shows the total length of the canals in each zone,਀琀栀漀猀攀 昀爀漀洀  뀀 琀漀 ㈀ 뀀 戀攀椀渀最 琀愀欀攀渀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 ㄀㠀㤀㘀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㈀崀 最氀漀戀攀Ⰰ those from 20° to 90° from the 1903 [Darian: 156]. This is in order਀琀漀 愀渀渀甀氀 琀栀攀 攀昀昀攀挀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀攀愀猀漀渀猀 甀瀀漀渀 琀栀攀 猀栀漀眀椀渀最 漀昀 the canals as much as possible.

਀ ਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 戀爀 戀戀 渀戀氀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀娀漀渀攀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 戀戀 戀氀 戀爀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀一漀⸀ 漀昀 䌀愀渀愀氀猀 圀琀搀⸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 渀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀戀✀㸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀 뀀ⴀ㄀ 뀀 㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 戀氀 戀爀 渀戀戀✀㸀㄀⸀   㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀琀 渀戀戀 渀戀氀 戀爀✀㸀㄀ 뀀ⴀ㈀ 뀀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀琀 渀戀戀 戀氀 戀爀✀㸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀⸀㠀㤀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀琀 渀戀戀 渀戀氀 戀爀✀㸀㈀ 뀀ⴀ㌀ 뀀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀琀 渀戀戀 戀氀 戀爀✀㸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀⸀㤀㌀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀琀 渀戀戀 渀戀氀 戀爀✀㸀㌀ 뀀ⴀ㐀 뀀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀琀 渀戀戀 戀氀 戀爀✀㸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀⸀㤀 㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀琀 渀戀戀 渀戀氀 戀爀✀㸀㐀 뀀ⴀ㔀 뀀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀琀 渀戀戀 戀氀 戀爀✀㸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀⸀㜀㠀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀琀 渀戀戀 渀戀氀 戀爀✀㸀㔀 뀀ⴀ㘀 뀀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀琀 渀戀戀 戀氀 戀爀✀㸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀⸀㘀㐀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀琀 渀戀戀 渀戀氀 戀爀✀㸀㘀 뀀ⴀ㜀 뀀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀琀 渀戀戀 戀氀 戀爀✀㸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀⸀㐀㌀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀琀 渀戀戀 渀戀氀 戀爀✀㸀㜀 뀀ⴀ㠀 뀀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀琀 渀戀戀 戀氀 戀爀✀㸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀⸀㌀ 㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀琀 戀戀 渀戀氀 戀爀✀㸀㠀 뀀ⴀ㠀㔀뀀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀琀 戀戀 戀氀 戀爀✀㸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀⸀㄀㈀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 戀戀 渀戀氀 渀戀爀 昀猀✀ 挀漀氀猀瀀愀渀㴀✀㐀✀㸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀愀戀氀攀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀 190਀吀栀攀 渀甀洀戀攀爀猀 挀漀渀琀椀渀甀攀 昀愀椀爀氀礀 渀漀渀ⴀ挀漀洀洀椀琀琀愀氀 甀渀琀椀氀 we begin to approach the pole, when they commence਀琀漀 椀渀挀爀攀愀猀攀⸀ 䴀甀挀栀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 爀攀猀甀氀琀 椀猀 最漀琀 椀昀 眀攀 琀愀欀攀 the actual canal-lengths in each zone, as the fourth column਀猀栀漀眀猀⸀ 吀栀攀 挀爀漀眀搀椀渀最 漀昀 琀栀攀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 瀀漀氀攀眀愀爀搀 椀猀 marked. The canals, therefore, are phenomena that਀猀琀愀渀搀 椀渀 瀀攀挀甀氀椀愀爀 爀攀氀愀琀椀漀渀猀栀椀瀀 琀漀 琀栀攀 瀀漀氀愀爀 挀愀瀀⸀ 吀栀椀猀 corroborates the inference about them due to their਀爀甀渀渀椀渀最 漀甀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 攀搀最攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀渀漀眀⸀ 吀栀攀礀 渀漀琀 漀渀氀礀 emanate from it, but they do so in numbers surpassing਀眀栀愀琀 椀猀 攀氀猀攀眀栀攀爀攀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀愀戀氀攀 漀瘀攀爀 琀栀攀 搀椀猀欀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀伀琀栀攀爀眀椀猀攀 椀猀 椀琀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀椀爀 搀攀瀀愀爀琀甀爀攀ⴀ瀀漀椀渀琀猀⸀ 吀栀攀猀攀 are not scattered haphazard over the surface, but bear਀琀漀 椀琀猀 最攀渀攀爀愀氀 昀攀愀琀甀爀攀猀 搀攀昀椀渀椀琀攀 爀攀氀愀琀椀漀渀猀⸀ 䤀昀 眀攀 挀漀渀猀椀搀攀爀 the map, obliterating the lines, and then seek to connect਀琀栀攀 洀漀猀琀 猀愀氀椀攀渀琀 瀀漀椀渀琀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀ᤀ猠 琀漀瀀漀最爀愀瀀栀礀 戀礀 direct avenues of communication, we shall find that our਀瀀甀琀愀琀椀瘀攀 氀椀渀攀猀 昀愀氀氀 攀砀愀挀琀氀礀 眀栀攀爀攀 琀栀攀 爀攀愀氀 漀渀攀猀 漀挀挀甀爀⸀ For the most part, the real lines emanate from well-marked਀椀渀搀攀渀琀愀琀椀漀渀猀 椀渀 琀栀攀 搀愀爀欀 爀攀最椀漀渀猀Ⰰ 昀椀琀琀攀搀 戀礀 natural position for departure-points, what, if these਀眀攀爀攀 猀攀愀猀Ⰰ 眀攀 猀栀漀甀氀搀 挀愀氀氀 琀栀攀椀爀 洀漀猀琀 挀漀渀猀瀀椀挀甀漀甀猀 戀愀礀猀⸀ They thus leave in the southern hemisphere the deeper਀昀漀氀搀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 最爀攀愀琀 搀椀愀瀀栀爀愀最洀Ⰰ 昀漀爀 琀栀攀 洀漀猀琀 瀀愀爀琀㬀 琀栀漀甀最栀 on occasion they run out of them where they will.਀䘀爀漀洀 攀焀甀愀氀氀礀 挀漀渀猀瀀椀挀甀漀甀猀 瀀漀椀渀琀猀 椀渀 琀栀攀 搀愀爀欀 渀漀爀琀栀攀爀渀 areas other lines proceed; while in the centre of the਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㤀㄀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㤀㄀✀㸀㄀㤀㄀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 continents, the canals make for more or less salient਀猀瀀漀琀猀Ⰰ 猀洀愀氀氀 瀀愀琀挀栀攀猀 漀昀 猀栀愀搀椀渀最 氀椀欀攀 琀栀攀 吀爀椀瘀椀甀洀 漀爀 琀栀攀 Wedge of Casius, or simply round black radiants, like਀琀栀攀 䰀甀挀椀 䤀猀洀攀渀椀椀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䘀爀漀洀 琀栀椀猀 椀琀 愀瀀瀀攀愀爀猀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 氀椀渀攀猀 愀爀攀 氀漀挀愀氀氀礀 搀攀瀀攀渀搀攀渀琀 upon the general topography of the fundamental਀昀攀愀琀甀爀攀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀甀爀昀愀挀攀⸀ 䘀漀爀 猀漀洀攀 爀攀愀猀漀渀 琀栀攀礀 connect the very points most suggestive of intercommunication.਀䄀猀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀椀爀 挀栀愀爀愀挀琀攀爀椀猀琀椀挀猀 椀琀 椀猀 瀀攀爀昀攀挀琀氀礀 evident that the lines are neither rivers nor਀挀爀愀挀欀猀Ⰰ 椀琀 昀漀氀氀漀眀猀 琀栀愀琀 猀甀挀栀 愀 挀漀洀洀甀渀椀挀愀琀椀渀最 栀愀戀椀琀 椀猀 of the most telltale character. To be so dissimilar in਀欀椀渀搀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 洀愀椀渀 洀愀爀欀椀渀最猀 愀渀搀 礀攀琀 猀漀 搀攀瀀攀渀搀攀渀琀 upon them, hints that their positioning occurred after਀琀栀攀 昀漀爀洀愀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 洀愀椀渀 昀攀愀琀甀爀攀猀 琀栀攀洀猀攀氀瘀攀猀⸀ 圀攀 reach thus from the look of the lines and their location਀愀 洀漀猀琀 猀琀爀椀欀椀渀最 搀攀搀甀挀琀椀漀渀Ⰰ 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 氀椀渀攀猀 愀爀攀 渀漀琀 挀漀攀瘀愀氀 with the main markings, but have come into being later਀愀渀搀 眀椀琀栀 爀攀昀攀爀攀渀挀攀 琀漀 琀栀攀 最攀渀攀爀愀氀 琀漀瀀漀最爀愀瀀栀礀 漀昀 琀栀攀 planet. The network is not only a mesh de facto, then,਀戀甀琀 漀渀攀 㰀椀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 氀愀渀最㴀∀氀愀∀ 砀洀氀㨀氀愀渀最㴀∀氀愀∀㸀搀攀 樀甀爀攀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀椀㸀Ⰰ 眀栀椀挀栀Ⰰ 猀甀戀猀攀焀甀攀渀琀 琀漀 琀栀攀 昀愀猀栀椀漀渀椀渀最 漀昀 the seas and continents and what these have now become,਀栀愀猀 戀攀攀渀 猀甀瀀攀爀瀀漀猀攀搀 甀瀀漀渀 琀栀攀洀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀栀愀瀀琀攀爀✀㸀 ਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㤀㈀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㤀㈀✀㸀㄀㤀㈀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀

CHAPTER XVII

GEMINATION OF THE CANALS

਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀搀爀漀瀀ⴀ挀愀瀀愀 开㈀开 开㜀 挀 ㄀㔀✀     㸀䘀爀愀甀最栀琀 眀椀琀栀 洀漀爀攀 搀椀昀昀椀挀甀氀琀礀 琀栀愀渀 琀栀攀 搀攀琀攀挀琀椀漀渀 of the lines alone is the next discovery made਀甀瀀漀渀 琀栀攀 搀椀猀欀㨀 琀栀攀 爀攀挀漀最渀椀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 瀀愀椀爀猀 漀昀 氀椀渀攀猀 琀爀愀瘀攀爀猀椀渀最 it.

In 1879 [Darian: 143], while Schiaparelli was engaged in scrutinizing਀琀栀攀 猀琀爀愀渀最攀 㰀椀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 氀愀渀最㴀∀椀琀∀ 砀洀氀㨀氀愀渀最㴀∀椀琀∀㸀挀愀渀愀氀椀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀椀㸀 栀攀 栀愀搀 搀椀猀挀漀瘀攀爀攀搀 漀渀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀 the opposition before, he was suddenly surprised to਀洀愀爀欀 漀渀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀洀 搀漀甀戀氀攀⸀ 吀眀漀 挀氀漀猀攀氀礀 瀀愀爀愀氀氀攀氀 氀椀渀攀猀 confronted him where but a single one had previously਀猀琀漀漀搀⸀ 匀漀 甀渀愀挀挀漀甀渀琀愀戀氀攀 搀椀搀 琀栀攀 猀椀最栀琀 猀攀攀洀Ⰰ 琀栀愀琀 栀攀 hesitated to credit what he saw, being minded to attribute਀琀栀攀 瘀椀猀椀漀渀 琀漀 椀氀氀甀猀椀漀渀 漀昀 猀漀洀攀 猀漀爀琀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 洀漀爀攀 so that it was not renewed. While he was still wondering਀眀栀愀琀 椀琀 洀攀愀渀琀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀 瀀愀爀琀攀搀 挀漀洀瀀愀渀礀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 Earth, carrying its enigma with it.

When the two bodies again drew near to one another਀椀渀 ㄀㠀㠀㈀ 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㐀㔀崀Ⰰ 匀挀栀椀愀瀀愀爀攀氀氀椀 猀攀琀 栀椀洀猀攀氀昀 琀漀 眀愀琀挀栀 昀漀爀 愀 爀攀挀甀爀爀攀渀挀攀 of the strange phenomenon. Before long it came, and਀洀漀爀攀 戀攀眀椀氀搀攀爀椀渀最氀礀 琀栀愀渀 愀琀 昀椀爀猀琀㬀 昀漀爀 渀漀琀 漀渀攀 挀愀渀愀氀 alone, but a score of them now showed in duplicate,਀攀愀挀栀 瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀椀渀最 琀漀 栀椀猀 愀猀琀漀渀椀猀栀攀搀 最愀稀攀 琀眀椀渀 氀椀渀攀猀 瀀攀爀昀攀挀琀氀礀 193਀洀愀琀挀栀攀搀 愀渀搀 瀀爀攀猀攀爀瘀椀渀最 琀栀爀漀甀最栀漀甀琀 琀栀攀椀爀 搀椀猀琀愀渀挀攀 apart. Suspecting diplopia or some other optical਀琀爀椀挀欀Ⰰ 栀攀 琀爀椀攀搀 瘀愀爀椀漀甀猀 攀礀攀瀀椀攀挀攀猀 琀漀 愀 琀攀猀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 挀愀甀猀攀 but to no change in the effect. The twin lines continued਀瘀椀猀椀戀氀攀Ⰰ 搀漀 眀栀愀琀 栀攀 眀漀甀氀搀Ⰰ 椀渀猀椀猀琀椀渀最 漀渀 琀栀攀椀爀 漀眀渀 reality in spite of all solicitation to merge. How cautious਀栀攀 眀愀猀 椀渀 琀栀攀 洀愀琀琀攀爀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 栀漀眀 甀渀眀椀氀氀椀渀最 愀琀 昀椀爀猀琀 to believe the evidence of his eyes, is shown by the care਀栀攀 琀漀漀欀 琀漀 最甀愀爀搀 愀最愀椀渀猀琀 搀攀挀攀瀀琀椀漀渀⸀ 䤀琀 眀愀猀 渀漀琀 甀渀琀椀氀 he had assured himself of the reality of the phenomena਀琀栀愀琀 栀攀 戀攀氀椀攀瘀攀搀 眀栀愀琀 栀攀 栀愀搀 猀攀攀渀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䤀琀 猀漀 挀栀愀渀挀攀搀 琀栀愀琀 洀礀 昀椀爀猀琀 攀砀瀀攀爀椀攀渀挀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 琀栀椀渀最 was almost equally startling, so unexpected was it and਀猀漀 攀砀挀攀攀搀椀渀最氀礀 猀栀愀爀瀀 眀愀猀 琀栀攀 搀攀昀椀渀椀琀椀漀渀 愀琀 琀栀攀 琀椀洀攀⸀ It was in an autumn early twilight, through air almost਀瀀攀爀昀攀挀琀氀礀 猀琀椀氀氀Ⰰ 愀猀 琀栀攀 氀椀最栀琀 眀攀渀琀 漀甀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀欀礀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 markings on the planet began to come forth that the਀倀栀椀猀漀渀 漀昀 愀 猀甀搀搀攀渀 猀栀漀眀攀搀 椀渀 搀甀瀀氀椀挀愀琀攀 琀漀 洀攀Ⰰ 挀氀攀愀爀ⴀ挀甀琀 upon the disk, its twin lines like the rails of a railway਀琀爀愀挀欀 琀爀愀瘀攀爀猀椀渀最 䄀攀爀椀愀⸀ 一漀琀 洀漀爀攀 瘀椀瘀椀搀 搀漀 琀栀漀猀攀 漀昀 our transcontinental tracks appear as one sees them਀猀琀爀攀琀挀栀椀渀最 漀昀昀 椀渀琀漀 琀栀攀 搀椀猀琀愀渀挀攀 甀瀀漀渀 漀甀爀 圀攀猀琀攀爀渀 plains. More impressive was the sight from the fact਀琀栀愀琀 䤀 眀愀猀 渀漀琀 氀漀漀欀椀渀最 昀漀爀 椀琀⸀ 䤀琀 猀椀洀瀀氀礀 猀甀搀搀攀渀氀礀 stood forth, this strange parallelism of pencil lines.਀䴀礀 猀甀爀瀀爀椀猀攀 洀愀琀挀栀攀搀 琀栀攀 眀漀渀搀攀爀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀椀最栀琀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀匀椀渀挀攀 琀栀攀渀 䤀 栀愀瘀攀 眀椀琀渀攀猀猀攀搀 椀琀 猀攀瘀攀爀愀氀 栀甀渀搀爀攀搀 琀椀洀攀猀Ⰰ 194਀戀甀琀 渀攀瘀攀爀 眀椀琀栀 洀漀爀攀 愀戀猀漀氀甀琀攀 挀攀爀琀愀椀渀琀礀 琀栀愀渀 愀琀 琀栀愀琀 first fortunate revelation. To this distinctness is due਀琀栀攀 愀洀愀稀攀洀攀渀琀 椀琀 琀栀攀渀 愀爀漀甀猀攀搀⸀ 一漀琀 猀椀洀瀀氀礀 戀攀挀愀甀猀攀 of its surpassing novelty, but for the insistence with਀眀栀椀挀栀 椀琀 瀀爀漀挀氀愀椀洀攀搀 椀琀猀攀氀昀 眀愀猀 琀栀攀 攀昀昀攀挀琀 琀漀 戀攀 愀猀挀爀椀戀攀搀⸀ Less well seen, doubt had robbed it of its full surprise.਀䤀琀 爀攀焀甀椀爀攀猀 愀猀 愀 爀甀氀攀 猀琀攀愀搀礀 搀攀昀椀渀椀琀椀漀渀 昀漀爀 椀琀猀 椀渀椀琀椀愀氀 unmistakable showing, if one would be instantly convinced.਀䔀砀挀攀瀀琀 昀漀爀 猀甀挀栀 椀琀 椀猀 渀漀琀 甀猀甀愀氀氀礀 攀愀猀礀 琀漀 琀栀攀 unpracticed, though often discernible to the expert਀愀昀琀攀爀 椀琀 栀愀猀 漀渀挀攀 戀攀攀渀 猀攀攀渀⸀ 䈀甀琀 琀栀愀琀 椀琀 椀猀 爀攀愀氀 渀漀 漀渀攀 who had had a good view of the sight could doubt;਀猀琀椀氀氀 氀攀猀猀 愀昀琀攀爀 琀栀攀 攀砀瀀攀爀椀攀渀挀攀 栀愀搀 戀攀攀渀 爀攀瀀攀愀琀攀搀 漀瘀攀爀 and over again.

What appears to take place is this: where previously਀愀 猀椀渀最氀攀 瀀攀渀挀椀氀ⴀ氀椀欀攀 氀椀渀攀 樀漀椀渀攀搀 琀眀漀 眀攀氀氀ⴀ欀渀漀眀渀 points upon the disk, twin lines, the one the replica of਀琀栀攀 漀琀栀攀爀Ⰰ 猀琀愀渀搀 昀漀爀琀栀 椀渀 椀琀猀 猀琀攀愀搀⸀ 吀栀攀 琀眀漀 氀椀渀攀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 pair are but a short distance apart, are of the same size,਀漀昀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 氀攀渀最琀栀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 愀戀猀漀氀甀琀攀氀礀 攀焀甀椀搀椀猀琀愀渀琀 琀栀爀漀甀最栀漀甀琀 their course. It is as if a second line had in some਀眀愀礀 戀攀攀渀 洀礀猀琀攀爀椀漀甀猀氀礀 愀搀搀攀搀 琀漀 琀栀攀 昀椀爀猀琀 猀椀渀挀攀 琀栀攀 latter was last seen some weeks before. This in a word਀椀猀 琀栀攀 瀀栀攀渀漀洀攀渀漀渀Ⰰ 琀攀挀栀渀椀挀愀氀氀礀 挀愀氀氀攀搀 琀栀攀 最攀洀椀渀愀琀椀漀渀 of the canals, which has since its discovery called forth਀猀漀 洀甀挀栀 挀漀洀洀攀渀琀⸀ 䤀琀 椀猀 渀漀琀 椀渀 爀攀愀氀椀琀礀 焀甀椀琀攀 愀猀 猀椀洀瀀氀攀 or as sudden as it seems, but this was the way in which਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㤀㔀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㤀㔀✀㸀㄀㤀㔀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 the phenomenon was first seen and in which it still਀挀漀渀琀椀渀甀攀猀 琀漀 戀攀 挀爀椀琀椀挀椀猀攀搀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀匀攀氀昀ⴀ愀猀猀攀爀琀椀瘀攀 漀昀 爀攀愀氀椀琀礀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 搀漀甀戀氀攀 氀椀渀攀猀 愀爀攀 瀀愀琀攀渀琀氀礀 objective to him who is fortunate enough to see them਀眀攀氀氀⸀ 一攀瘀攀爀琀栀攀氀攀猀猀 琀栀攀 最爀攀愀琀 搀椀昀昀椀挀甀氀琀礀 漀昀 搀攀琀攀挀琀椀渀最 them, and the still greater difficulty of conceiving how਀猀甀挀栀 琀栀椀渀最猀 挀愀渀 戀攀Ⰰ 栀愀猀 氀攀搀 洀愀渀礀 渀漀琀 瘀攀爀猀攀搀 椀渀 琀栀攀 猀甀戀樀攀挀琀 to disbelieve and from that to attempt to explain਀琀栀攀 猀椀最栀琀 愀猀 椀氀氀甀猀漀爀礀⸀ 匀挀攀瀀琀椀挀椀猀洀 猀攀攀欀猀 猀攀氀昀ⴀ樀甀猀琀椀昀椀挀愀琀椀漀渀㬀 what is hard of acceptance for its strangeness begetting਀栀礀瀀漀琀栀攀猀攀猀 漀昀 挀漀洀洀椀琀琀攀搀 攀爀爀漀爀 眀栀椀挀栀 昀椀渀搀 攀愀猀礀 挀爀攀搀攀渀挀攀 for their comforting conservatism. Several਀猀甀挀栀 栀愀瘀攀 椀渀 挀漀渀猀攀焀甀攀渀挀攀 戀攀攀渀 瀀爀漀瀀漀甀渀搀攀搀 琀漀 愀挀挀漀甀渀琀 for the double canals. There is the diplopic theory਀眀栀椀挀栀 挀爀攀搀椀琀猀 琀栀攀洀 琀漀 渀漀渀ⴀ昀漀挀甀猀椀渀最㬀 琀栀攀 椀渀琀攀爀昀攀爀攀渀琀椀愀氀 theory which would make them optical products of the਀琀攀氀攀猀挀漀瀀攀㬀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 椀氀氀甀猀椀漀渀 琀栀攀漀爀礀 眀栀椀挀栀 眀漀甀氀搀 栀愀瘀攀 them quite simply imaginary.

Inasmuch as in any research the assurance that a਀瀀栀攀渀漀洀攀渀漀渀 椀猀 爀攀愀氀 椀猀 琀栀攀 昀椀爀猀琀 瀀漀椀渀琀 愀戀漀甀琀 椀琀 琀漀 戀攀 established, it is a scientist’s duty, not only to scan the਀瀀栀攀渀漀洀攀渀愀 眀椀琀栀 樀攀愀氀漀甀猀 挀愀爀攀 琀漀 琀栀愀琀 攀渀搀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 琀漀 猀挀爀甀琀椀渀椀稀攀 every theory which would seek otherwise to਀愀挀挀漀甀渀琀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀洀᐀琠栀攀 琀攀猀琀椀渀最 猀甀挀栀 戀攀椀渀最 漀渀氀礀 猀攀挀漀渀搀 in importance to observing the things themselves.਀䄀挀挀漀爀搀椀渀最氀礀 䤀 栀愀瘀攀 攀砀愀洀椀渀攀搀 攀愀挀栀 漀昀 琀栀攀 漀瀀琀椀挀愀氀 琀栀攀漀爀椀攀猀 that have been advanced and critically compared਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㤀㘀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㤀㘀✀㸀㄀㤀㘀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 what they assert and require with the results of observation.਀吀栀攀 漀甀琀挀漀洀攀 漀昀 琀栀椀猀 爀攀猀攀愀爀挀栀 栀愀猀 瀀爀漀瘀攀搀 愀猀 negativing to any other origin for the double canals਀琀栀愀渀 爀攀愀氀椀琀礀 愀猀 搀椀爀攀挀琀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀愀琀椀漀渀猀 愀琀 琀栀攀 琀攀氀攀猀挀漀瀀攀 愀爀攀 positive on the point. To show this I shall review਀攀愀挀栀 椀渀 椀琀猀 挀漀渀猀攀焀甀攀渀挀攀猀Ⰰ 挀漀渀昀爀漀渀琀椀渀最 椀琀 眀椀琀栀 眀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 telescope has to say on the subject; for it is of the pith਀漀昀 琀栀攀 洀愀琀琀攀爀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 爀攀愀氀椀琀礀 猀栀漀甀氀搀 戀攀 愀猀 搀攀洀漀渀猀琀爀愀戀氀攀 on demand as on sight. Furthermore, I shall਀搀漀 琀栀椀猀 戀攀昀漀爀攀 攀洀戀愀爀欀椀渀最 漀渀 琀栀攀 最攀渀攀爀愀氀 愀挀挀漀甀渀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀猀攀 strange things, because it is vital to any interest that਀漀渀攀 猀栀漀甀氀搀 戀攀 愀猀猀甀爀攀搀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 猀琀愀爀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 琀爀甀琀栀 漀昀 what he is to read. The preface may seem to him abstruse਀愀渀搀 瀀爀漀猀礀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 椀琀 眀椀氀氀 椀渀琀爀漀搀甀挀攀 栀椀洀 琀漀 猀漀洀攀 挀甀爀椀漀甀猀 optical properties and will eventually enhance his਀挀漀渀挀攀爀渀 戀礀 瀀爀漀瘀椀渀最 琀漀 栀椀洀 琀栀愀琀 眀栀愀琀 爀攀愀搀猀 氀椀欀攀 昀椀挀琀椀漀渀 is all the more wonderful for being fact.

I. The Diplopic Theory

Diplopia is the property of seeing double with one eye.਀匀甀爀瀀爀椀猀椀渀最 愀猀 椀琀 猀漀甀渀搀猀 椀琀 椀猀 愀渀 攀昀昀攀挀琀 渀漀琀 甀渀欀渀漀眀渀 琀漀 students of optics, though it usually requires training਀琀漀 瀀爀漀搀甀挀攀⸀ 䤀琀 椀猀 瀀漀猀猀椀戀氀攀 漀渀氀礀 眀栀攀渀 琀栀攀 攀礀攀 椀猀 渀漀琀 focused on the object, and is not always possible then.਀䘀爀漀洀 洀礀 攀砀瀀攀爀椀洀攀渀琀猀 椀琀猀 昀攀愀猀椀戀椀氀椀琀礀 猀攀攀洀猀 琀漀 搀攀瀀攀渀搀 upon whether the focus be beyond or before what it਀猀栀漀甀氀搀 戀攀⸀ 䤀昀 琀栀攀 攀礀攀 戀攀 昀漀挀甀猀攀搀 昀漀爀 愀 瀀漀椀渀琀 戀攀礀漀渀搀 琀栀攀 197਀漀戀樀攀挀琀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 漀戀樀攀挀琀 椀猀 搀漀甀戀氀攀搀Ⰰ 椀昀 昀漀爀 愀 瀀漀椀渀琀 琀栀椀猀 猀椀搀攀 漀昀 it, the latter is simply blurred. When the double is਀昀漀爀洀攀搀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 愀洀漀甀渀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀攀瀀愀爀愀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 琀眀漀 椀洀愀最攀猀 is a function of the distance the focus is out. The਀最爀攀愀琀攀爀 琀栀攀 搀椀猀挀爀攀瀀愀渀挀礀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 眀椀搀攀爀 愀瀀愀爀琀 椀猀 琀栀攀 攀渀猀甀椀渀最 double. Nor does the image, of a line, for example,਀猀琀漀瀀 愀琀 搀漀甀戀氀椀渀最⸀ 䄀昀琀攀爀 愀 挀攀爀琀愀椀渀 戀爀攀愀搀琀栀 漀昀 猀攀瀀愀爀愀琀椀漀渀 is reached a third line appears, bisecting the interval਀戀攀琀眀攀攀渀 琀栀攀 漀琀栀攀爀 琀眀漀⸀ 圀椀琀栀 礀攀琀 最爀攀愀琀攀爀 眀椀搀攀渀椀渀最 the third line itself splits into a pair and so the resolution਀最漀攀猀 漀渀⸀ 䤀渀 洀礀 漀眀渀 攀砀瀀攀爀椀洀攀渀琀猀 䤀 栀愀瘀攀 最漀渀攀 so far as to suspect a fifth line. Far from being unconscious,਀琀栀攀 瀀爀漀挀攀猀猀 漀昀 瀀爀漀搀甀挀椀渀最 琀栀攀 瀀栀攀渀漀洀攀渀漀渀 椀猀Ⰰ with some people, of difficult accomplishment. Mr.਀䰀愀洀瀀氀愀渀搀Ⰰ 昀漀爀 椀渀猀琀愀渀挀攀Ⰰ 漀昀 琀栀攀 䘀氀愀最猀琀愀昀昀 伀戀猀攀爀瘀愀琀漀爀礀Ⰰ to whom we owe the first photographing of the canals,਀愀渀搀 眀栀漀 猀攀攀猀 琀栀攀 搀漀甀戀氀攀猀 漀昀 䴀愀爀猀 眀椀琀栀漀甀琀 搀椀昀昀椀挀甀氀琀礀Ⰰ has hitherto found diplopic vision an impossible feat.਀䔀瘀攀渀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 洀漀猀琀 瀀爀愀挀琀椀挀攀搀 搀椀瀀氀漀瀀椀愀 椀猀 渀攀瘀攀爀 甀渀挀漀渀猀挀椀漀甀猀 except when the object viewed, as a micrometer਀眀椀爀攀Ⰰ 栀愀猀 渀漀琀栀椀渀最 琀漀 氀漀挀愀琀攀 椀琀 椀渀 猀瀀愀挀攀⸀ 一漀眀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 搀椀瀀氀漀瀀椀挀 theory of the double canals supposes that in all਀挀愀猀攀猀 琀栀攀 攀礀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀攀爀 椀猀 琀栀甀猀 甀渀挀漀渀猀挀椀漀甀猀氀礀 out of focus.

To this method of their manufacture the telescopic਀瀀栀攀渀漀洀攀渀愀 瀀爀漀瘀攀 甀渀愀洀攀渀愀戀氀攀 漀渀 昀椀瘀攀 挀漀甀渀琀猀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀㄀⸀ 䘀漀挀甀猀椀渀最 琀栀攀 攀礀攀 漀渀 愀渀 漀戀樀攀挀琀 椀猀 渀漀眀 愀 爀攀昀氀攀砀 愀挀琀椀漀渀Ⰰ 198਀猀漀 愀甀琀漀洀愀琀椀挀 栀愀猀 椀琀 戀攀挀漀洀攀㬀 椀渀 挀漀渀猀攀焀甀攀渀挀攀 漀渀攀 椀猀 commonly directly conscious when an object is not in਀昀漀挀甀猀Ⰰ 愀氀眀愀礀猀 猀漀 眀栀攀渀 琀栀攀 漀戀樀攀挀琀 瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀猀 搀攀琀愀椀氀⸀ 圀攀爀攀 such not the case we should never, except by chance,਀猀攀攀 愀渀礀琀栀椀渀最 搀攀昀椀渀攀搀⸀ 伀戀猀攀爀瘀椀渀最 琀栀爀漀甀最栀 愀 琀攀氀攀猀挀漀瀀攀Ⰰ after a modicum of practice, differs in no respect from਀漀戀猀攀爀瘀椀渀最 椀渀 攀瘀攀爀礀搀愀礀 氀椀昀攀⸀ 䌀漀渀猀攀焀甀攀渀琀氀礀Ⰰ 琀栀愀琀 愀渀 experienced observer should not know his business਀椀渀 猀漀 瀀爀椀洀愀爀礀 愀 洀愀琀琀攀爀 椀猀 瀀爀攀瀀漀猀琀攀爀漀甀猀⸀ 伀渀攀 洀愀礀 漀爀 may not believe that “the undevout astronomer is਀洀愀搀Ⰰᴀ†戀甀琀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 瀀攀爀瀀攀琀甀愀氀氀礀 甀渀昀漀挀甀猀攀搀 漀渀攀 眀漀甀氀搀 be is beyond debate.

2. Generically unlikely, the failure to focus is here਀猀瀀攀挀椀昀椀挀愀氀氀礀 漀甀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 焀甀攀猀琀椀漀渀⸀ 䘀漀爀 琀栀攀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀攀爀 搀漀攀猀 not use the canals to focus on for the simple reason that਀栀攀 挀愀渀渀漀琀⸀ 䰀椀欀攀 愀氀氀 搀攀氀椀挀愀琀攀 搀攀琀愀椀氀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 搀漀甀戀氀攀猀 愀瀀瀀攀愀爀 not continuously but by flashes of revelation, according਀愀猀 琀栀攀 愀琀洀漀猀瀀栀攀爀椀挀 眀愀瘀攀猀 瀀攀爀洀椀琀 漀昀 瀀愀猀猀愀最攀 甀渀搀椀猀琀甀爀戀攀搀⸀ To focus on them would be next to impossible਀攀瘀攀渀 眀攀爀攀 椀琀 爀攀猀漀爀琀攀搀 琀漀᐀眠栀椀挀栀 椀琀 渀攀瘀攀爀 椀猀⸀ 䈀礀 琀栀攀 exponents of the theory this important fact is overlooked:਀琀栀攀 甀渀昀漀爀攀猀攀攀渀 猀栀漀眀椀渀最 漀昀 琀栀攀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀爀攀昀漀爀攀 the absolute lack of complicity of the eye in the਀洀愀琀琀攀爀⸀ 圀栀愀琀 漀渀攀 昀漀挀甀猀攀猀 漀渀 椀猀 琀栀攀 氀漀漀欀 漀昀 琀栀攀 洀愀椀渀 markings of the disk. Now, to suppose an observer਀猀礀猀琀攀洀愀琀椀挀愀氀氀礀 漀甀琀 椀渀 栀椀猀 瀀攀爀挀攀瀀琀椀漀渀猀 漀昀 猀漀 昀攀愀琀甀爀攀昀甀氀 a planet as that of Mars, so that he does not know when਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㤀㤀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㄀㤀㤀✀㸀㄀㤀㤀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 he sees its image sharp, implies a lack of knowledge਀漀昀 愀猀琀爀漀渀漀洀椀挀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀愀琀椀漀渀 椀渀 琀栀攀 猀甀瀀瀀漀猀攀爀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀㌀⸀ 匀琀甀搀礀 戀礀 琀栀攀 眀爀椀琀攀爀 猀栀漀眀猀 琀栀攀 眀椀搀琀栀 漀昀 愀 最椀瘀攀渀 double canal to be constant for a given date. Within਀琀栀攀 攀爀爀漀爀猀 漀昀 瀀攀爀挀攀瀀琀椀漀渀 漀爀 爀攀挀漀爀搀椀渀最 琀栀攀 琀眀椀渀 氀椀渀攀猀 愀爀攀 always at the same epoch the same distance apart.਀吀栀攀 最爀攀愀琀攀爀 琀栀攀 渀甀洀戀攀爀 漀昀 搀攀琀攀爀洀椀渀愀琀椀漀渀猀 洀愀搀攀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 nearer the result approaches to this mean; and the਀最爀攀愀琀攀爀 琀栀攀 挀愀爀攀 甀猀攀搀 椀渀 搀攀氀椀渀攀愀琀椀漀渀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 氀攀猀猀 攀愀挀栀 瘀愀氀甀攀 departs from it.

Now, if the thing were a matter of mistaken focusing,਀愀渀 攀礀攀 挀漀甀氀搀 渀漀琀 戀攀 琀栀甀猀 琀爀甀攀 琀漀 椀琀猀 漀眀渀 洀椀猀琀愀欀攀猀⸀ 䤀昀 it were out in its focus by a certain amount at one time,਀椀琀 眀漀甀氀搀 戀攀 氀椀欀攀氀礀 琀漀 戀攀 漀甀琀 戀礀 愀 搀椀昀昀攀爀攀渀琀 愀洀漀甀渀琀 愀琀 another. So that by the very terms of its making a਀搀椀瀀氀漀瀀椀挀 搀漀甀戀氀攀 眀漀甀氀搀 戀攀 猀甀爀攀 琀漀 瘀愀爀礀⸀ 䤀渀搀攀攀搀Ⰰ 椀渀 laboratory experiments it is impossible to prevent it.਀䘀漀爀 琀栀攀 攀礀攀 爀攀猀琀猀 椀琀猀攀氀昀 愀甀琀漀洀愀琀椀挀愀氀氀礀 戀礀 挀栀愀渀最攀 漀昀 昀漀挀甀猀Ⰰ and if it be not consciously kept awry it reverts as near਀琀漀 琀栀攀 琀爀甀攀 昀漀挀甀猀 愀猀 椀琀 挀愀渀 漀昀 椀琀猀 漀眀渀 愀挀挀漀爀搀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀㐀⸀ 䐀椀瀀氀漀瀀椀愀 洀椀最栀琀 戀攀 愀 爀攀猀瀀攀挀琀攀爀 漀昀 瀀攀爀猀漀渀猀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 椀琀 certainly could not be one of canals. For a given observer਀椀琀 洀甀猀琀 戀攀 漀戀樀攀挀琀椀瘀攀氀礀 最攀渀攀爀愀氀 椀渀 椀琀猀 愀瀀瀀氀椀挀愀琀椀漀渀 to the same class of objects. Consequently, if the doubling਀眀攀爀攀 搀椀瀀氀漀瀀椀挀Ⰰ 愀氀氀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 椀渀挀氀椀渀攀搀 愀琀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 愀渀最氀攀 to the vertical—for the tilt might affect the result਀眀攀爀攀 琀栀攀 攀礀攀 愀猀琀椀最洀愀琀椀挀᐀猠栀漀甀氀搀 戀攀 猀椀洀椀氀愀爀氀礀 愀昀昀攀挀琀攀搀⸀ 200਀倀愀爀愀氀氀攀氀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 猀栀漀甀氀搀 瀀愀爀愀氀氀攀氀 攀愀挀栀 漀琀栀攀爀ᤀ猠 愀挀琀椀漀渀⸀ With the Martian doubles this is not the case. Of two਀挀愀渀愀氀猀 猀椀洀椀氀愀爀氀礀 椀渀挀氀椀渀攀搀 琀栀攀 漀渀攀 眀椀氀氀 戀攀 搀漀甀戀氀攀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 other not, at the same instant and under conditions਀琀栀愀琀 愀爀攀 愀氀椀欀攀⸀ 䄀渀搀 琀栀椀猀 瀀攀爀猀椀猀琀攀渀琀氀礀⸀ 䘀漀爀 最攀洀椀渀愀琀椀漀渀 is an attribute of certain canals and never of others.਀䄀琀 愀 最椀瘀攀渀 猀攀愀猀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 礀攀愀爀Ⰰ 猀漀洀攀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 愀爀攀 regularly double, some invariably single. Night after਀渀椀最栀琀 愀渀搀 瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀愀琀椀漀渀 愀昀琀攀爀 瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀愀琀椀漀渀 琀栀攀猀攀 椀搀椀漀猀礀渀挀爀愀猀椀攀猀 are preserved: the doubles, always pairs, the਀猀椀渀最氀攀Ⰰ 愀氀眀愀礀猀 愀氀漀渀攀⸀ 一漀爀 搀漀攀猀 琀栀攀 猀琀爀攀渀最琀栀 漀昀 琀栀攀 氀椀渀攀 affect the action. The single canals are some of them਀猀琀爀漀渀最攀爀Ⰰ 猀漀洀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀洀 眀攀愀欀攀爀Ⰰ 琀栀愀渀 琀栀攀 搀漀甀戀氀攀猀 猀攀攀渀 at the same time.

5. If of diplopic origin the mean width of all the਀搀漀甀戀氀攀猀 猀栀漀甀氀搀 戀攀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀⸀ 䘀漀爀 琀栀漀甀最栀 琀栀攀 搀椀瀀氀漀瀀椀挀 width would vary for a given canal according to the਀洀漀洀攀渀琀Ⰰ 愀 猀甀昀昀椀挀椀攀渀琀 渀甀洀戀攀爀 漀昀 瘀椀攀眀猀 眀漀甀氀搀 礀椀攀氀搀 愀 mean width which would be the same for all. Tilt਀愀瀀愀爀琀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 洀攀愀渀 眀椀搀琀栀 漀昀 漀渀攀 挀愀渀愀氀 眀漀甀氀搀 戀攀 琀栀愀琀 漀昀 another. Among Martian doubles, on the contrary,਀䤀 栀愀瘀攀 昀漀甀渀搀 琀栀攀 眀椀搀琀栀 琀漀 戀攀 愀 猀瀀攀挀椀昀椀挀 瀀爀漀瀀攀爀琀礀 of the particular canal. Each has its own mean width਀爀攀最愀爀搀氀攀猀猀 漀昀 椀渀挀氀椀渀愀琀椀漀渀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 琀栀椀猀 椀渀搀椀瘀椀搀甀愀氀 眀椀搀琀栀 differs as between one and another by as much as five਀琀漀 琀眀漀Ⰰ 漀爀Ⰰ 椀昀 眀攀 挀漀渀猀椀搀攀爀 猀甀挀栀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 愀猀 琀栀攀 一椀氀漀欀攀爀愀猀 I and II, by more than ten to two.

਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀ ㄀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀ ㄀✀㸀㈀ ㄀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 Any one of these five points is fatal to the theory;਀㰀椀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 氀愀渀最㴀∀氀愀∀ 砀洀氀㨀氀愀渀最㴀∀氀愀∀㸀愀 昀漀爀琀椀漀爀椀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀椀㸀 愀氀氀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀栀㌀ 椀搀㴀✀挀栀㄀㜀瀀㈀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㈀㠀✀㸀㰀椀㸀䤀䤀⸀ 吀栀攀 䤀渀琀攀爀昀攀爀攀渀挀攀 吀栀攀漀爀礀㰀⼀椀㸀㰀⼀栀㌀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䘀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 眀愀瘀攀 瀀爀漀瀀愀最愀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 氀椀最栀琀 椀琀 昀漀氀氀漀眀猀 琀栀愀琀 the image of a bright line made by a lens is not itself਀愀 猀椀洀瀀氀攀 戀爀椀最栀琀 氀椀渀攀 戀甀琀 愀 戀爀椀最栀琀 戀愀渀搀 昀氀愀渀欀攀搀 戀礀 愀氀琀攀爀渀愀琀攀 dark and bright ones. It has, therefore, been suggested਀琀栀愀琀 愀 戀爀椀最栀琀 洀攀搀椀愀氀 氀椀渀攀 椀猀 栀攀爀攀 挀漀渀挀攀爀渀攀搀 愀渀搀 that the double canal is the first of its dark pair of outriders.਀䈀甀琀 琀栀攀 猀甀最最攀猀琀椀漀渀 搀漀攀猀 渀漀琀 戀攀愀爀 猀挀爀甀琀椀渀礀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀㄀⸀ 䤀琀 瀀爀攀猀甀瀀瀀漀猀攀猀 愀 挀攀渀琀爀愀氀 猀琀爀攀愀欀 戀爀椀最栀琀攀爀 琀栀愀渀 琀栀攀 rest of the disk to give birth to the twin dark lines.਀吀栀椀猀 猀栀漀甀氀搀 椀琀猀攀氀昀 戀攀 瘀椀猀椀戀氀攀 椀渀 琀栀攀 椀洀愀最攀㬀 戀甀琀 渀漀 猀甀挀栀 bright backbone is seen.

2. It demands a perfectly definite width of separation਀昀漀爀 愀 最椀瘀攀渀 愀瀀攀爀琀甀爀攀᐀眠栀椀挀栀 椀猀 渀漀琀 琀栀愀琀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀攀搀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀㌀⸀ 䤀琀 洀愀欀攀猀 琀栀攀 眀椀搀琀栀 愀 昀甀渀挀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 愀瀀攀爀琀甀爀攀Ⰰ decreasing as this increases—which is not sustained਀戀礀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀愀琀椀漀渀⸀ 䐀椀昀昀攀爀攀渀琀 愀瀀攀爀琀甀爀攀猀 瀀爀漀搀甀挀攀 渀漀 攀昀昀攀挀琀 on the widths of the Martian doubles, as the writer has਀猀栀漀眀渀 ⠀䰀漀眀攀氀氀 伀戀猀攀爀瘀愀琀漀爀礀 䈀甀氀氀攀琀椀渀Ⰰ 一漀⸀ 㔀⤀ 戀礀 愀 挀栀愀渀最攀 of aperture from twenty-four to six inches.

4. Under like optical conditions the optically produced਀搀漀甀戀氀攀猀 眀漀甀氀搀 戀攀 愀氀氀 漀昀 愀 眀椀搀琀栀㬀 眀栀椀氀攀 琀栀攀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 ones show idiosyncratic widths, each peculiar to਀椀琀猀攀氀昀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀搀椀瘀㸀 ਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀ ㈀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀ ㈀✀㸀㈀ ㈀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀

III. The Illusion Theory

਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䬀渀漀眀渀 愀氀猀漀 愀猀 琀栀攀 匀洀愀氀氀 䈀漀礀 吀栀攀漀爀礀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 椀渀最攀渀甀漀甀猀 simplicity on which it rests, this theory attacks਀琀栀攀 爀攀愀氀椀琀礀 漀昀 琀栀攀 搀漀甀戀氀攀猀 戀礀 焀甀攀猀琀椀漀渀椀渀最 琀栀愀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 canals en bloc. Because some boys from the Greenwich਀⠀刀攀昀漀爀洀 漀爀⤀ 䌀栀愀爀椀琀礀 匀挀栀漀漀氀Ⰰ 猀攀琀 琀漀 挀漀瀀礀 愀 挀愀渀愀氀ⴀ攀砀瀀甀爀最愀琀攀搀 picture of the planet, themselves supplied਀琀栀攀 氀椀渀攀猀 眀栀椀挀栀 栀愀搀 瀀爀攀挀攀瀀琀漀爀椀氀礀 戀攀攀渀 氀攀昀琀 漀甀琀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 Martian canals have been denied existence; which is਀氀椀欀攀 猀愀礀椀渀最 琀栀愀琀 戀攀挀愀甀猀攀 愀 洀愀渀 洀愀礀 猀攀攀 猀琀愀爀猀 眀椀琀栀漀甀琀 scanning the heavens, therefore those in the sky do not਀攀砀椀猀琀⸀ 䄀猀 琀漀 琀栀攀 椀渀猀琀爀甀挀琀椀漀渀猀 琀栀攀 戀漀礀猀 爀攀挀攀椀瘀攀搀 眀攀 愀爀攀 left in the dark. It looks as if some leading questions਀栀愀搀 甀渀挀漀渀猀挀椀漀甀猀氀礀 戀攀攀渀 瀀甀琀 琀漀 琀栀攀洀⸀ 䄀琀 愀氀氀 攀瘀攀渀琀猀Ⰰ English charity boys would seem to be particularly਀瀀氀椀愀渀琀 琀漀 猀甀挀栀 椀洀愀最椀渀愀琀椀漀渀Ⰰ 昀漀爀 眀栀攀渀 䘀氀愀洀洀愀爀椀漀渀 爀攀琀爀椀攀搀 the experiment with French schoolboys, and even਀椀渀猀攀爀琀攀搀 猀瀀愀挀攀搀 搀漀琀猀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 椀渀 琀栀攀 挀漀瀀礀Ⰰ 渀漀琀 愀 boy of them drew an illusory line.

The fact is, this is one of those deceptive half-truths਀眀栀椀挀栀 椀猀 猀漀 洀甀挀栀 洀漀爀攀 搀攀氀攀琀攀爀椀漀甀猀 琀栀愀渀 愀渀 甀渀洀椀琀椀最愀琀攀搀 mistake. Under certain circumstances it is quite possible਀琀漀 瀀攀爀挀攀椀瘀攀 椀氀氀甀猀漀爀礀 氀椀渀攀猀Ⰰ 搀甀攀 攀椀琀栀攀爀 琀漀 猀栀愀搀椀渀最猀 otherwise unmarked and thus synthesized or to immediately਀瀀爀攀挀攀搀攀渀琀 爀攀琀椀渀愀氀 椀洀瀀爀攀猀猀椀漀渀猀 琀爀愀渀猀昀攀爀爀攀搀 to places where they do not belong by rapid motion਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀ ㌀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀ ㌀✀㸀㈀ ㌀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 of the eye, as I had myself discovered before the਀䔀渀最氀椀猀栀 攀砀瀀攀爀椀洀攀渀琀 栀愀搀 戀攀攀渀 琀爀椀攀搀⸀ 䈀甀琀Ⰰ 愀猀 䤀 栀愀瘀攀 also found out, these effects are produced only at the਀氀椀洀椀琀 漀昀 瘀椀猀椀漀渀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 椀渀 琀栀愀琀 氀椀洀戀漀 漀昀 甀渀挀攀爀琀愀椀渀琀礀 琀栀攀 whole art of the observer consists in learning to distinguish਀琀栀攀 琀爀甀攀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 昀愀氀猀攀⸀ 匀琀爀攀渀最琀栀 漀昀 椀洀瀀爀攀猀猀椀漀渀Ⰰ renewed effect in situ, and a peculiar sense of਀爀攀愀氀椀琀礀 漀爀 琀栀攀 爀攀瘀攀爀猀攀 攀渀愀戀氀攀 栀椀洀 琀漀 愀搀樀甀搀最攀 琀栀攀 琀眀漀⸀ More experience than the boys possessed would have਀栀攀氀瀀攀搀 琀栀攀洀 琀漀 瀀愀爀琀 琀栀攀 猀栀攀攀瀀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 最漀愀琀猀⸀ 䈀甀琀Ⰰ furthermore, and fatally to the theory here in question,਀琀栀攀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 眀栀攀渀 眀攀氀氀 猀攀攀渀 愀爀攀 渀漀琀 愀琀 琀栀攀 氀椀洀椀琀 of vision as its framers supposed, but well within that਀戀漀甀渀搀愀爀礀 漀昀 搀漀甀戀琀㬀 猀漀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 瀀爀攀洀椀猀攀 甀瀀漀渀 眀栀椀挀栀 琀栀攀 whole theory rests gives way. Under good atmospheric਀挀漀渀搀椀琀椀漀渀猀 琀栀攀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 愀爀攀 挀漀洀瀀愀爀愀戀氀攀 昀漀爀 挀漀渀猀瀀椀挀甀漀甀猀渀攀猀猀 to many of the well-recognized Fraunhofer lines਀愀渀搀 愀爀攀 樀甀猀琀 愀猀 挀攀爀琀愀椀渀氀礀 琀栀攀爀攀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀吀栀甀猀 攀愀挀栀 愀琀琀攀洀瀀琀 琀漀 瀀爀漀瘀攀 琀栀攀 搀漀甀戀氀攀猀 渀漀渀ⴀ漀戀樀攀挀琀椀瘀攀 turns out when specifically examined to be inconsistent਀眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 昀愀挀琀猀⸀ 圀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 愀猀猀甀爀愀渀挀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀椀爀 reality thus made doubly sure, we pass to consideration਀漀昀 琀栀攀 琀栀椀渀最猀 琀栀攀洀猀攀氀瘀攀猀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀栀愀瀀琀攀爀✀㸀 ਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀ 㐀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀ 㐀✀㸀㈀ 㐀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀

CHAPTER XVIII

THE DOUBLE CANALS

਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀 ਀㰀栀㌀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㈀㤀✀㸀䤀㰀⼀栀㌀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀搀爀漀瀀ⴀ挀愀瀀愀 开㈀开 开㜀 挀 ㌀ ✀     㸀刀椀最栀琀氀礀 瘀椀攀眀攀搀Ⰰ 渀漀 洀漀爀攀 猀甀戀琀氀攀 琀爀椀戀甀琀攀 挀漀甀氀搀 戀攀 paid to the remarkable character of the phenomenon਀漀昀 最攀洀椀渀愀琀椀漀渀 琀栀愀渀 琀栀攀 猀挀攀瀀琀椀挀椀猀洀 眀椀琀栀 眀栀椀挀栀 椀琀 was immediately received and which it still continues਀琀漀 攀氀椀挀椀琀⸀ 吀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 猀椀最栀琀 猀栀漀甀氀搀 戀攀 爀攀最愀爀搀攀搀 愀猀 椀氀氀甀猀漀爀礀 speaks for its surpassing strangeness; and so far as਀漀搀搀椀琀礀 最漀攀猀 琀栀攀 攀渀挀漀洀椀甀洀 椀猀 挀攀爀琀愀椀渀氀礀 搀攀猀攀爀瘀攀搀⸀ 伀昀 the bizarre features of this curiously marked disk,਀琀栀攀 搀漀甀戀氀攀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 眀攀爀攀 愀琀 琀栀攀 琀椀洀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀椀爀 搀椀猀挀漀瘀攀爀礀 the culmination, and though things stranger still if਀瀀漀猀猀椀戀氀攀 栀愀瘀攀 猀椀渀挀攀 戀攀攀渀 猀攀攀渀 琀栀攀爀攀Ⰰ 椀琀 椀猀 渀漀琀 眀漀渀搀攀爀昀甀氀 that doubt should still incredulously stare. If the mere਀愀挀挀漀甀渀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀洀 爀攀愀搀猀 氀椀欀攀 爀漀洀愀渀挀攀Ⰰ 琀漀 猀攀攀 琀栀攀洀 椀猀 愀渀 experience.

Nothing astronomical that I have ever seen has been਀猀漀 猀琀愀爀琀氀椀渀最氀礀 椀洀瀀爀攀猀猀椀瘀攀 愀猀 洀礀 昀椀爀猀琀 瘀椀攀眀 漀昀 愀 搀漀甀戀氀攀 canal. Even in narration the thing justifies its effect.਀䘀漀爀 愀 搀漀甀戀氀攀 挀愀渀愀氀 挀漀渀猀椀猀琀猀 漀昀 愀 瀀愀椀爀 漀昀 琀眀椀渀 搀愀爀欀 昀椀氀愀洀攀渀琀猀Ⰰ perfectly parallel throughout their course and਀椀渀挀氀漀猀椀渀最 戀攀琀眀攀攀渀 琀栀攀洀 最爀漀甀渀搀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 漀挀栀爀攀椀猀栀 205਀挀愀猀琀 愀猀 琀栀愀琀 眀栀椀挀栀 氀椀攀猀 眀椀琀栀漀甀琀⸀ 伀渀氀礀 漀渀 漀挀挀愀猀椀漀渀 椀猀 this tint of their midway departed from, and then only਀琀漀眀愀爀搀 愀 搀愀爀欀攀渀椀渀最Ⰰ 渀攀瘀攀爀 琀漀眀愀爀搀 愀 氀椀最栀琀攀渀椀渀最 漀昀 椀琀⸀ Except for appearing paired, the lines resemble precisely਀琀栀攀 甀猀甀愀氀 猀椀渀最氀攀 挀愀渀愀氀猀⸀ 䤀渀 氀攀渀最琀栀 琀栀攀礀 瘀愀爀礀 from a few hundred to a few thousand miles, while in਀眀椀搀琀栀 攀愀挀栀 挀漀洀瀀漀渀攀渀琀Ⰰ 昀漀爀 渀愀爀爀漀眀渀攀猀猀Ⰰ 栀愀爀搀氀礀 瀀攀爀洀椀琀猀 of definite ascription.

Compared for strength with the usual canal the lines਀漀昀 愀 搀漀甀戀氀攀 猀攀攀洀 琀漀 栀漀氀搀 漀渀 琀栀攀 愀瘀攀爀愀最攀 愀渀 椀渀琀攀爀洀攀搀椀愀琀攀 position between the larger and the smaller of the single਀挀愀渀愀氀猀 猀漀 昀愀爀 搀攀琀攀挀琀攀搀⸀ 伀眀椀渀最Ⰰ 栀漀眀攀瘀攀爀Ⰰ 琀漀 琀栀攀 洀愀猀猀攀搀 effect of the pair by reason of their closeness, they have਀愀渀 愀搀瘀愀渀琀愀最攀 椀渀 猀栀漀眀椀渀最 漀瘀攀爀 琀栀攀 猀椀渀最氀攀猀 漀昀 琀眀漀 琀漀 漀渀攀⸀ And this renders them among the most conspicuous and਀椀洀瀀漀爀琀愀渀琀 洀攀猀栀攀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 挀愀渀愀氀 渀攀琀眀漀爀欀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䰀椀欀攀 琀栀攀 猀椀渀最氀攀 挀愀渀愀氀猀Ⰰ 琀栀攀礀 瘀愀爀礀 椀渀 猀琀爀攀渀最琀栀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 Martian time of year; at certain seasons developing਀椀渀琀漀 栀攀愀瘀礀 瀀攀渀挀椀氀 氀椀渀攀猀 愀渀搀 愀琀 漀琀栀攀爀猀 昀愀搀椀渀最 愀眀愀礀 琀漀 琀栀攀 merest gossamers, only just discernible like cobwebs਀猀琀爀攀琀挀栀攀搀 愀挀爀漀猀猀 琀栀攀 昀愀挀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䄀氀琀栀漀甀最栀 琀栀攀 椀渀搀椀瘀椀搀甀愀氀 挀漀渀猀琀椀琀甀攀渀琀 氀椀渀攀猀 瘀愀爀礀 椀渀 aspect and never rise at their most to cognizable਀戀爀攀愀搀琀栀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 搀椀猀琀愀渀挀攀 瀀愀爀琀椀渀最 琀栀攀椀爀 挀攀渀琀爀攀猀Ⰰ 漀爀 琀栀攀 眀椀搀琀栀 of the double, is quite measurable. The only difficulty਀椀渀 琀栀攀 眀愀礀 漀昀 椀琀猀 搀攀琀攀爀洀椀渀愀琀椀漀渀 氀椀攀猀 椀渀 琀栀攀 愀戀猀攀渀挀攀 漀昀 愀 procurable unit small enough to mete it. The usual਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀ 㘀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀ 㘀✀㸀㈀ 㘀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 spider-threads of the micrometer are colossal in comparison਀眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀猀攀 昀椀氀愀洀攀渀琀猀 愀渀搀 瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀 愀 猀琀愀渀搀愀爀搀 only analogic at best. Nevertheless, by means of the਀昀椀渀攀猀琀 琀栀爀攀愀搀猀 琀栀愀琀 挀漀甀氀搀 戀攀 最漀琀Ⰰ 攀猀琀椀洀愀琀攀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 搀椀猀琀愀渀挀攀 between the pairs were made at Flagstaff in 1905 [Darian: 157],਀愀渀搀 琀栀攀 爀攀猀甀氀琀猀 愀最爀攀攀 愀猀 挀氀漀猀攀氀礀 愀猀 琀栀攀 洀攀愀渀猀 瀀攀爀洀椀琀 with those got by measurement of the doubles as਀搀攀瀀椀挀琀攀搀 椀渀 琀栀攀 搀爀愀眀椀渀最猀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀搀椀瘀 椀搀㴀✀椀开戀开㈀ 㘀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀椀洀最氀攀昀琀✀㸀

਀ 㰀椀洀最 猀爀挀㴀✀椀洀愀最攀猀⼀椀开戀开㈀ 㘀⸀樀瀀最✀ 愀氀琀㴀✀✀ ⼀㸀

Martian doubles.

਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀

Of what they look like, the following illustrations਀最椀瘀攀 愀 昀愀椀爀 椀搀攀愀Ⰰ 漀渀氀礀 琀栀愀琀 椀渀猀琀攀愀搀 漀昀 戀攀椀渀最 洀漀爀攀 最攀漀洀攀琀爀椀挀愀氀氀礀 regular in the਀搀爀愀眀椀渀最 琀栀愀渀 椀渀 爀攀愀氀椀琀礀 琀栀攀 fact is the other way. Freehand਀搀爀愀昀琀猀洀愀渀猀栀椀瀀 愀琀 琀栀攀 telescope is incapable of rendering਀琀栀攀椀爀 爀甀氀攀搀 攀昀昀攀挀琀⸀ 一漀 railway metals could be laid਀搀漀眀渀 眀椀琀栀 洀漀爀攀 瀀爀攀挀椀猀椀漀渀⸀ As to their size, the following਀昀椀最甀爀攀猀 搀攀爀椀瘀攀搀 昀爀漀洀 愀 琀礀瀀椀挀愀氀 搀漀甀戀氀攀 挀愀渀愀氀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 倀栀椀猀漀渀Ⰰ give some conception. This great artery of intercommunication਀戀攀琀眀攀攀渀 琀栀攀 匀愀戀愀攀甀猀 匀椀渀甀猀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 Nilosyrtis is, roughly speaking, 2250 miles long; the਀搀椀猀琀愀渀挀攀 戀攀琀眀攀攀渀 琀栀攀 挀攀渀琀爀攀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 琀眀漀 挀漀渀猀琀椀琀甀攀渀琀猀 is about 130 miles, and each line is perhaps 20 miles਀椀渀 戀爀攀愀搀琀栀Ⰰ 眀栀攀渀 愀琀 椀琀猀 洀愀砀椀洀甀洀 猀琀爀攀渀最琀栀⸀ 吀栀攀 pair follow, apparently, the arc of a great circle from਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀ 㜀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀ 㜀✀㸀㈀ 㜀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 the Portus Sigaeus on the Mare Icarium to the Pseboas਀䰀甀挀甀猀 椀渀 氀愀琀椀琀甀搀攀 㐀 뀀 渀漀爀琀栀⸀ 吀栀攀 倀漀爀琀甀猀 匀椀最愀攀甀猀 挀漀渀猀椀猀琀猀 of two little nicks in the coastline, looking like਀琀栀攀 挀愀爀攀琀猀 漀渀攀 洀愀欀攀猀 椀渀 checking off items down a਀氀椀猀琀Ⰰ 椀昀 琀栀攀 猀瀀愀挀攀 戀攀琀眀攀攀渀 the down and up strokes਀眀攀爀攀 琀栀攀渀 昀椀氀氀攀搀 椀渀㬀 琀栀攀 Pseboas Lucus, on the other਀栀愀渀搀Ⰰ 椀猀 愀 氀愀爀最攀 爀漀甀渀搀 搀漀琀 like a small ink spot. To਀琀栀攀猀攀 琀眀漀 搀椀昀昀攀爀攀渀琀氀礀 愀瀀瀀攀愀爀椀渀最 spots, the twin lines of਀琀栀攀 倀栀椀猀漀渀 戀攀栀愀瘀攀 搀椀昀昀攀爀攀渀琀氀礀⸀ 圀栀椀氀攀 攀愀挀栀 氀椀渀攀 氀攀愀瘀攀猀 centrally its own caret of the Portus Sigaeus at the਀猀漀甀琀栀Ⰰ 愀琀 琀栀攀 渀漀爀琀栀 攀愀挀栀 琀漀甀挀栀攀猀 瀀攀爀椀瀀栀攀爀愀氀氀礀 琀栀攀 Pseboas Lucus, on the east and west sides respectively,਀琀栀攀 琀眀漀 琀栀甀猀 樀甀猀琀 栀漀氀搀椀渀最 琀栀攀 䰀甀挀甀猀 戀攀琀眀攀攀渀 琀栀攀洀⸀ In position the lines are invariable, though in visibility਀渀漀琀⸀ 匀漀洀攀琀椀洀攀猀 漀渀氀礀 漀渀攀 椀猀 猀攀攀渀Ⰰ 猀漀洀攀琀椀洀攀猀 戀漀琀栀 猀栀漀眀 faintly, and sometimes both are conspicuously strong.਀吀栀攀 搀攀氀椀挀愀挀礀 漀昀 琀栀攀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀愀琀椀漀渀猀 戀礀 眀栀椀挀栀 琀栀椀猀 搀攀琀愀椀氀 was established is second only to its importance. It਀搀攀猀琀爀漀礀猀 愀琀 愀 猀琀爀漀欀攀 愀氀氀 瀀漀猀猀椀戀椀氀椀琀礀 漀昀 搀椀瀀氀漀瀀椀挀 甀渀爀攀愀氀椀琀礀Ⰰ since were that the fact the Pseboas Lucus਀猀栀漀甀氀搀 戀攀 搀漀甀戀氀攀搀Ⰰ 眀栀椀挀栀 椀琀 椀猀 渀漀琀⸀ 䄀琀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 琀椀洀攀 it opens vistas into the true construction of the਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀ 㠀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀ 㠀✀㸀㈀ 㠀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 things themselves, at present more suggestive than਀猀愀琀椀猀昀愀挀琀漀爀礀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀搀椀瘀 椀搀㴀✀椀开戀开㈀ 㜀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀椀洀最爀椀最栀琀✀㸀

਀ 㰀椀洀最 猀爀挀㴀✀椀洀愀最攀猀⼀椀开戀开㈀ 㜀⸀樀瀀最✀ 愀氀琀㴀✀✀ ⼀㸀

Martian doubles (corroborating the above).

਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀

In the great circle character of its course the Phison਀椀猀 焀甀椀琀攀 渀漀爀洀愀氀⸀ 吀栀攀 洀愀樀漀爀椀琀礀 漀昀 琀栀攀 搀漀甀戀氀攀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 pursue the like method, running straight over the਀猀甀爀昀愀挀攀 昀爀漀洀 漀渀攀 瀀漀椀渀琀 琀漀 愀渀漀琀栀攀爀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 挀漀渀猀琀椀琀甀攀渀琀猀 remaining equidistant throughout. But such forthrightness਀漀昀 搀椀爀攀挀琀椀漀渀Ⰰ 琀栀漀甀最栀 琀栀攀 爀甀氀攀Ⰰ 椀猀 渀漀琀 眀椀琀栀漀甀琀 exceptions. The Thoth-Nepenthes, for example,਀猀眀攀攀瀀猀 爀漀甀渀搀 椀渀 愀 猀攀攀洀椀渀最氀礀 挀漀渀琀椀渀甀漀甀猀 挀甀爀瘀攀 琀漀 琀栀攀 west-southwest from the Aquae Calidae to the Lucus਀䴀漀攀爀椀猀 氀椀欀攀 猀漀洀攀 洀椀最栀琀礀 戀漀眀 瀀攀爀瀀攀琀甀愀氀氀礀 戀攀渀琀⸀ 一攀瘀攀爀琀栀攀氀攀猀猀 its lines are no less careful for all their curving਀琀漀 欀攀攀瀀 琀栀攀椀爀 搀椀猀琀愀渀挀攀 昀爀漀洀 漀渀攀 攀渀搀 琀漀 琀栀攀 漀琀栀攀爀 漀昀 琀栀攀椀爀 course. The quality of being paired rises superior to਀挀栀愀渀最攀 漀昀 搀椀爀攀挀琀椀漀渀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀栀㌀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㈀㤀✀㸀䤀䤀㰀⼀栀㌀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀一漀眀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 昀椀爀猀琀 瀀漀椀渀琀 琀漀 戀攀 渀漀琀椀挀攀搀 愀戀漀甀琀 琀栀攀 搀漀甀戀氀攀猀 is that bilateralism, or the quality of being double,਀椀猀 渀漀琀 愀 甀渀椀瘀攀爀猀愀氀 琀爀愀椀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 挀愀渀愀氀猀Ⰰ 攀椀琀栀攀爀 愀挀琀甀愀氀氀礀 漀爀 potentially; it is not even a general one. Out of the਀昀漀甀爀 栀甀渀搀爀攀搀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 猀攀攀渀 愀琀 䘀氀愀最猀琀愀昀昀Ⰰ 漀渀氀礀 昀椀昀琀礀ⴀ漀渀攀 have at any time displayed the quality; that is, one਀攀椀最栀琀栀 爀漀甀最栀氀礀 漀昀 琀栀攀 眀栀漀氀攀 渀甀洀戀攀爀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀攀搀⸀ 吀栀椀猀 point is most important; for the fact is of itself enough਀琀漀 搀椀猀瀀爀漀瘀攀 愀渀礀 漀瀀琀椀挀愀氀 漀爀椀最椀渀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀 瀀栀攀渀漀洀攀渀漀渀⸀ The characteristic of doubling so confidently ascribed਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀ 㤀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀ 㤀✀㸀㈀ 㤀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 by those who have not seen it to general optical or ocular਀瀀爀椀渀挀椀瀀氀攀猀 瀀爀漀瘀攀猀 琀栀甀猀 琀栀攀 攀砀挀攀瀀琀椀漀渀Ⰰ 渀漀琀 琀栀攀 爀甀氀攀Ⰰ 眀椀琀栀 the canals, and by so doing disowns the applicability਀漀昀 愀渀礀 洀攀爀攀氀礀 漀瀀琀椀挀愀氀 猀漀氀甀琀椀漀渀⸀ 圀攀 猀栀愀氀氀 攀渀挀漀甀渀琀攀爀 many more equally prohibitive bars to illusory explanation਀戀攀昀漀爀攀 眀攀 栀愀瘀攀 搀漀渀攀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 搀漀甀戀氀攀猀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 椀琀 椀猀 interesting to meet one in this manner at the very਀琀栀爀攀猀栀漀氀搀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀甀戀樀攀挀琀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀伀渀 琀栀攀 漀琀栀攀爀 栀愀渀搀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 挀栀愀爀愀挀琀攀爀椀猀琀椀挀 眀栀攀渀 瀀漀猀猀攀猀猀攀搀 is persistent in the particular canal, in posse if not in esse.਀伀渀挀攀 猀栀漀眀渀 戀礀 愀 挀愀渀愀氀Ⰰ 琀栀愀琀 挀愀渀愀氀 洀愀礀 挀漀渀昀椀搀攀渀琀氀礀 be looked to at a proper time to disclose it again.਀䤀渀 猀栀漀爀琀Ⰰ 戀椀氀愀琀攀爀愀氀椀猀洀Ⰰ 漀爀 琀栀攀 猀琀愀琀攀 漀昀 戀攀椀渀最 搀甀愀氀Ⰰ 椀猀 愀渀 inherent attribute of the individual canal, as idiosyncratic਀琀漀 椀琀 愀猀 瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀 愀渀搀 猀椀稀攀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀吀栀攀 挀愀琀愀氀漀最甀攀 漀昀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 瀀漀猀猀攀猀猀椀渀最 琀栀椀猀 瀀爀漀瀀攀爀琀礀Ⰰ so far as they have been detected at Flagstaff to date,਀渀甀洀戀攀爀 昀椀昀琀礀ⴀ漀渀攀 椀昀 眀攀 椀渀挀氀甀搀攀 椀渀 琀栀攀 氀椀猀琀 眀椀搀攀 瀀愀爀愀氀氀攀氀猀 like the Nilokeras I and II. Eight of these were observed਀椀渀 ㄀㠀㤀㐀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㄀崀㬀 渀椀渀攀琀攀攀渀 洀漀爀攀 眀攀爀攀 愀搀搀攀搀 椀渀 ㄀㠀㤀㘀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㈀崀Ⰰ making twenty-seven; in 1901 [Darian: 155] the total was raised to਀琀栀椀爀琀礀㬀 椀渀 ㄀㤀 ㌀ 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㘀崀 琀漀 昀漀爀琀礀ⴀ攀椀最栀琀㬀 愀渀搀 椀渀 ㄀㤀 㔀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㜀崀 琀漀 昀椀昀琀礀ⴀ漀渀攀⸀ Arranged by years they are tabulated below, where the਀渀甀洀攀爀愀氀 琀漀 琀栀攀 氀攀昀琀 爀攀最椀猀琀攀爀猀 昀漀爀 攀愀挀栀 椀琀猀 昀椀爀猀琀 爀攀挀漀爀搀椀渀最 and the position held by it in the list. The starred਀挀愀渀愀氀猀 洀甀挀栀 攀砀挀攀攀搀 琀栀攀 漀琀栀攀爀猀 椀渀 眀椀搀琀栀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 瀀漀猀猀椀戀氀礀 denote a different phenomenon.

 
AreaActual Length
1.001.00
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 .58 .59
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 .26 .34
 .07 .11
਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀䐀愀琀攀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㄀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀一攀挀琀愀爀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㌀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀⨀一椀氀漀欀攀爀愀猀 䤀 愀渀搀 䤀䤀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㔀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀䄀猀漀瀀甀猀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㜀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀吀礀瀀栀漀渀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀㰀戀㸀㄀㠀㤀㘀ⴀ㜀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㈀ⴀ㄀㔀㌀崀㰀⼀戀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀吀礀瀀栀漀渀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀䔀甀瀀栀爀愀琀攀猀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀䰀攀琀栀攀猀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀䐀椀猀 匀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㄀㄀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀䰀愀攀猀琀爀礀最漀渀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㄀㌀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀䌀漀挀礀琀甀猀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㄀㔀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀䄀洀攀渀琀栀攀猀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㄀㜀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀䌀攀爀戀攀爀甀猀 一⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㄀㤀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀䌀礀挀氀漀瀀猀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㈀㄀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀䔀爀攀戀甀猀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㈀㌀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀䜀椀最愀猀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㈀㔀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀䜀椀栀漀渀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㈀㜀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀倀栀椀猀漀渀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀䈀漀爀攀愀猀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀䠀椀搀搀攀欀攀氀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀䨀愀洀甀渀愀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀䌀攀爀戀攀爀甀猀 一⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀䰀愀攀猀琀爀礀最漀渀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀䜀愀渀最攀猀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㈀㠀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀匀椀琀愀挀甀猀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀䐀樀椀栀漀甀渀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀䤀猀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀㰀戀㸀㄀㤀 ㌀ 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㘀崀㰀⼀戀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀吀礀瀀栀漀渀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀䠀椀搀搀攀欀攀氀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀䔀甀瀀栀爀愀琀攀猀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㌀㄀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀䜀椀栀漀渀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㌀㈀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀䄀洀攀渀琀栀攀猀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀䌀礀挀氀漀瀀猀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀⨀一椀氀漀欀攀爀愀猀 䤀 愀渀搀 䤀䤀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀䐀攀甀琀攀爀漀渀椀氀甀猀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㌀㌀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀䌀愀氀氀椀爀爀栀漀攀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀匀椀琀愀挀甀猀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀
211
਀㌀㔀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀一愀爀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㌀㜀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀䄀攀琀栀椀漀瀀猀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㌀㤀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀䔀甀渀漀猀琀漀猀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㐀㄀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀一攀瀀攀渀琀栀攀猀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㐀㌀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀倀礀爀愀洀甀猀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㐀㔀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀嘀攀砀椀氀氀甀洀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀䌀攀爀戀攀爀甀猀 匀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㐀㜀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀䌀攀爀戀攀爀甀猀 一⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㐀㠀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀䜀愀渀最攀猀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀䠀椀搀搀攀欀攀氀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀匀椀琀愀挀甀猀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀䔀甀瀀栀爀愀琀攀猀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀嘀攀砀椀氀氀甀洀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀䄀搀愀洀愀猀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀䌀攀爀戀攀爀甀猀 匀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀吀愀爀琀愀爀甀猀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㐀㤀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀䜀椀最愀猀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀一攀瀀攀渀琀栀攀猀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀䰀愀攀猀琀爀礀最漀渀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㔀 ⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀䐀攀甀琀攀爀漀渀椀氀甀猀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀䔀甀渀漀猀琀漀猀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀䌀愀氀氀椀爀爀栀漀攀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀一愀爀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㜀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㄀✀㸀一愀愀爀洀愀氀挀栀愀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀
਀㰀搀椀瘀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㄀ ✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㄀ ✀㸀㈀㄀ 㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀 Confused
1894 [Darian: 151]
Ganges
2.
Euphrates
4.
Phison
6.
Jamuna
8.
Ganges
Avernus S.
Phison
9.
Jamuna
10.
Titan
12.
Tartarus
14.
Sitacus
16.
Adamas
18.
Cerberus S.
20.
Gelbes
22.
Avernus N.
24.
Alander
26.
Hiddekel
1900-1 [Darian: 155]
Dis S.
Euphrates
Cerberus S.
Amenthes
Pyramus
Cyclops
Deuteronilus
Adamas
29.
Gihon
30.
Djihoun
Orontes
Phison
Protonilus
Marsias
Laestrygon
Gigas
Ganges
Pierius
34.
Jamuna
Astaboras S.
36.
Chaos
38.
Hyblaeus
40.
Thoth
42.
Triton
44.
Fretum Anian
46.
Lethes
Nilokeras I
Tithonius
1905 [Darian: 157]
Nilokeras
Chrysorrhoas
Djihoun
Phison
Amenthes
Astaboras S.
Cyclops
Cerberus N.
*Propontis
Gihon
Thoth
Polyphemus
Triton
Tithonius
Pyramus
Protonilus
51.

In spite of possessing the property of pairing, a canal਀洀愀礀 渀漀琀 愀氀眀愀礀猀 攀砀栀椀戀椀琀 椀琀⸀ 吀漀 琀栀攀 瀀爀漀搀甀挀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 phenomenon the proper time is as essential as the਀瀀爀漀瀀攀爀琀礀 椀琀猀攀氀昀⸀ 匀漀 昀愀爀 愀猀 愀 瀀爀椀洀愀爀礀 猀挀愀渀渀椀渀最 漀爀 昀椀爀猀琀 approximation is capable of revealing, a canal will be਀猀椀渀最氀攀 愀琀 漀渀攀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 猀攀愀猀漀渀 愀渀搀 搀漀甀戀氀攀 愀琀 愀渀漀琀栀攀爀⸀ 212਀吀栀甀猀 琀栀攀猀攀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 愀氀琀攀爀渀愀琀攀搀 椀渀 琀栀攀椀爀 猀琀愀琀攀 琀漀 匀挀栀椀愀瀀愀爀攀氀氀椀 and for the earlier of his own observed oppositions਀琀漀 琀栀攀 眀爀椀琀攀爀⸀ 䤀渀 挀漀渀猀攀焀甀攀渀挀攀 匀挀栀椀愀瀀愀爀攀氀氀椀 deemed gemination a process which the canal periodically਀甀渀搀攀爀眀攀渀琀⸀ 吀栀爀攀攀 猀琀愀最攀猀 椀渀 琀栀攀 搀攀瘀攀氀漀瀀洀攀渀琀 were to him distinguishable: the single aspect, a short਀挀漀渀昀甀猀攀搀 愀猀瀀攀挀琀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 挀氀攀愀爀氀礀 搀甀愀氀 漀渀攀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䤀渀 琀栀攀 猀椀渀最氀攀 猀琀愀琀攀 琀栀攀 挀愀渀愀氀 爀攀洀愀椀渀攀搀 洀漀猀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 time. It then underwent a chrysalid stage of confusion਀琀漀 攀洀攀爀最攀 漀昀 愀 猀甀搀搀攀渀 椀渀琀漀 愀 瀀攀爀昀攀挀琀 瀀愀椀爀⸀ 䘀甀爀琀栀攀爀洀漀爀攀Ⰰ he noted the times at which the pairing took਀瀀氀愀挀攀Ⰰ 琀漀 琀栀攀 昀漀爀洀甀氀愀琀椀渀最 漀昀 愀 氀愀眀 椀渀 琀栀攀 挀愀猀攀᐀搠攀爀椀瘀攀搀 from the observations of more than one opposition.਀䠀椀猀 氀愀眀 眀愀猀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 最攀洀椀渀愀琀椀漀渀 漀挀挀甀爀爀攀搀Ⰰ 漀渀 琀栀攀 愀瘀攀爀愀最攀Ⰰ three months (ours) after the summer solstice਀漀昀 琀栀攀 渀漀爀琀栀攀爀渀 栀攀洀椀猀瀀栀攀爀攀Ⰰ 氀愀猀琀攀搀 昀漀甀爀 琀漀 昀椀瘀攀 洀漀渀琀栀猀Ⰰ then faded out to begin afresh one month after the vernal਀攀焀甀椀渀漀砀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 栀攀洀椀猀瀀栀攀爀攀 愀渀搀 挀漀渀琀椀渀甀攀 昀漀爀 昀漀甀爀 months more. Expressed in Martian seasonal chronology,਀琀栀攀 瀀攀爀椀漀搀猀 眀漀甀氀搀 戀攀 愀戀漀甀琀 栀愀氀昀 愀猀 氀漀渀最⸀ 䄀琀 certain times then the most pronounced specimens of਀搀漀甀戀氀攀猀 猀栀漀眀攀搀 漀戀猀琀椀渀愀琀攀氀礀 猀椀渀最氀攀Ⰰ 眀栀椀氀攀 琀栀攀 瀀攀爀椀漀搀椀挀 metamorphosis that transformed them into duplicates਀眀愀猀 琀椀洀攀搀 琀漀 琀栀攀 挀栀愀渀最攀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀ᤀ猠 礀攀愀爀⸀ 䜀攀洀椀渀愀琀椀漀渀Ⰰ then, was a seasonal phenomenon.

Advance in our knowledge of the phenomenon since਀匀挀栀椀愀瀀愀爀攀氀氀椀ᤀ猠 琀椀洀攀Ⰰ 眀栀椀氀攀 猀琀椀氀氀 猀栀漀眀椀渀最 琀栀攀 琀栀椀渀最 琀漀 戀攀 213਀漀昀 猀攀愀猀漀渀愀氀 栀愀戀椀琀Ⰰ 栀愀猀 挀栀愀渀最攀搀 漀甀爀 挀漀渀挀攀瀀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 椀琀⸀ It now appears that in some cases certainly, and possibly਀椀渀 愀氀氀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 搀甀愀氀 愀猀瀀攀挀琀 椀猀 渀漀琀 愀 琀攀洀瀀漀爀愀爀礀 挀漀渀搀椀琀椀漀渀Ⰰ but the differing pronouncement of a permanent state,਀琀栀攀 昀愀挀琀 漀昀 最攀洀椀渀愀琀椀漀渀 猀漀 挀愀氀氀攀搀 戀攀椀渀最 挀漀渀昀椀渀攀搀 琀漀 愀 filling out of what is always skeletonly there. As the਀挀愀渀愀氀猀 栀愀瘀攀 挀漀洀攀 琀漀 戀攀 戀攀琀琀攀爀 猀攀攀渀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 琀栀爀攀攀 猀琀愀最攀猀 漀昀 existence have in some cases become recognizable as਀漀渀氀礀 搀椀昀昀攀爀攀渀琀 搀攀最爀攀攀猀 椀渀 搀椀猀挀攀爀渀洀攀渀琀 漀昀 愀渀 攀猀猀攀渀琀椀愀氀 double condition; the single appearance being due to਀琀栀攀 爀攀氀愀琀椀瘀攀 昀攀攀戀氀攀渀攀猀猀 漀昀 漀渀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 挀漀渀猀琀椀琀甀攀渀琀猀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 confused showing to the weakness of both, which are਀琀栀攀渀 琀栀攀 洀漀爀攀 攀愀猀椀氀礀 戀氀甀爀爀攀搀 戀礀 琀栀攀 愀椀爀 眀愀瘀攀猀⸀ 䤀渀 挀攀爀琀愀椀渀 canals the last few oppositions, 1901, 1903, and਀㄀㤀 㔀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㔀Ⰰ ㄀㔀㘀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 ㄀㔀㜀崀Ⰰ 栀愀瘀攀 搀椀猀挀氀漀猀攀搀 琀栀椀猀 甀渀洀椀猀琀愀欀愀戀氀礀 琀漀 戀攀 琀栀攀 挀愀猀攀Ⰰ as with the Phison and Euphrates, for example. With਀琀栀攀洀 琀栀攀 搀漀甀戀氀攀 挀栀愀爀愀挀琀攀爀 栀愀猀 戀攀攀渀 挀漀渀琀椀渀甀漀甀猀氀礀 瘀椀猀椀戀氀攀Ⰰ appearing not only when by Schiaparelli’s law it should,਀戀甀琀 愀琀 琀栀攀 琀椀洀攀猀 眀栀攀渀 椀琀 猀栀漀甀氀搀 渀漀琀㬀 漀渀氀礀 漀渀 琀栀攀猀攀 氀愀琀琀攀爀 occasions it was harder to see, whence the reason it was਀瀀爀攀瘀椀漀甀猀氀礀 洀椀猀猀攀搀⸀ 匀漀 琀栀愀琀 昀甀爀琀栀攀爀 猀挀爀甀琀椀渀礀Ⰰ 眀栀椀氀攀 椀渀 no sense discrediting the earlier observations, has extended਀琀漀 琀栀攀洀 猀漀洀攀 洀漀搀椀昀椀挀愀琀椀漀渀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 搀椀猀挀氀漀猀攀搀 琀栀攀 underlying truth to be the varying visibility, the thing਀椀琀猀攀氀昀Ⰰ 攀砀挀攀瀀琀 昀漀爀 猀琀爀攀渀最琀栀 椀渀 瀀愀爀琀 漀爀 眀栀漀氀攀Ⰰ 瀀攀爀猀椀猀琀椀渀最 the same. Improvement in definition has lowered the਀猀攀攀ⴀ氀攀瘀攀氀 琀漀 爀攀瘀攀氀愀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 挀漀渀琀椀渀甀漀甀猀 瀀爀攀猀攀渀挀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 214਀搀甀愀氀 猀琀愀琀攀⸀ 䤀琀 椀猀 漀渀氀礀 漀渀 漀挀挀愀猀椀漀渀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 椀洀瀀爀漀瘀攀洀攀渀琀 is sufficient for the thing when at its feeblest to loom਀琀栀甀猀 愀戀漀瘀攀 琀栀攀 栀漀爀椀稀漀渀 漀昀 挀攀爀琀愀椀渀琀礀㬀 礀攀琀 愀琀 猀甀挀栀 洀漀洀攀渀琀猀 of a rise in the seeing it is enough to allow it਀琀漀 戀攀 最氀椀洀瀀猀攀搀⸀ 吀栀甀猀 椀琀 昀愀爀攀搀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 䄀搀愀洀愀猀 愀琀 琀栀攀 opposition of 1903 [Darian: 156], with the Gigas, and with many਀愀渀漀琀栀攀爀 椀渀 礀攀愀爀猀 最漀渀攀 戀礀⸀ 匀攀瀀愀爀愀琀椀漀渀 栀愀猀 挀漀洀攀 眀椀琀栀 training and generally in the case of the wider doubles,਀眀栀椀挀栀 氀攀愀搀猀 漀渀攀 琀漀 椀渀昀攀爀 琀栀愀琀 攀愀猀攀 漀昀 爀攀猀漀氀甀琀椀漀渀 椀猀 氀愀爀最攀氀礀 responsible for assurance of the permanency of the dual਀猀琀愀琀攀⸀ 倀攀爀瀀氀攀砀椀渀最 攀砀挀攀瀀琀椀漀渀猀Ⰰ 栀漀眀攀瘀攀爀Ⰰ 爀攀洀愀椀渀Ⰰ 猀漀 that it is possible at present only to predicate the਀瀀爀椀渀挀椀瀀愀氀 漀昀 洀漀猀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 搀漀甀戀氀攀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 戀甀琀 渀漀琀 漀昀 愀氀氀⸀ Leaving the exceptions out of account for the moment,਀眀攀 瀀愀猀猀 琀漀 琀栀漀猀攀 最攀渀攀爀愀氀 挀栀愀爀愀挀琀攀爀椀猀琀椀挀猀 眀栀椀挀栀 愀爀攀 椀渀琀椀洀愀琀攀氀礀 linked with what has just been said.

Inasmuch as the act of getting into a state antedates਀琀栀攀 昀愀挀琀 漀昀 戀攀椀渀最 琀栀攀爀攀Ⰰ 椀琀 椀猀 氀漀最椀挀愀氀 琀漀 氀攀琀 琀栀攀 搀攀猀挀爀椀瀀琀椀漀渀 of the first precede. An account of the process of gemination਀洀愀礀 琀栀甀猀 猀甀椀琀愀戀氀礀 挀漀洀攀 戀攀昀漀爀攀 琀栀愀琀 漀昀 椀琀猀 爀攀猀甀氀琀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䘀氀甀砀Ⰰ 愀昀昀攀挀琀椀渀最 琀栀攀 搀漀甀戀氀攀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 椀渀 眀栀漀氀攀 漀爀 瀀愀爀琀Ⰰ is the cause of the apparent gemination. According਀愀猀 琀栀攀 昀氀甀砀 椀猀 瀀愀爀琀椀琀椀瘀攀 漀爀 琀漀琀愀氀 椀猀 愀 猀椀渀最氀攀 漀爀 愀 搀甀愀氀 猀琀愀琀攀 produced. At the depth of its inconspicuousness the਀挀愀渀愀氀 洀愀礀 挀攀愀猀攀 琀漀 戀攀 瘀椀猀椀戀氀攀 愀琀 愀氀氀㬀 琀栀椀猀 漀挀挀甀爀猀 眀栀攀渀 both lines fade out. On the other hand, the one line਀洀愀礀 漀甀琀昀愀搀攀 琀栀攀 漀琀栀攀爀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 眀攀 愀爀攀 瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀攀搀 眀椀琀栀 愀 215਀猀攀攀洀椀渀最氀礀 猀椀渀最氀攀 挀愀渀愀氀Ⰰ 愀琀 琀栀椀猀 椀琀猀 洀椀渀椀洀甀洀 猀栀漀眀椀渀最⸀ In such seasons of debility the one line may appear and਀琀栀攀 漀琀栀攀爀 渀漀琀Ⰰ 漀爀 漀挀挀愀猀椀漀渀愀氀氀礀 琀栀攀 漀琀栀攀爀 猀栀漀眀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 漀渀攀 not, according to the air waves of the moment. It is਀愀琀 琀栀攀猀攀 琀椀洀攀猀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 搀漀甀戀氀攀 猀椀洀甀氀愀琀攀猀 愀 猀椀渀最氀攀 挀愀渀愀氀Ⰰ and unless well seen and carefully watched might easily਀洀愀猀焀甀攀爀愀搀攀 猀甀挀挀攀猀猀昀甀氀氀礀 愀猀 猀甀挀栀⸀ 吀栀攀 䠀椀搀搀攀欀攀氀 椀渀 琀栀攀 depth of its dead season is peculiarly given to this alternately਀瀀愀爀琀椀琀椀瘀攀 瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀愀琀椀漀渀⸀ 䄀猀 琀栀攀 昀氀甀砀 挀漀洀攀猀 漀渀Ⰰ one or both lines feel it. If one only we are likely to਀栀愀瘀攀 愀 挀漀渀昀甀猀攀搀 挀愀渀愀氀㬀 椀昀 戀漀琀栀Ⰰ 愀 搀椀昀昀椀挀甀氀琀 搀漀甀戀氀攀⸀ 吀栀攀 strength of the lines increases until at last both attain਀琀栀攀椀爀 洀愀砀椀洀甀洀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 挀愀渀愀氀 猀琀愀渀搀猀 爀攀瘀攀愀氀攀搀 愀渀 甀渀洀椀猀琀愀欀愀戀氀攀 pair, the two lines paralleling one another਀椀渀 愀瀀瀀攀愀爀愀渀挀攀 愀猀 椀渀 瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䄀琀 琀栀攀 挀愀渀愀氀ᤀ猠 洀愀砀椀洀甀洀 愀渀搀 洀椀渀椀洀甀洀 琀栀攀 攀焀甀愀氀椀琀礀 of its two constituents is chiefly to be remarked, though਀椀琀 漀挀挀甀爀猀 漀渀 漀琀栀攀爀 漀挀挀愀猀椀漀渀猀 愀猀 眀攀氀氀⸀ 䈀甀琀Ⰰ 眀栀愀琀 椀猀 猀椀最渀椀昀椀挀愀渀琀Ⰰ when the two differ it is always the same one that਀漀甀琀搀漀攀猀 椀琀猀 昀攀氀氀漀眀⸀ 䤀琀 洀愀礀 戀攀 琀栀攀 爀椀最栀琀ⴀ栀愀渀搀 琀眀椀渀 椀渀 one pair, the left-hand one in another; but whichever਀椀琀 戀攀Ⰰ 昀漀爀 琀栀攀 瀀愀爀琀椀挀甀氀愀爀 挀愀渀愀氀 椀琀猀 瀀爀攀洀椀渀攀渀挀攀 椀猀 椀渀瘀愀爀椀愀戀氀攀⸀ It is this canal which, except for adventitious਀栀攀氀瀀 漀爀 栀椀渀搀爀愀渀挀攀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 愀椀爀ⴀ眀愀瘀攀猀Ⰰ 愀氀漀渀攀 猀栀漀眀猀 when the double assumes the seemingly single state.਀圀攀 洀愀礀 琀栀攀爀攀昀漀爀攀 挀愀氀氀 椀琀 琀栀攀 漀爀椀最椀渀愀氀 挀愀渀愀氀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 漀琀栀攀爀 being dubbed the duplicate. In some cases it has been਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㄀㘀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㄀㘀✀㸀㈀㄀㘀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 possible to decide which is which. It might seem at਀昀椀爀猀琀 猀椀最栀琀 愀猀 椀昀 琀栀椀猀 瀀漀椀渀琀 猀栀漀甀氀搀 愀氀眀愀礀猀 戀攀 愀猀挀攀爀琀愀椀渀愀戀氀攀⸀ But the determination is more dilemmic than appears,਀渀漀琀 昀爀漀洀 愀渀礀 搀椀昀昀椀挀甀氀琀礀 椀渀 猀攀攀椀渀最 琀栀攀 挀愀渀愀氀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 absence of distinguishing earmark at its end. In a਀氀漀渀最 猀琀爀攀琀挀栀 漀昀 挀漀洀洀漀渀瀀氀愀挀攀 挀漀愀猀琀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 瀀爀攀挀椀猀攀 瀀漀椀渀琀 漀昀 embouchure of a solitary canal cannot be so certainly਀昀椀砀攀搀 愀猀 琀漀 戀攀 搀攀挀椀猀椀瘀攀 氀愀琀攀爀 戀攀琀眀攀攀渀 琀眀漀 眀栀椀挀栀 猀栀漀眀 close together in the same locality. It is only where਀猀漀洀攀 氀愀渀搀洀愀爀欀 瀀漀椀渀琀猀 琀栀攀 挀愀渀愀氀ᤀ猠 琀攀爀洀椀渀愀氀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 problem admits of definite solution. This telltale਀琀愀最 洀愀礀 戀攀 愀 戀愀礀 氀椀欀攀 琀栀攀 䴀愀爀最愀爀椀琀椀昀攀爀 匀椀渀甀猀Ⰰ 漀爀 搀漀甀戀氀攀 gulfs like the Sabaeus Sinus, or portions of a marking਀渀漀琀 琀漀漀 氀愀爀最攀 琀漀 瀀攀爀洀椀琀 漀昀 瀀愀爀琀椀琀椀瘀攀 氀漀挀愀琀椀漀渀 氀椀欀攀 琀栀攀 Mare Acidalium, or a canal connection like the Tacazze਀眀栀椀挀栀 瀀爀漀氀漀渀最猀 琀栀攀 漀渀攀 氀椀渀攀 愀渀搀 渀漀琀 琀栀攀 漀琀栀攀爀⸀ 䤀渀 琀栀攀猀攀 and similar instances the two lines become capable of਀椀搀攀渀琀椀昀椀挀愀琀椀漀渀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 椀渀 猀甀挀栀 洀愀渀渀攀爀 栀愀瘀攀 戀攀攀渀 昀漀甀渀搀 those comprised in the following list:—

਀ ਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 戀戀 戀爀 渀戀氀 琀挀攀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀䐀漀甀戀氀攀 䌀愀渀愀氀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 戀戀 戀氀 渀戀爀 琀挀攀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀䐀愀琀攀 漀昀 䄀猀挀攀爀琀愀椀渀洀攀渀琀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 戀氀 戀爀 渀戀戀✀㸀吀栀攀 䔀愀猀琀攀爀渀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 渀戀氀✀㸀䔀甀瀀栀爀愀琀攀猀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 渀戀琀 渀戀爀 渀戀戀 琀挀攀✀㸀㄀㠀㤀㐀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㄀崀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀爀 戀氀 渀戀戀 渀戀琀✀㸀吀栀攀 圀攀猀琀攀爀渀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 渀戀氀✀㸀䠀椀搀搀攀欀攀氀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 渀戀爀 琀挀攀✀㸀㄀㠀㤀㘀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㈀崀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀爀 戀氀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀吀栀攀 圀攀猀琀攀爀渀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 渀戀氀✀㸀䜀椀最愀猀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 渀戀爀 琀挀攀✀㸀㄀㠀㤀㘀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㈀崀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀爀 戀氀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀吀栀攀 圀攀猀琀攀爀渀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 渀戀氀✀㸀䰀愀攀猀琀爀礀最漀渀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 渀戀爀 琀挀攀✀㸀㄀㤀 ㌀ 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㘀崀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀爀 戀氀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀吀栀攀 一漀爀琀栀攀爀渀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 渀戀氀✀㸀䄀猀琀愀戀漀爀愀猀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 渀戀爀 琀挀攀✀㸀㄀㤀 ㌀ 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㘀崀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀爀 戀氀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀吀栀攀 䔀愀猀琀攀爀渀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀戀 戀爀 渀戀氀 渀戀琀✀㸀䜀愀渀最攀猀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 渀戀琀 戀戀 渀戀爀 琀挀攀✀㸀㄀㤀 㔀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㜀崀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀
 
Original Line
Phison1894 [Darian: 151]
The Western
Titan1896 [Darian: 152]
The Eastern
Gihon1896 [Darian: 152]
The Northwestern
Djihoun1901 [Darian: 155]
The Eastern
Nilokeras I and II1903 [Darian: 156]
The Southern
Jamuna1905 [Darian: 157]
The Western
 

਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㄀㜀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㄀㜀✀㸀㈀㄀㜀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 In this list of originals the canals stand chronologically਀洀愀爀猀栀愀氀攀搀 愀挀挀漀爀搀椀渀最 琀漀 搀愀琀攀 漀昀 搀攀琀攀挀琀椀漀渀⸀ The Phison and Euphrates were the first to permit of਀椀渀琀攀爀琀眀椀渀 椀搀攀渀琀椀昀椀挀愀琀椀漀渀 椀渀 ㄀㠀㤀㐀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㄀崀Ⰰ 眀栀椀氀攀 琀栀攀 䨀愀洀甀渀愀 愀渀搀 Ganges were the last to be added to the column in 1905 [Darian: 157].਀吀栀攀 氀椀猀琀 椀猀 渀漀琀 氀漀渀最Ⰰ 琀栀漀甀最栀 琀栀攀 琀椀洀攀 琀愀欀攀渀 琀漀 挀漀洀瀀椀氀攀 椀琀 was. In the case of the Ganges and the Jamuna, for਀攀砀愀洀瀀氀攀Ⰰ 愀氀琀栀漀甀最栀 猀甀猀瀀攀挀琀攀搀 昀漀爀 猀漀洀攀 琀椀洀攀 漀渀 琀栀攀漀爀攀琀椀挀 grounds, it was only at the opposition just passed਀琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 昀愀挀琀 眀愀猀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀愀琀椀漀渀愀氀氀礀 攀猀琀愀戀氀椀猀栀攀搀⸀ 䤀渀 his Memoria V, Schiaparelli has a list of similar detection,਀愀渀搀 椀昀 琀栀攀 瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀 氀椀猀琀 戀攀 挀漀洀瀀愀爀攀搀 眀椀琀栀 栀椀猀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 two having been independently made, the concordance਀漀昀 琀栀攀 爀攀猀甀氀琀 眀椀氀氀 瀀爀漀瘀攀 猀琀爀椀欀椀渀最Ⰰ 挀漀爀爀漀戀漀爀愀琀椀瘀攀 愀猀 椀琀 椀猀 of both. For the necessary observations are very਀搀椀昀昀椀挀甀氀琀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䠀愀瘀椀渀最 琀栀甀猀 爀攀愀氀椀稀攀搀 琀栀攀 漀爀椀最椀渀愀氀 戀礀 洀攀愀渀猀 漀昀 椀琀猀 superior showing, and then identified it by its position,਀椀琀 椀猀 猀甀最最攀猀琀椀瘀攀 琀漀 搀椀猀挀漀瘀攀爀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 搀甀瀀氀椀挀愀琀攀 戀攀琀爀愀礀猀 its subordinate character, not only by its relative insignificance,਀戀甀琀 戀礀 椀琀猀 猀攀挀漀渀搀愀爀礀 瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀 愀猀 眀攀氀氀⸀ 吀栀攀 original always takes its departure from some well-marked਀戀愀礀Ⰰ 猀攀攀洀椀渀最氀礀 搀攀猀椀最渀愀琀攀搀 戀礀 渀愀琀甀爀攀 愀猀 愀 搀攀瀀愀爀琀甀爀攀ⴀ瀀漀椀渀琀Ⰰ or from a caret belonging clearly to itself;਀琀栀攀 愀搀樀甀渀挀琀Ⰰ 漀渀 琀栀攀 漀琀栀攀爀 栀愀渀搀Ⰰ 氀攀愀瘀攀猀 昀爀漀洀 猀漀洀攀 渀攀椀最栀戀漀爀椀渀最 undistinguished spot, as in the case of the additional਀䐀樀椀栀漀甀渀Ⰰ 漀爀 洀愀欀攀猀 甀猀攀 漀昀 愀 渀攀椀最栀戀漀爀ᤀ猠 挀愀爀攀琀Ⰰ 愀猀 椀渀 218਀琀栀攀 挀愀猀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀攀挀漀渀搀 倀栀椀猀漀渀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 猀甀瀀瀀氀攀洀攀渀琀愀爀礀 Euphrates. In either case it plays something of the਀瀀愀爀琀 漀昀 愀渀 愀昀琀攀爀琀栀漀甀最栀琀㬀 愀渀搀 礀攀琀 琀栀攀 瀀漀猀琀猀挀爀椀瀀琀 眀栀攀渀 finished reads as an integral part of the letter. An਀攀砀愀洀瀀氀攀 眀椀氀氀 猀攀爀瘀攀 琀漀 洀愀欀攀 琀栀攀 挀漀渀渀攀挀琀椀漀渀 攀瘀椀搀攀渀琀 眀栀椀氀攀 leaving the character of the connection as cryptic as਀攀瘀攀爀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䤀渀 琀栀攀 氀漀渀最 猀琀爀攀琀挀栀 漀昀 䄀攀爀椀愀氀 挀漀愀猀琀氀椀渀攀 戀漀甀渀搀椀渀最 琀栀攀 Mare Icarium, which sweeps with the curve of a foretime਀戀攀愀挀栀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 䠀愀洀洀漀渀椀猀 䌀漀爀渀甀 琀漀 琀栀攀 琀椀瀀 漀昀 the Edom Promontory, there stand halfway down its਀昀愀爀ⴀ愀眀愀礀 猀攀攀洀椀渀最 猀攀愀ⴀ昀爀漀渀琀 琀眀漀 氀椀琀琀氀攀 渀椀挀欀猀 漀爀 椀渀搀攀渀琀愀琀椀漀渀猀⸀ Even in poor seeing they serve to darken this਀瀀愀爀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 挀漀愀猀琀 眀栀椀氀攀 椀渀 最漀漀搀 搀攀昀椀渀椀琀椀漀渀 琀栀攀礀 挀漀洀攀 漀甀琀 as miniature caret-like bays. They are the Portus਀匀椀最愀攀椀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 洀愀爀欀 琀栀攀 猀瀀漀琀猀 眀栀攀爀攀 琀栀攀 倀栀椀猀漀渀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 Euphrates respectively leave the coast. About four਀搀攀最爀攀攀猀 愀瀀愀爀琀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 攀愀猀琀攀爀渀 洀愀欀攀猀 攀洀戀漀甀挀栀甀爀攀 琀漀 琀栀攀 original Phison, the western to the original Euphrates,਀愀渀搀 攀愀挀栀 椀渀 猀漀洀攀 洀礀猀琀攀爀椀漀甀猀 洀愀渀渀攀爀 椀猀 愀猀猀漀挀椀愀琀攀搀 渀漀琀 only in position but in action with the canal itself.਀䤀渀 琀栀攀 猀椀渀最氀攀 猀琀愀琀攀 攀愀挀栀 挀愀渀愀氀 氀攀愀瘀攀猀 琀栀攀 䴀愀爀攀 昀爀漀洀 this its own caret, the Phison proceeding thence northeast਀搀漀眀渀 琀栀攀 搀椀猀欀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 䔀甀瀀栀爀愀琀攀猀 渀攀愀爀氀礀 搀甀攀 渀漀爀琀栀Ⰰ so that starting four degrees apart at the south they਀愀爀攀 昀漀爀琀礀 搀攀最爀攀攀猀 愀猀甀渀搀攀爀 愀琀 琀栀攀椀爀 渀漀爀琀栀攀爀渀 琀攀爀洀椀渀椀⸀ Clearly at these latter points they are not even neighbors,਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㄀㤀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㄀㤀✀㸀㈀㄀㤀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 and except for the accident of close approach at਀琀栀攀椀爀 漀琀栀攀爀 攀渀搀猀 栀愀瘀攀 渀漀琀栀椀渀最 椀渀 挀漀洀洀漀渀 愀渀礀眀栀攀爀攀⸀ And yet when gemination takes place a curious thing਀漀挀挀甀爀猀㨀 攀愀挀栀 戀漀爀爀漀眀猀 椀琀猀 渀攀椀最栀戀漀爀ᤀ猠 琀攀爀洀椀渀愀氀 愀猀 搀攀瀀愀爀琀甀爀攀ⴀ瀀漀椀渀琀 for its own duplicate canal. Having thus਀最漀琀 椀琀猀 戀愀猀攀 琀栀攀 爀攀瀀氀椀挀愀 瀀爀漀挀攀攀搀猀 琀漀 瀀愀爀愀氀氀攀氀 椀琀猀 漀眀渀 original canal without the least reference to the other਀挀愀渀愀氀 眀栀漀猀攀 漀眀渀 挀愀爀攀琀 椀琀 栀愀猀 猀漀 挀甀挀欀漀漀ⴀ眀椀猀攀 愀瀀瀀爀漀瀀爀椀愀琀攀搀⸀ What਀琀栀攀 倀栀椀猀漀渀 琀栀甀猀 does to the Euphrates,਀琀栀攀 䔀甀瀀栀爀愀琀攀猀 returns਀琀栀攀 挀漀洀瀀氀椀洀攀渀琀 by doing to the਀倀栀椀猀漀渀⸀ 䤀渀 琀栀椀猀 manner is produced an interrelation which suggests,਀眀椀琀栀漀甀琀 渀攀挀攀猀猀愀爀椀氀礀 戀攀椀渀最Ⰰ 愀渀 漀爀椀最椀渀愀氀 挀漀洀洀甀渀椀琀礀 漀昀 interest; suggests it on its face and yet appears to be਀爀愀琀栀攀爀 漀昀 琀栀攀 渀愀琀甀爀攀 漀昀 愀渀 愀搀愀瀀琀愀琀椀漀渀 琀漀 猀甀戀猀攀焀甀攀渀琀 purposes of a something aboriginally there.

਀㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀椀氀氀甀猀ⴀ㌀  ✀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀攀ⴀ挀愀瀀琀椀漀渀✀㸀㰀椀㸀䴀漀甀琀栀猀 漀昀 䔀甀瀀栀爀愀琀攀猀 愀渀搀 倀栀椀猀漀渀⸀㰀⼀椀㸀㰀⼀瀀㸀

June. 1903 [Darian: 156].

਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀

That such latter-day appropriation is the fact is਀挀氀攀愀爀氀礀 栀椀渀琀攀搀 戀礀 琀栀攀 戀攀栀愀瘀椀漀爀 漀昀 愀渀漀琀栀攀爀 甀渀搀攀爀猀琀甀搀礀 of an original canal, in this case the duplicate of the਀䐀樀椀栀漀甀渀Ⰰ 眀栀椀挀栀 椀渀 挀漀渀猀攀焀甀攀渀挀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 椀琀猀 original finds no neighboring embouchure already਀挀漀渀瘀攀渀椀攀渀琀 琀漀 椀琀猀 甀猀攀⸀ 吀栀攀 猀椀渀最氀攀 漀爀 漀爀椀最椀渀愀氀 䐀樀椀栀漀甀渀 220਀氀攀愀瘀攀猀 琀栀攀 琀椀瀀 漀昀 琀栀攀 渀攀攀搀氀攀ⴀ瀀漀椀渀琀攀搀 䴀愀爀最愀爀椀琀椀昀攀爀 匀椀渀甀猀Ⰰ which serves a like end to the Oxus and the Indus, both਀猀椀渀最氀攀 挀愀渀愀氀猀⸀ 吀栀攀 匀椀渀甀猀 椀猀 椀琀猀攀氀昀 愀 猀椀渀最氀攀 戀愀礀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 猀漀 large that for many degrees its shores on both sides converge਀猀洀漀漀琀栀氀礀 琀漀 琀栀攀椀爀 猀栀愀爀瀀 愀瀀攀砀⸀ 䈀攀挀愀甀猀攀 漀昀 琀栀椀猀 probably, the coast in the immediate neighborhood is਀眀椀琀栀漀甀琀 挀愀渀愀氀 挀漀渀渀攀挀琀椀漀渀Ⰰ 渀漀 挀愀渀愀氀 戀攀椀渀最 欀渀漀眀渀 愀氀漀渀最 either side till one reaches the Hydraotes at the Aromaticum਀倀爀漀洀漀渀琀漀爀椀甀洀Ⰰ 眀栀椀挀栀 洀愀爀欀猀 琀栀攀 眀攀猀琀攀爀渀 氀椀洀椀琀 of the gulf. The consequence is that when the Djihoun਀搀漀甀戀氀攀猀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 搀甀瀀氀椀挀愀琀攀 挀愀渀愀氀Ⰰ 渀漀琀 栀愀瘀椀渀最 愀渀礀 琀攀爀洀椀渀甀猀 ready to its hand, has to make one for itself਀戀礀 猀椀洀瀀氀礀 爀甀渀渀椀渀最 椀渀琀漀 琀栀攀 䴀愀爀最愀爀椀琀椀昀攀爀 匀椀渀甀猀Ⰰ 猀漀洀攀 distance up its eastern side. It thus advertises its adjunctival਀挀栀愀爀愀挀琀攀爀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 愀琀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 琀椀洀攀 琀栀攀 最攀渀攀爀愀氀 fact that a neighbor’s terminus, though used from preference,਀眀栀攀渀 挀漀渀瘀攀渀椀攀渀琀Ⰰ 椀猀 渀漀琀 愀渀 攀猀猀攀渀琀椀愀氀 椀渀 琀栀攀 瀀爀漀挀攀猀猀⸀ Gemination occurs of its own initiative, but is conditioned਀戀礀 挀漀渀瘀攀渀椀攀渀挀攀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀圀栀攀琀栀攀爀 漀渀攀 挀愀渀愀氀 猀栀漀眀猀 琀栀甀猀 琀漀 琀栀攀 攀砀挀氀甀猀椀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 other, or whether both stand so confused as not to be਀琀漀氀搀 愀瀀愀爀琀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 昀愀挀琀 爀攀洀愀椀渀猀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 搀漀甀戀氀攀 椀猀 渀漀琀 愀氀眀愀礀猀 recognizable as such. If we turn to the list of the਀搀漀甀戀氀攀猀 漀渀 瀀愀最攀 㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀倀愀最攀开㈀㈀㈀✀㸀㈀㈀㈀㰀⼀愀㸀Ⰰ 眀攀 猀栀愀氀氀 渀漀琀攀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 were not always seen in the dual condition at successive਀漀瀀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀猀⸀ 匀漀洀攀Ⰰ 椀渀搀攀攀搀Ⰰ 愀爀攀 猀漀 攀洀瀀栀愀琀椀挀愀氀氀礀 漀昀 琀栀攀 habit as to appear year after year in a paired state, but਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㈀㄀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㈀㄀✀㸀㈀㈀㄀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 others are not so constant to their possibilities. Now,਀眀栀攀渀 椀琀 椀猀 爀攀洀攀洀戀攀爀攀搀 琀栀愀琀 愀琀 搀椀昀昀攀爀攀渀琀 漀瀀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀猀 眀攀 view Mars at diverse seasons of its tropical year, we see਀琀栀愀琀 琀栀椀猀 洀攀愀渀猀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 瀀栀攀渀漀洀攀渀漀渀 椀猀 猀攀愀猀漀渀愀氀㬀 and furthermore that its exhibition depends upon the਀挀愀渀愀氀ᤀ猠 瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀⸀ 䜀攀洀椀渀愀琀椀漀渀Ⰰ 氀椀欀攀 琀栀攀 猀栀漀眀椀渀最 漀爀 渀漀渀ⴀ猀栀漀眀椀渀最 of the single canal, is conditioned by the place਀漀昀 琀栀攀 挀愀渀愀氀 甀瀀漀渀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀栀㌀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㈀㤀✀㸀䤀䤀䤀㰀⼀栀㌀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀吀甀爀渀椀渀最 昀爀漀洀 猀甀挀栀 最攀渀攀爀椀挀 挀栀愀爀愀挀琀攀爀椀猀琀椀挀猀 琀漀 洀漀爀攀 specific traits, the first thing to strike an attentive observer਀椀猀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 搀漀甀戀氀攀猀 搀椀昀昀攀爀 椀渀 眀椀搀琀栀㬀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀礀 愀爀攀 not mensurably alike in the property they hold in common਀漀昀 戀攀椀渀最 瀀愀椀爀攀搀⸀ 䤀渀 猀漀洀攀 琀栀攀 琀眀椀渀 氀椀渀攀猀 愀爀攀 漀戀瘀椀漀甀猀氀礀 farther apart than in others, and the relation਀瀀攀爀猀椀猀琀猀 栀漀眀攀瘀攀爀 爀攀瀀攀愀琀攀搀 琀栀攀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀愀琀椀漀渀猀⸀ 伀昀 琀眀漀 doubles the one will always surpass its fellow. This਀挀漀渀琀爀愀猀琀攀搀 椀渀搀椀瘀椀搀甀愀氀椀琀礀 昀椀爀猀琀 猀琀爀甀挀欀 洀攀 椀渀 琀栀攀 倀栀椀猀漀渀 and the Euphrates; and from the first moment at਀眀栀椀挀栀 琀栀攀猀攀 搀漀甀戀氀攀猀 猀栀漀眀攀搀 愀猀 猀甀挀栀⸀ 吀栀攀 倀栀椀猀漀渀 瀀愀椀爀 seemed perceptibly the narrower of the two. A like਀搀椀猀琀椀渀挀琀椀漀渀 眀愀猀 攀瘀椀搀攀渀琀 愀琀 琀栀攀 渀攀砀琀 漀瀀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀 愀渀搀 the next; in fact, at every succeeding one to the਀瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀 搀愀礀⸀ 一漀爀 眀愀猀 琀栀攀 爀攀挀漀最渀椀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 昀愀挀琀 confined to me. If we turn to Schiaparelli’s Memoriae਀眀攀 猀栀愀氀氀 昀椀渀搀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀愀琀 洀愀猀琀攀爀 栀愀搀 爀攀最椀猀琀攀爀攀搀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 222਀椀搀椀漀洀愀琀椀挀 眀椀搀琀栀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀 琀眀漀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 昀爀漀洀 昀椀爀猀琀 琀漀 氀愀猀琀 throughout his long series of records. The observation਀琀栀甀猀 洀愀搀攀 瀀爀漀瘀攀搀 琀漀 愀瀀瀀氀礀 琀漀 攀愀挀栀 愀渀搀 愀氀氀 漀昀 琀栀攀猀攀 curious twins.

Diversity in width for different doubles appears਀瀀氀愀椀渀氀礀 椀渀 搀爀愀眀椀渀最猀 眀栀攀爀攀 洀漀爀攀 琀栀愀渀 漀渀攀 搀漀甀戀氀攀 椀猀 depicted. As an example, two drawings are here਀最椀瘀攀渀 椀渀 琀栀攀 琀攀砀琀Ⰰ 洀愀搀攀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 漀渀攀 漀渀 䨀甀氀礀 ㄀㌀Ⰰ ㄀㤀 㔀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㜀 䴀椀琀栀甀渀愀 㠀崀Ⰰ 묀㄃㔀뀀Ⰰ and the other on July 20, λ313°. In them the Phison,਀䔀甀瀀栀爀愀琀攀猀Ⰰ 䐀樀椀栀漀甀渀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 吀栀漀琀栀 愀瀀瀀攀愀爀 挀漀渀琀爀愀猀琀攀搀 愀猀 unmistakably as either of them does with the single਀挀愀渀愀氀猀 愀瀀瀀愀爀攀渀琀 愀琀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 琀椀洀攀⸀ 吀栀愀琀 琀栀椀猀 搀爀愀眀椀渀最 is typical is borne out by all the best measures of the਀猀攀瘀攀爀愀氀 搀漀甀戀氀攀猀 愀猀 猀攀攀渀 愀琀 猀甀挀挀攀猀猀椀瘀攀 漀瀀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀猀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 marshaled in the subjoined list. How truly individual਀琀栀攀 焀甀愀氀椀琀礀 椀猀 猀琀愀渀搀猀 瀀爀漀瘀攀搀 戀礀 琀栀攀 爀攀氀愀琀椀瘀攀 瘀愀氀甀攀猀 椀渀 different years which are even more accordant than the਀愀戀猀漀氀甀琀攀 漀渀攀猀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀吀栀攀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 眀攀爀攀㨀᐀㰠⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀琀愀戀氀攀 椀搀㴀✀挀眀✀ 猀甀洀洀愀爀礀㴀✀䌀愀渀愀氀 圀椀搀琀栀✀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 戀戀 渀戀爀 渀戀氀 昀猀✀ 挀漀氀猀瀀愀渀㴀✀㔀✀㸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 戀氀 戀戀 渀戀爀✀ 挀漀氀猀瀀愀渀㴀✀㌀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀圀椀搀琀栀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 戀戀 戀爀 渀戀氀✀㸀㄀㤀 ㌀ 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㘀崀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 1905 [Darian: 157]਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 戀戀 渀戀爀 戀氀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀䴀攀愀渀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 1.਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 戀爀 渀戀戀 渀戀氀 琀氀攀✀㸀倀栀椀猀漀渀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 3.5਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 戀氀 戀爀 渀戀戀✀㸀㌀⸀㐀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 3.4਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀爀 渀戀氀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 琀爀攀✀㸀㈀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 Euphrates਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀㐀⸀ 㰀⼀琀搀㸀 4.2਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 渀戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀㐀⸀㄀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 3.਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀爀 渀戀氀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 琀氀攀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀琀欀㄀✀㸀⨀㰀⼀愀㸀倀爀漀琀漀渀椀氀甀猀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 2.8਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀㈀⸀ 㰀⼀琀搀㸀 2.4਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀氀 渀戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 琀爀攀✀㸀㐀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 Deuteronilus਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀㈀⸀㈀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 2.4਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 渀戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀㈀⸀㌀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 5.਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀爀 渀戀氀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 琀氀攀✀㸀倀椀攀爀椀甀猀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 2.5਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀᐀㰠⼀琀搀㸀 2.5਀㰀搀椀瘀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㈀㌀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㈀㌀✀㸀㈀㈀㌀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀氀 渀戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 琀爀攀✀㸀㘀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 Callirrhoe਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀㈀⸀㔀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 *2.1਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 渀戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀㈀⸀㌀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 7.਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀爀 渀戀氀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 琀氀攀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀琀欀㄀✀㸀⨀㰀⼀愀㸀䠀椀搀搀攀欀攀氀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 3.8਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀㐀⸀㤀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 4.3਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀氀 渀戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 琀爀攀✀㸀㠀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 *Gihon਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀㌀⸀㤀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 4.9਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 渀戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀㐀⸀㐀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 9.਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀爀 渀戀氀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 琀氀攀✀㸀䐀樀椀栀漀甀渀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 2.0਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀㄀⸀㤀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 1.9਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀氀 渀戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 琀爀攀✀㸀㄀ ⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 Sitacus਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀㌀⸀㠀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 *3.3਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 渀戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀㌀⸀㘀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 11.਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀爀 渀戀氀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 琀氀攀✀㸀䨀愀洀甀渀愀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 4.5਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀᐀㰠⼀琀搀㸀 4.5਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀氀 渀戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 琀爀攀✀㸀㄀㈀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 Ganges਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀㔀⸀ 㰀⼀琀搀㸀 5.2਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 渀戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀㔀⸀㄀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 13.਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀爀 渀戀氀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 琀氀攀✀㸀一椀氀漀欀攀爀愀猀 䤀 愀渀搀 䤀䤀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 11.0਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀㄀㄀⸀㜀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 11.3਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀氀 渀戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 琀爀攀✀㸀㄀㐀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 Nilokeras I਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀㈀⸀㌀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 —਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 渀戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀㈀⸀㌀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 15.਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀爀 渀戀氀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 琀氀攀✀㸀䜀椀最愀猀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 3.5਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀᐀㰠⼀琀搀㸀 3.5਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀氀 渀戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 琀爀攀✀㸀㄀㘀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 Laestrygon਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀㈀⸀㈀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 —਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 渀戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀㈀⸀㈀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 17.਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀爀 渀戀氀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 琀氀攀✀㸀䌀攀爀戀攀爀甀猀 一⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 4.0਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀᐀㰠⼀琀搀㸀 4.0਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀氀 渀戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 琀爀攀✀㸀㄀㠀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 Cerberus S.਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀㐀⸀ 㰀⼀琀搀㸀 —਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 渀戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀㐀⸀ 㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 19.਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀爀 渀戀氀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 琀氀攀✀㸀䌀礀挀氀漀瀀猀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 2.9਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀琀欀㄀✀㸀⨀㰀⼀愀㸀㈀⸀㈀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 2.6਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀氀 渀戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 琀爀攀✀㸀㈀ ⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 Nar਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀㈀⸀㘀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 2.0਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 渀戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀㈀⸀㌀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 21.਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀爀 渀戀氀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 琀氀攀✀㸀䘀爀攀琀甀洀 䄀渀椀愀渀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 2.8਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀᐀㰠⼀琀搀㸀 2.8਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀氀 渀戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 琀爀攀✀㸀㈀㈀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 Aethiops਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀㌀⸀㌀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 —਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 渀戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀㌀⸀㌀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 23.਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀爀 渀戀氀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 琀氀攀✀㸀䔀甀渀漀猀琀漀猀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 2.8਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀᐀㰠⼀琀搀㸀 2.8਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀氀 渀戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 琀爀攀✀㸀㈀㐀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 Lethes਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀㈀⸀㤀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 —਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 渀戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀㈀⸀㤀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 25.਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀爀 渀戀氀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 琀氀攀✀㸀䴀愀爀猀椀愀猀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 3.2਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀᐀㰠⼀琀搀㸀 3.2਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀氀 渀戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 琀爀攀✀㸀㈀㘀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 Hyblaeus਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀㌀⸀ 㰀⼀琀搀㸀 —਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 渀戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀㌀⸀ 㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 27.਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀爀 渀戀氀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 琀氀攀✀㸀䄀洀攀渀琀栀攀猀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 3.2਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀㌀⸀㔀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 3.3਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀氀 渀戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 琀爀攀✀㸀㈀㠀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 Thoth਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀㈀⸀㠀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 2.3਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 渀戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀㈀⸀㔀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 29.਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀爀 渀戀氀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 琀氀攀✀㸀一攀瀀攀渀琀栀攀猀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 2.8਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀㈀⸀㌀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 2.5਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀氀 渀戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 琀爀攀✀㸀㌀ ⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 Triton਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀㈀⸀㜀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 *2.3਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 渀戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀㈀⸀㔀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 31.਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀爀 渀戀氀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 琀氀攀✀㸀倀礀爀愀洀甀猀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 2.9਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀琀欀㄀✀㸀⨀㰀⼀愀㸀㈀⸀ 㰀⼀琀搀㸀 2.5਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀氀 渀戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 琀爀攀✀㸀㌀㈀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 Astaboras S.਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀㌀⸀㈀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 3.1਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 渀戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀㌀⸀㄀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 33.਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀爀 渀戀氀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 琀氀攀✀㸀吀椀琀栀漀渀椀甀猀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 2.6਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀㈀⸀㈀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 2.4਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀氀 渀戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 琀爀攀✀㸀㌀㐀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 Vexillum਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀㌀⸀㔀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 2.9਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 渀戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀㌀⸀㈀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 35.਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀爀 渀戀氀 渀戀琀 戀戀 琀氀攀✀㸀吀愀爀琀愀爀甀猀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 —਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀琀 戀戀✀㸀㈀⸀㜀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 2.7਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 戀戀 渀戀爀 渀戀氀 昀猀✀ 挀漀氀猀瀀愀渀㴀✀㔀✀㸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀愀戀氀攀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀攀ⴀ挀愀瀀琀椀漀渀✀㸀㰀愀 椀搀㴀✀琀欀㄀✀㸀⨀㰀⼀愀㸀 倀漀漀爀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㘀✀ 㸀 224਀䠀攀爀攀 眀攀 栀愀瘀攀 眀椀搀琀栀猀 爀愀渀最椀渀最 昀爀漀洀 攀氀攀瘀攀渀 搀攀最爀攀攀猀 琀漀 two. The widths given are those when the canal was at਀漀爀 猀甀昀昀椀挀椀攀渀琀氀礀 渀攀愀爀 椀琀猀 昀甀氀氀 猀琀爀攀渀最琀栀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 愀爀攀 洀攀愀猀甀爀攀搀 from the centres of the constituents. We notice two਀瀀漀椀渀琀猀㨀 琀栀攀 愀最爀攀攀洀攀渀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 挀愀渀愀氀 眀椀琀栀 椀琀猀攀氀昀 and its systematic disagreement with others. But਀眀栀愀琀 椀猀 攀猀瀀攀挀椀愀氀氀礀 琀漀 琀栀攀 瀀漀椀渀琀Ⰰ 椀昀 眀攀 挀漀洀瀀愀爀攀 琀栀攀 瘀愀氀甀攀猀 found at successive oppositions, we find that for different਀挀愀渀愀氀猀 琀栀攀 瘀愀氀甀攀猀 愀最爀攀攀 椀渀 琀栀攀椀爀 搀椀昀昀攀爀攀渀挀攀⸀ 吀栀椀猀 shows that each of these values is, in most cases if not਀椀渀 愀氀氀Ⰰ 愀 渀漀爀洀 昀漀爀 琀栀愀琀 瀀愀爀琀椀挀甀氀愀爀 挀愀渀愀氀㬀 愀 瘀愀氀甀攀 搀椀猀琀椀渀挀琀椀瘀攀 of it and to which it either absolutely or relatively਀挀漀渀昀漀爀洀猀⸀ 䤀渀 漀琀栀攀爀 眀漀爀搀猀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 眀椀搀琀栀 漀昀 琀栀攀 gemination is a personal peculiarity of the particular਀挀愀渀愀氀Ⰰ 愀猀 洀甀挀栀 愀渀 椀搀椀漀猀礀渀挀爀愀猀礀 漀昀 椀琀 愀猀 椀琀猀 瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀 漀渀 the planet.

Two general classes may be distinguished; those up਀琀漀 愀戀漀甀琀 昀椀瘀攀 搀攀最爀攀攀猀 椀渀 眀椀搀琀栀 愀瀀愀爀琀 愀渀搀 琀栀漀猀攀 愀戀漀瘀攀 this figure. Whether such very widely separated lines਀愀猀 最漀 琀漀 洀愀欀攀 甀瀀 琀栀攀 猀攀挀漀渀搀 挀氀愀猀猀Ⰰ 猀甀挀栀 愀猀 琀栀攀 一椀氀漀欀攀爀愀猀 I and II, constitutes a double is a debatable point.਀匀挀栀椀愀瀀愀爀攀氀氀椀 琀栀漀甀最栀琀 琀栀攀礀 搀椀搀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 猀漀 挀氀愀猀猀攀搀 琀栀攀洀⸀ To me it did not at first occur so to consider them,਀愀渀搀 椀渀 猀漀洀攀 椀渀猀琀愀渀挀攀猀Ⰰ 猀甀挀栀 愀猀 琀栀攀 䠀攀氀椀挀漀渀 䤀 愀渀搀 II, later observations seem to justify the omission.਀圀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 一椀氀漀欀攀爀愀猀 䤀 愀渀搀 䤀䤀 琀栀攀 漀甀琀挀漀洀攀 猀攀攀洀猀 琀栀攀 other way. The reasons for distrust of a physical relation਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㈀㔀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㈀㔀✀㸀㈀㈀㔀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 between the constituents is not so much the distance਀猀攀瀀愀爀愀琀椀渀最 琀栀攀洀Ⰰ 渀漀爀 愀渀礀 氀愀挀欀 漀昀 瀀愀爀愀氀氀攀氀椀猀洀Ⰰ 愀猀 the self-sufficient manner in which they show alone.਀䔀瘀攀渀 琀栀椀猀Ⰰ 栀漀眀攀瘀攀爀Ⰰ 琀攀渀搀猀 琀漀 戀攀 爀攀挀漀最渀椀稀攀搀 椀渀 琀栀攀 渀愀爀爀漀眀攀爀 pairs as they come to be better seen. It may਀戀攀 琀栀愀琀 眀椀搀琀栀 愀氀漀渀攀 椀猀 眀栀漀氀氀礀 挀漀洀瀀攀琀攀渀琀 琀漀 猀攀氀攀挀琀椀瘀攀 showing. For the farther apart two lines are on the਀瀀氀愀渀攀琀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 洀漀爀攀 漀瀀瀀漀爀琀甀渀椀琀礀 椀猀 愀昀昀漀爀搀攀搀 琀栀攀 愀椀爀 眀愀瘀攀猀 to disclose the one without the other, a relative revelation਀眀栀椀挀栀 椀猀 挀漀渀猀琀愀渀琀氀礀 栀愀瀀瀀攀渀椀渀最 琀漀 搀攀琀愀椀氀 椀渀 搀椀昀昀攀爀攀渀琀 parts of the disk. As long as any doubt exists of a਀瀀栀礀猀椀挀愀氀 挀漀洀洀甀渀椀琀礀 漀昀 椀渀琀攀爀攀猀琀Ⰰ 椀琀 猀攀攀洀猀 戀攀猀琀 琀漀 搀椀猀琀椀渀最甀椀猀栀 such possibly merely parallel canals by suffixed਀渀甀洀攀爀愀氀猀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀伀昀 琀栀椀猀 挀氀愀猀猀 漀昀 搀漀甀戀氀攀猀 椀猀 琀栀攀 一椀氀漀欀攀爀愀猀 䤀 愀渀搀 䤀䤀⸀ So wide is it that Mr. Lampland succeeded in photographing਀椀琀 愀猀 猀甀挀栀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 琀眀漀 挀漀渀猀琀椀琀甀攀渀琀猀 猀栀漀眀椀渀最 眀攀氀氀 separated, and if it prove a true double it will be the਀昀椀爀猀琀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 搀漀甀戀氀攀 琀漀 氀攀愀瘀攀 椀琀猀 椀洀瀀爀攀猀猀 漀渀 愀 猀攀渀猀椀琀椀瘀攀 plate. Although separated by four hundred miles of਀琀攀爀爀椀琀漀爀礀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 琀眀漀 氀椀渀攀猀 愀爀攀 瀀愀爀愀氀氀攀氀 猀漀 昀愀爀 愀猀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀愀琀椀漀渀 can detect, which, of course, is not so very easy਀眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 氀椀渀攀猀 猀漀 昀愀爀 愀瀀愀爀琀⸀ 䤀渀 琀栀攀 挀漀甀渀琀爀礀 戀攀琀眀攀攀渀 one crosswise canal certainly lies, the Phryxus, and਀洀甀挀栀 猀栀愀搀椀渀最 琀栀甀猀 昀愀爀 甀渀愀挀挀漀甀渀琀攀搀 昀漀爀⸀ 刀攀挀攀渀琀 搀椀猀挀漀瘀攀爀椀攀猀Ⰰ however, point to the cause of such shading as਀氀椀渀攀猀 椀洀瀀攀爀昀攀挀琀氀礀 猀攀攀渀⸀ 䘀漀爀 椀渀 猀漀洀攀 挀愀猀攀猀 琀栀攀 氀椀渀攀猀 226਀栀愀瘀攀 愀挀琀甀愀氀氀礀 搀椀猀挀氀漀猀攀搀 琀栀攀洀猀攀氀瘀攀猀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 眀愀爀爀愀渀琀 甀猀 椀渀 believing that it is only imperfect seeing that keeps the਀漀琀栀攀爀猀 栀椀搀⸀ 伀昀 琀栀攀 瀀愀椀爀 琀栀攀 一椀氀漀欀攀爀愀猀 䤀 椀猀 椀琀猀攀氀昀 搀漀甀戀氀攀Ⰰ curiously reproducing what sometimes is seen in the਀挀愀猀攀 漀昀 搀漀甀戀氀攀 猀琀愀爀猀Ⰰ 漀渀攀 漀昀 眀栀漀猀攀 挀漀洀瀀漀渀攀渀琀猀 琀甀爀渀猀 out to be itself a binary. The second line of the Nilokeras਀䤀 氀椀攀猀 挀氀漀猀攀 琀漀 椀琀猀 瀀爀椀洀愀爀礀 漀渀 琀栀攀 渀漀爀琀栀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 眀愀猀 漀渀 the only occasion of its detection the merest of gossamers,਀眀栀椀氀攀 琀栀攀 一椀氀漀欀攀爀愀猀 䤀 椀琀猀攀氀昀 猀琀漀漀搀 漀甀琀 猀琀爀漀渀最 愀渀搀 dark. Thus do these Martian details increase and multiply਀椀渀 椀渀琀爀椀挀愀挀礀 琀栀攀 戀攀琀琀攀爀 琀栀攀 猀攀攀椀渀最 戀爀椀渀最猀 琀栀攀洀 漀甀琀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䤀渀 琀栀攀 挀愀猀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 漀琀栀攀爀 搀漀甀戀氀攀猀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 搀漀甀戀氀攀猀 瀀爀漀瀀攀爀 so to speak, there is every indication of a physical bond਀戀攀琀眀攀攀渀 琀栀攀 瀀愀椀爀⸀ 圀栀愀琀 琀栀愀琀 戀漀渀搀 洀愀礀 戀攀 椀猀 愀渀漀琀栀攀爀 matter and seems to be of different divulging, according਀琀漀 琀栀攀 瀀愀爀琀椀挀甀氀愀爀 椀渀猀琀愀渀挀攀⸀ 䄀琀 漀渀攀 攀渀搀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀甀戀樀攀挀琀Ⰰ both as the widest of these doubles and one of the most਀椀洀瀀漀爀琀愀渀琀Ⰰ 猀琀愀渀搀猀 琀栀攀 䜀愀渀最攀猀⸀ 吀栀攀 挀漀洀瀀漀渀攀渀琀猀 漀昀 the canal are 5°.1 apart. This great width, joined to਀琀栀攀 昀愀挀琀 漀昀 猀挀愀渀琀 攀砀琀攀渀猀椀漀渀Ⰰ 最椀瘀攀猀 琀栀攀 挀愀渀愀氀 愀 猀琀漀挀欀礀 aspect, its breadth being but one sixth of its length.਀䤀琀猀 眀椀搀琀栀 搀爀愀眀猀 愀琀琀攀渀琀椀漀渀 琀漀 椀琀 眀栀椀氀攀 琀栀攀 瀀栀攀渀漀洀攀渀愀 it exhibits intrigue curiosity.

As early as the first opposition of my observations਀椀渀 ㄀㠀㤀㐀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㄀崀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 挀愀渀愀氀Ⰰ 愀猀 椀琀 甀渀搀攀爀眀攀渀琀 琀栀攀 瀀爀漀挀攀猀猀 漀昀 doubling, showed phases of peculiarity. It was first਀挀愀甀最栀琀 戀礀 洀攀 愀猀 愀 搀漀甀戀氀攀 漀瘀攀爀 琀漀眀愀爀搀 琀栀攀 琀攀爀洀椀渀愀琀漀爀Ⰰ 227਀漀爀 昀愀搀椀渀最 攀搀最攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 搀椀猀欀㬀 琀栀攀渀 愀猀 椀琀 眀愀猀 戀爀漀甀最栀琀 渀攀愀爀攀爀 the centre by the gaining upon the longitudes, showed਀愀猀 愀 戀爀漀愀搀 猀眀愀琀栀 漀昀 猀栀愀搀椀渀最 漀昀 愀 眀椀搀琀栀 愀瀀瀀愀爀攀渀琀氀礀 攀焀甀愀氀 to any it later exhibited. In this appearance it continued਀昀漀爀 猀漀洀攀 洀漀渀琀栀猀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 琀栀攀渀 椀渀 伀挀琀漀戀攀爀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㄀ 䬀愀渀礀愀ⴀ䰀椀戀爀愀崀 戀攀最愀渀 琀漀 show a clarification toward the centre. Once started,਀琀栀攀 氀椀最栀琀攀渀椀渀最 漀昀 椀琀猀 洀椀搀眀愀礀 愀搀瘀愀渀挀攀搀 琀椀氀氀 愀琀 氀愀猀琀Ⰰ 漀渀 November 13 [Darian: 151 Libra-Tula], it stood out an unmistakable double, the਀琀眀漀 氀椀渀攀猀 猀琀愀渀搀椀渀最 眀栀攀爀攀 琀栀攀 攀搀最攀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀眀愀琀栀 栀愀搀 previously been. Had the observations here been all਀琀栀愀琀 漀渀攀 挀漀甀氀搀 眀椀猀栀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 洀攀琀栀漀搀 漀昀 最攀洀椀渀愀琀椀漀渀 眀漀甀氀搀 have been certain and of great interest. Unfortunately,਀琀栀攀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀愀琀椀漀渀猀 氀攀昀琀 洀甀挀栀 琀漀 戀攀 搀攀猀椀爀攀搀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 琀栀漀猀攀 爀攀瀀攀愀琀攀搀 in 1896-1897 [Darian: 152-153] and 1901 [Darian: 155] were of like doubtfulness.਀䄀 瀀攀爀椀漀搀 漀昀 猀眀愀爀琀栀礀 挀漀渀昀甀猀椀漀渀 瀀爀攀挀攀搀攀搀 琀栀攀 plainly dual state, but whether the double simply਀挀氀愀爀椀昀椀攀搀 漀爀 眀椀搀攀渀攀搀 愀猀 眀攀氀氀 椀琀 眀愀猀 渀漀琀 瀀漀猀猀椀戀氀攀 琀漀 愀猀猀甀爀攀 one’s self. That the canal exhibited plainly the effects਀漀昀 猀攀愀猀漀渀愀氀 搀攀瘀攀氀漀瀀洀攀渀琀 眀愀猀 愀猀 甀渀洀椀猀琀愀欀愀戀氀攀 愀猀 琀栀攀 steps themselves were open to ambiguity. In 1903 [Darian: 156]਀琀栀攀 挀愀渀愀氀 眀愀猀 愀琀 椀琀猀 洀椀渀椀洀甀洀 愀渀搀 栀愀爀搀氀礀 琀漀 戀攀 洀愀搀攀 out. It seemed then to show an actual change in਀眀椀搀琀栀 挀漀椀渀挀椀搀攀渀琀 眀椀琀栀 愀氀琀攀爀愀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 瘀椀猀椀戀椀氀椀琀礀⸀ 䈀甀琀 this, too, could not be predicated with certainty. It਀眀愀猀 愀氀猀漀 猀甀爀洀椀猀愀戀氀攀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 眀攀猀琀攀爀渀洀漀猀琀 氀椀渀攀 眀愀猀 the one from which the development proceeded.

In 1905 [Darian: 157] much more was made out about it, training਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㈀㠀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㈀㠀✀㸀㈀㈀㠀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 in the subject and increased proximity of the planet਀挀漀渀琀爀椀戀甀琀椀渀最 琀漀 琀栀攀 爀攀猀甀氀琀⸀ 䤀琀 渀漀眀 戀攀挀愀洀攀 挀氀攀愀爀 琀漀 me that the canal did develop from the western side;਀昀漀爀 琀栀攀 眀攀猀琀攀爀渀 攀搀最攀 洀愀搀攀 a dark line of definite boundary਀昀爀漀洀 眀栀椀挀栀 猀栀愀搀椀渀最 瀀爀漀挀攀攀搀攀搀 to the eastern side,਀眀栀攀爀攀 椀琀 昀愀搀攀搀 愀氀洀漀猀琀 椀洀瀀攀爀挀攀瀀琀椀戀氀礀 off with no defined਀氀椀渀攀 琀漀 洀愀爀欀 椀琀猀 氀椀洀椀琀⸀ 吀栀愀琀 this shading gradually darkened਀眀愀猀 攀瘀椀搀攀渀琀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 琀栀愀琀 when it could be seen at all it extended to the extreme਀氀椀洀椀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 攀瘀攀渀琀甀愀氀 搀漀甀戀氀攀Ⰰ 爀攀猀琀爀椀挀琀攀搀 琀栀攀 character if not the fact of an actual widening. At਀琀栀椀猀 漀瀀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀Ⰰ 琀漀漀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 挀愀渀愀氀 瀀愀猀猀攀搀 琀栀爀漀甀最栀 椀琀猀 period of minimum visibility and was then seen,਀眀栀攀渀攀瘀攀爀 椀琀 挀漀甀氀搀 戀攀 挀愀甀最栀琀Ⰰ 愀猀 愀 挀漀渀昀甀猀攀搀 猀眀愀琀栀 漀昀 full width. In the case of this canal, then, a widening਀椀渀 琀栀攀 猀攀渀猀攀 漀昀 愀 戀漀搀椀氀礀 猀攀瀀愀爀愀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 琀眀漀 氀椀渀攀猀 seems inadmissible. On the other hand, the gradual਀搀愀爀欀攀渀椀渀最 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀眀愀琀栀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 攀猀瀀攀挀椀愀氀氀礀 琀栀攀 愀搀瘀愀渀挀攀 漀昀 the darkening from the western side, points to an਀椀渀琀攀爀攀猀琀椀渀最 瀀爀漀挀攀猀猀 琀栀攀爀攀 琀愀欀椀渀最 瀀氀愀挀攀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀搀椀瘀 椀搀㴀✀椀开戀开㈀㈀㠀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀椀洀最氀攀昀琀✀㸀

਀ 㰀椀洀最 猀爀挀㴀✀椀洀愀最攀猀⼀椀开戀开㈀㈀㠀⸀樀瀀最✀ 愀氀琀㴀✀✀ ⼀㸀

Peculiar development of the Ganges.

਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀

At the opposite end of the series stands the Djihoun.਀䄀猀 琀栀攀 䜀愀渀最攀猀 椀猀 琀栀攀 眀椀搀攀猀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 椀渀猀琀愀渀琀氀礀 椀洀瀀爀攀猀猀椀瘀攀 doubles, so the Djihoun is the narrowest the eye has so਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㈀㤀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㈀㤀✀㸀㈀㈀㤀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 far been able to make out. Only two fifths of the਀眀椀搀琀栀 漀昀 琀栀攀 䜀愀渀最攀猀 瀀愀椀爀Ⰰ 琀栀椀猀 猀氀攀渀搀攀爀 搀漀甀戀氀攀 椀猀 瘀攀爀礀 nearly at the limit of resolvability. So well proportioned਀愀爀攀 椀琀猀 氀椀渀攀猀 琀漀 琀栀攀 space between them, however,਀琀栀愀琀 椀渀 攀愀猀攀 漀昀 爀攀挀漀最渀椀琀椀漀渀 it surpasses many wider਀瀀愀椀爀猀⸀ 䤀渀 昀漀爀洀Ⰰ 琀漀漀Ⰰ 椀琀 椀猀 搀椀猀琀椀渀挀琀椀瘀攀Ⰰ turning by a graceful਀挀甀爀瘀攀 琀栀攀 琀爀攀渀搀 漀昀 琀栀攀 Margaritifer Sinus into the਀䰀甀挀甀猀 䤀猀洀攀渀椀甀猀⸀ 圀椀琀栀 椀琀猀 fundamental branch—the northern of the two—it਀樀漀椀渀猀 眀栀愀琀 椀猀 攀瘀椀搀攀渀琀氀礀 琀栀攀 洀愀椀渀 氀椀渀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 倀爀漀琀漀渀椀氀甀猀᐀愠氀猀漀 the northern one—to the Margaritifer਀匀椀渀甀猀ᤀ猠 琀椀瀀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀搀椀瘀 椀搀㴀✀椀开戀开㈀㈀㤀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀椀洀最爀椀最栀琀✀㸀

਀ 㰀椀洀最 猀爀挀㴀✀椀洀愀最攀猀⼀椀开戀开㈀㈀㤀⸀樀瀀最✀ 愀氀琀㴀✀✀ ⼀㸀

Djihoun, the narrowest double.

਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀

It differs from the Ganges in some other important਀瀀愀爀琀椀挀甀氀愀爀猀 戀攀猀椀搀攀猀 眀椀搀琀栀⸀ 䤀渀 椀琀猀 挀愀猀攀 渀漀 戀愀渀搀 漀昀 猀栀愀搀椀渀最 distinguishes it at any time. It has always been਀琀眀漀 氀椀渀攀猀 眀栀攀渀攀瘀攀爀 椀琀 栀愀猀 戀攀攀渀 猀攀攀渀 漀琀栀攀爀 琀栀愀渀 愀猀 愀 single penciling; the only confusion about it being਀攀瘀椀搀攀渀琀氀礀 漀甀爀 漀眀渀 愀琀洀漀猀瀀栀攀爀攀ᤀ猠 愀昀昀愀椀爀⸀ 吀栀攀猀攀 琀眀漀 lines, furthermore, have showed, within the errors of਀漀戀猀攀爀瘀愀琀椀漀渀Ⰰ 愀氀眀愀礀猀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 搀椀猀琀愀渀挀攀 愀瀀愀爀琀⸀ 匀漀 琀栀愀琀 not only no change of intercommunication between the਀氀椀渀攀猀 戀甀琀 渀漀 挀栀愀渀最攀 椀渀 琀栀攀椀爀 瀀氀愀挀攀猀 愀瀀瀀愀爀攀渀琀氀礀 漀挀挀甀爀猀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䈀攀琀眀攀攀渀 琀栀攀猀攀 攀砀琀爀攀洀攀猀 椀渀 眀椀搀琀栀Ⰰ 琀眀漀 栀甀渀搀爀攀搀 洀椀氀攀猀 230਀洀漀爀攀 漀爀 氀攀猀猀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀 䜀愀渀最攀猀 愀渀搀 猀攀瘀攀渀琀礀ⴀ昀椀瘀攀 洀椀氀攀猀 昀漀爀 the Djihoun, the distance parting the pairs of most of਀琀栀攀 搀漀甀戀氀攀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 氀椀攀猀⸀ 䘀爀漀洀 ㌀뀀 琀漀 ㌀뀀⸀㈀ 漀渀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀 may be taken as that of the average; the degrees denoting਀氀愀琀椀琀甀搀椀渀愀氀 漀渀攀猀 漀渀 琀栀攀 猀甀爀昀愀挀攀 漀昀 䴀愀爀猀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 氀攀渀最琀栀 of which is equal to thirty-seven of our English statute਀洀椀氀攀猀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䴀漀猀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 挀漀渀昀漀爀洀 愀瀀瀀愀爀攀渀琀氀礀 琀漀 琀栀攀 琀礀瀀攀 of the Djihoun rather than to that of the Ganges.਀䌀愀爀攀昀甀氀 挀漀渀猀椀搀攀爀愀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀洀 昀愀椀氀猀 琀漀 昀椀渀搀 愀渀礀 椀渀挀爀攀愀猀攀 or decrease of distance, between the pairs of the same਀挀愀渀愀氀 愀琀 搀椀昀昀攀爀攀渀琀 琀椀洀攀猀Ⰰ 眀栀椀挀栀 挀愀渀渀漀琀 戀攀 爀攀昀攀爀爀攀搀 琀漀 errors inevitable to observation of such minute detail.਀䤀渀 猀栀漀爀琀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 搀漀甀戀氀攀 椀猀 洀愀搀攀 戀礀 琀栀攀 愀搀搀椀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 愀 猀攀挀漀渀搀 line in a particular position and not by a growth਀漀甀琀 琀漀 椀琀 漀昀 愀 氀椀渀攀 挀漀椀渀挀椀搀攀渀琀 琀漀 戀攀最椀渀 眀椀琀栀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 昀椀爀猀琀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䤀 栀愀瘀攀 猀愀椀搀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 愀瘀攀爀愀最攀 眀椀搀琀栀 戀攀琀眀攀攀渀 琀栀攀 琀眀漀 lines of the doubles was about 3°. It must not be਀猀甀瀀瀀漀猀攀搀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀椀猀 愀瘀攀爀愀最攀 眀椀搀琀栀 搀攀渀漀琀攀猀 愀渀礀琀栀椀渀最 more than an average; or, in other words, that it denotes਀愀渀礀琀栀椀渀最 椀渀 琀栀攀 渀愀琀甀爀攀 漀昀 愀 渀漀爀洀⸀ 吀栀攀 爀攀洀愀爀欀 is important in view of a suggestion which I have heard਀洀愀搀攀 琀栀愀琀 眀攀 栀愀瘀攀 栀攀爀攀 愀 猀礀猀琀攀洀 戀愀猀攀搀 漀渀 昀甀渀搀愀洀攀渀琀愀氀 Martian units, in which, or in multiples of which, the਀搀椀洀攀渀猀椀漀渀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 愀爀攀 椀洀瀀氀椀挀椀琀氀礀 攀砀瀀爀攀猀猀攀搀⸀ 匀甀挀栀Ⰰ however, does not seem to be the case. In some instances,਀椀渀搀攀攀搀Ⰰ 眀攀 栀愀瘀攀 挀攀爀琀愀椀渀 攀瘀椀搀攀渀挀攀 琀漀 琀栀攀 挀漀渀琀爀愀爀礀 231਀愀渀搀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 眀椀搀琀栀 漀昀 琀栀攀 搀漀甀戀氀攀 椀猀 挀漀渀搀椀琀椀漀渀攀搀 solely by antecedent place. The Phison and Euphrates਀漀昀昀攀爀 愀 挀愀猀攀 椀渀 瀀漀椀渀琀⸀ 吀栀攀猀攀 琀眀漀 椀洀瀀漀爀琀愀渀琀 愀爀琀攀爀椀攀猀 in duplicate leave, as we saw, from two carets in the਀䴀愀爀攀 䤀挀愀爀椀甀洀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 倀漀爀琀甀猀 匀椀最愀攀椀Ⰰ 栀攀氀搀 椀渀 挀漀洀洀漀渀 琀攀渀愀渀挀礀 by both. Each pair then proceeds down the disk਀椀渀挀氀椀渀攀搀 愀琀 椀琀猀 漀眀渀 瀀愀爀琀椀挀甀氀愀爀 愀渀最氀攀 琀漀 琀栀攀 洀攀爀椀搀椀愀渀 椀渀 order to reach by a great circle course a certain spot;਀琀栀攀 倀猀攀戀漀愀猀 䰀甀挀甀猀 椀渀 漀渀攀 挀愀猀攀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 䰀甀挀椀 䤀猀洀攀渀椀椀 椀渀 琀栀攀 other. As one of these angles is thirty-five degrees਀眀栀椀氀攀 琀栀攀 漀琀栀攀爀 椀猀 漀渀氀礀 琀栀爀攀攀Ⰰ 琀栀攀礀 洀甀猀琀Ⰰ 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 circumstances of their setting out, have not only਀搀椀昀昀攀爀攀渀琀 眀椀搀琀栀猀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 眀椀搀琀栀猀 搀攀琀攀爀洀椀渀愀琀攀氀礀 搀椀昀昀攀爀攀渀琀 椀渀 advance, since each is, roughly speaking, foreshortened਀戀礀 琀栀攀 搀攀最爀攀攀 漀昀 搀椀瘀攀爀最攀渀挀攀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 洀攀爀椀搀椀愀渀⸀ 吀栀攀 one, therefore, must be about four degrees to the other’s਀猀漀洀攀琀栀椀渀最 氀攀猀猀 琀栀愀渀 琀栀爀攀攀 愀渀搀 愀 栀愀氀昀⸀ 吀栀椀猀 椀猀 眀栀愀琀 琀栀攀礀 actually are as determined by measurement from observation.਀吀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 挀愀氀挀甀氀愀琀攀搀 瘀愀氀甀攀 愀最爀攀攀猀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀愀琀 found from observation helps certify to a community਀漀昀 猀琀愀爀琀椀渀最ⴀ瀀漀椀渀琀猀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 椀琀 挀漀洀瀀氀攀琀攀氀礀 搀漀攀猀 愀眀愀礀 眀椀琀栀 comprehensive design in the question of their widths.਀䘀漀爀 椀昀 琀栀攀 漀渀攀 眀攀爀攀 猀漀 猀攀琀琀氀攀搀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 漀琀栀攀爀 挀漀甀氀搀 渀漀琀 戀攀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䤀渀搀攀攀搀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 渀攀砀琀 攀砀愀洀瀀氀攀 猀攀攀洀猀 琀漀 搀攀渀礀 椀琀 琀漀 both. This example occurs, too, not far away from਀琀栀攀 猀挀攀渀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 昀椀爀猀琀Ⰰ 椀渀 琀栀攀 琀眀椀渀 戀愀礀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 匀愀戀愀攀甀猀 Sinus, from which depart, mutatis mutandis, the਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㌀㈀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㌀㈀✀㸀㈀㌀㈀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 double Hiddekel and the two Gihon. These twin਀最甀氀昀猀 戀攀愀爀 猀漀 氀椀琀琀氀攀 椀洀瀀爀椀渀琀 漀昀 戀攀椀渀最 漀琀栀攀爀 琀栀愀渀 渀愀琀甀爀愀氀 formations, that they have been universally and very਀氀椀欀攀氀礀 焀甀椀琀攀 爀椀最栀琀氀礀 琀愀欀攀渀 昀漀爀 猀甀挀栀 攀瘀攀爀 猀椀渀挀攀 䐀愀眀攀猀 discovered them in 1859, long਀戀攀昀漀爀攀 琀栀椀渀最猀 氀椀欀攀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 眀攀爀攀 dreamed of. It is strange਀琀栀愀琀 眀栀攀渀 琀栀攀 䠀椀搀搀攀欀攀氀 愀渀搀 the Gihon were found by me਀琀漀 戀攀 搀漀甀戀氀攀 椀渀 ㄀㠀㤀㜀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㌀崀Ⰰ 眀椀琀栀 愀 branch of both leading from਀攀愀挀栀 戀愀礀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 挀漀渀渀攀挀琀椀漀渀 戀攀琀眀攀攀渀 the sceptically scouted਀搀漀甀戀氀攀猀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 琀栀漀爀漀甀最栀氀礀 believed-in bays should have been apparent. For to਀氀椀渀欀 愀 最栀漀猀琀 琀漀 洀愀琀攀爀椀愀氀椀琀礀Ⰰ 椀昀 椀琀 搀漀攀猀 渀漀琀 搀椀猀挀爀攀搀椀琀 the materiality, serves to substantialize the ghost.਀䘀甀爀琀栀攀爀洀漀爀攀Ⰰ 椀琀 猀栀漀眀猀 琀栀愀琀 椀渀 琀栀椀猀 挀愀猀攀 渀攀椀琀栀攀爀 琀栀攀 one double nor the other can have had its width਀攀渀最椀渀攀攀爀攀搀 漀渀 愀渀礀 瀀爀攀挀漀渀挀攀椀瘀攀搀 猀挀愀氀攀Ⰰ 甀渀氀攀猀猀 琀栀攀 twin bays be themselves so accounted for. So that਀椀琀 猀攀攀洀猀 甀猀攀氀攀猀猀 琀漀 猀攀攀欀 昀漀爀 挀爀礀瀀琀椀挀 猀琀愀渀搀愀爀搀猀 椀渀 琀栀攀 canals or to think to find them a measure of value਀昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 昀愀挀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀椀爀 戀攀椀渀最 愀 洀攀搀椀甀洀 漀昀 攀砀挀栀愀渀最攀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀搀椀瘀 椀搀㴀✀椀开戀开㈀㌀㈀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀椀洀最氀攀昀琀✀㸀

਀ 㰀椀洀最 猀爀挀㴀✀椀洀愀最攀猀⼀椀开戀开㈀㌀㈀⸀樀瀀最✀ 愀氀琀㴀✀✀ ⼀㸀

The Sabaeus Sinus, embouchure for the double Hiddekel and Gihon.

਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀

A third instance of the same thing in the case of the਀䜀愀渀最攀猀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 䨀愀洀甀渀愀 眀愀猀 瀀爀漀瘀攀搀 愀琀 琀栀攀 氀愀猀琀 漀瀀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀 after having long been suspected without my਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㌀㌀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㌀㌀✀㸀㈀㌀㌀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 being able to make sure of it. These instances, taken਀椀渀 挀漀渀渀攀挀琀椀漀渀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 眀椀搀攀 爀愀渀最攀 漀昀 瘀愀氀甀攀猀 椀渀 琀栀攀 widths presented by different canals, serve to show਀琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 搀椀猀琀愀渀挀攀 戀攀琀眀攀攀渀 琀栀攀 琀眀椀渀 氀椀渀攀猀 椀猀 愀渀 椀渀搀椀瘀椀搀甀愀氀 characteristic of the particular canal, and further to਀瀀漀椀渀琀 琀漀 椀琀猀 挀愀甀猀攀Ⰰ 椀渀 猀漀洀攀 挀愀猀攀猀 挀攀爀琀愀椀渀氀礀 愀渀搀 瀀漀猀猀椀戀氀礀 in all, as topographical. The duplicate line makes a਀挀漀渀瘀攀渀椀攀渀挀攀 漀昀 愀 渀攀椀最栀戀漀爀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 猀甀椀琀猀 椀琀猀 搀椀猀琀愀渀挀攀 昀爀漀洀 its fellow to friendly feasibility. To cut a ‘canal’ to਀挀漀渀昀漀爀洀 琀漀 琀栀攀 挀漀甀渀琀爀礀 猀攀攀洀猀 氀漀最椀挀愀氀 椀昀 渀漀琀 漀戀氀椀最愀琀漀爀礀Ⰰ and quite in keeping with the nomenclature of਀琀栀攀 猀甀戀樀攀挀琀㬀 戀甀琀 栀攀爀攀 琀栀攀 猀琀愀爀琀椀渀最ⴀ瀀漀椀渀琀 愀瀀瀀攀愀爀猀 琀漀 戀攀 the only thing considered—the canal once safely਀氀愀甀渀挀栀攀搀 戀攀椀渀最 氀攀昀琀 琀漀 猀栀椀昀琀Ⰰ 漀爀 爀愀琀栀攀爀 渀漀琀 猀栀椀昀琀Ⰰ 昀漀爀 椀琀猀攀氀昀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀栀㌀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㈀㤀✀㸀䤀嘀㰀⼀栀㌀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀吀漀瀀漀最爀愀瀀栀礀 琀栀甀猀 椀渀琀爀漀搀甀挀攀搀 琀漀 漀甀爀 渀漀琀椀挀攀 昀漀爀 椀琀猀 effect on the breadth of the doubles proves upon inspection਀琀漀 戀攀 漀昀 攀砀琀攀渀搀攀搀 愀瀀瀀氀椀挀愀琀椀漀渀 琀漀 琀栀攀 眀栀漀氀攀 猀甀戀樀攀挀琀⸀ Examined for position these canals turn out to਀栀愀瘀攀 猀漀洀攀琀栀椀渀最 琀漀 猀愀礀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀洀猀攀氀瘀攀猀 戀攀愀爀椀渀最 漀渀 琀栀攀 question of their origin and office.

With regard to position, probably the first query to਀猀甀最最攀猀琀 椀琀猀攀氀昀 琀漀 愀渀 椀渀瘀攀猀琀椀最愀琀漀爀 琀漀 愀猀欀 椀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 搀椀爀攀挀琀椀漀渀 in which they run. Is there a preponderance manifest਀椀渀 琀栀攀洀 昀漀爀 漀渀攀 搀椀爀攀挀琀椀漀渀 漀瘀攀爀 愀渀漀琀栀攀爀㼀 䐀漀 琀栀攀礀 show an inclination to the vertical, to the horizontal,਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㌀㐀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㌀㐀✀㸀㈀㌀㐀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 or to some tilt between? To answer this we may box਀琀栀攀 挀漀洀瀀愀猀猀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 琀愀欀椀渀最 琀栀攀 昀漀甀爀 挀愀爀搀椀渀愀氀 瀀漀椀渀琀猀 眀椀琀栀 the twelve next most important points between for਀猀攀挀琀椀漀渀愀氀 搀椀瘀椀猀椀漀渀 猀攀最爀攀最愀琀攀 琀栀攀 搀漀甀戀氀攀猀 愀挀挀漀爀搀椀渀最 琀漀 their individual trend. As we have no means of determining਀椀渀 眀栀椀挀栀 猀攀渀猀攀 愀渀礀 搀椀爀攀挀琀椀漀渀 椀猀 琀漀 戀攀 琀愀欀攀渀Ⰰ᐀椠昀 indeed it is not to be taken alternately in each,—we਀最攀琀 攀椀最栀琀 挀漀洀瀀愀爀琀洀攀渀琀猀 椀渀琀漀 漀渀攀 漀爀 琀栀攀 漀琀栀攀爀 漀昀 眀栀椀挀栀 all the doubles must fall. This they do in the following਀洀愀渀渀攀爀㨀᐀㰠⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀琀愀戀氀攀 椀搀㴀✀挀搀椀爀✀ 猀甀洀洀愀爀礀㴀✀䌀愀渀愀氀 䐀椀爀攀挀琀椀漀渀✀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀琀氀攀✀㸀 S. & N., Laestrygon, Fretum Anian, Aethiops, Amenthes,਀        吀椀琀愀渀Ⰰ 㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀琀欀㌀✀㸀 㰠⼀愀㸀䐀椀猀Ⰰ 㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀琀欀㌀✀㸀 㰠⼀愀㸀䤀猀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 7਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀琀氀攀✀㸀匀⸀ 匀⸀ 䔀⸀ ☀愀洀瀀㬀 一⸀ 一⸀ 圀⸀Ⰰ 㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀琀欀㌀✀㸀 㰠⼀愀㸀䜀椀栀漀渀Ⰰ 䜀愀渀最攀猀Ⰰ 㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀琀欀㐀✀㸀℀㰠⼀愀㸀吀椀琀栀漀渀椀甀猀Ⰰ 䔀甀瀀栀爀愀琀攀猀Ⰰ Adamas਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀琀爀攀✀㸀㔀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 S. E. & N. W., Eunostos, Triton, Tartarus, Naarmalcha਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀琀爀攀✀㸀㐀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 E. S. E. & W. N. W., Astaboras, Typhon, Pierius਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀琀爀攀✀㸀㌀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 E. & W., Nar, Protonilus, *Propontis, Nectar,਀        㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀琀欀㌀✀㸀 㰠⼀愀㸀䌀漀挀礀琀甀猀Ⰰ 㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀琀欀㌀✀㸀 㰠⼀愀㸀䌀栀愀漀猀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 6਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀琀氀攀✀㸀䔀⸀ 一⸀ 䔀⸀ ☀愀洀瀀㬀 圀⸀ 匀⸀ 圀⸀ 㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀琀欀㌀✀㸀 㰠⼀愀㸀䐀攀甀琀攀爀漀渀椀氀甀猀Ⰰ 㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀琀欀㌀✀㸀 㰠⼀愀㸀䌀愀氀氀椀爀爀栀漀攀Ⰰ 㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀琀欀㌀✀㸀 㰠⼀愀㸀䌀攀爀戀攀爀甀猀 一⸀Ⰰ Cerberus S., Sitacus, Erebus਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀琀爀攀✀㸀㘀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 N. E. & S. W., Djihoun, *Nilokeras I & II, Avernus,਀        㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀琀欀㌀✀㸀 㰠⼀愀㸀一攀瀀攀渀琀栀攀猀Ⰰ 䜀椀最愀猀Ⰰ 㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀琀欀㌀✀㸀 㰠⼀愀㸀䄀氀愀渀搀攀爀Ⰰ 倀漀氀礀瀀栀攀洀甀猀Ⰰ 㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀琀欀㌀✀㸀 㰠⼀愀㸀䜀攀氀戀攀猀Ⰰ Marsias, Pyramus, Nilokeras I, Asopus਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀琀爀攀✀㸀㄀㈀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 N. N. E. & S. S. W., Jamuna, Phison, Hyblaeus, Cyclops,਀        䰀攀琀栀攀猀Ⰰ 㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀琀欀㌀✀㸀 㰠⼀愀㸀吀栀漀琀栀Ⰰ 㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀琀欀㌀✀㸀 㰠⼀愀㸀嘀攀砀椀氀氀甀洀Ⰰ 㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀琀欀㌀✀㸀 㰠⼀愀㸀䠀椀搀搀攀欀攀氀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 8਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀琀氀攀✀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 51਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀

* Wide canals.

Northern hemisphere exclusively.

Southern hemisphere exclusively.

No conclusively marked preponderance for one direction਀漀瘀攀爀 愀渀漀琀栀攀爀 洀愀渀椀昀攀猀琀猀 椀琀猀攀氀昀 戀礀 琀栀椀猀 瀀愀爀琀椀琀椀漀渀洀攀渀琀⸀ Nevertheless, a certain trend to the east of਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㌀㔀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㌀㔀✀㸀㈀㌀㔀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 north, as against the west of north, is discernible.਀䴀漀爀攀 琀栀愀渀 琀眀椀挀攀 愀猀 洀愀渀礀 搀漀甀戀氀攀猀 爀甀渀 渀漀爀琀栀攀愀猀琀 愀渀搀 southwest or within forty-five degrees of this as do਀猀椀洀椀氀愀爀氀礀 渀漀爀琀栀眀攀猀琀 愀渀搀 猀漀甀琀栀攀愀猀琀Ⰰ 琀栀攀爀攀 戀攀椀渀最 琀眀攀氀瘀攀 of the latter and twenty-six of the former. That this਀猀攀攀洀猀 琀漀 洀攀愀渀 猀漀洀攀琀栀椀渀最 琀栀攀 渀攀愀爀氀礀 攀焀甀愀氀 瀀愀椀爀椀渀最 漀昀 quadrantal points goes to show. Thus:—

਀ ਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀琀爀攀✀㸀㜀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀琀爀攀✀㸀㘀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀㸀㄀㌀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀㸀⬀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀㸀㴀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀琀氀攀✀㸀一⸀ 䔀⸀ ☀愀洀瀀㬀 匀⸀ 圀⸀ 愀渀搀 匀⸀ 䔀⸀ ☀愀洀瀀㬀 一⸀ 圀⸀ 椀渀挀氀椀渀攀搀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 number਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀琀爀攀✀㸀㄀㈀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀琀爀攀✀㸀㐀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀㸀㄀㘀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀㸀⬀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀㸀㴀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀
N. & S. and E. & W. inclined canals number+=
N. N. E. & S. S. W. and E. S. E. & W. N. W. inclined਀    挀愀渀愀氀猀 渀甀洀戀攀爀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 8311
+=
E. N. E. & W. S. W. and N. N. W. & S. S. E. inclined਀    挀愀渀愀氀猀 渀甀洀戀攀爀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 6511
331851

a fairly equable division in direction. A trend to the਀眀攀猀琀眀愀爀搀 眀漀甀氀搀 戀攀 最椀瘀攀渀 愀 瀀愀爀琀椀挀氀攀 搀攀猀挀攀渀搀椀渀最 昀爀漀洀 the north to the equator by the planet’s rotation, thus਀琀甀爀渀椀渀最 椀琀 猀漀甀琀栀眀攀猀琀攀爀氀礀㬀 愀渀搀 漀渀攀 琀漀 琀栀攀 眀攀猀琀 琀漀 愀 particle travelling equatorwards from the south, turning਀椀琀 渀漀爀琀栀眀攀猀琀攀爀氀礀⸀ 䄀猀 琀栀攀 搀漀甀戀氀攀猀 氀椀攀 椀渀 琀栀攀 渀漀爀琀栀攀爀渀 hemisphere, either in whole or part, to the extent of਀㤀㌀─Ⰰ 琀栀椀猀 洀椀最栀琀 愀挀挀漀甀渀琀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀 瀀爀攀瀀漀渀搀攀爀愀琀椀渀最 琀椀氀琀 琀漀 the east of north and west of south exhibited by them.਀䤀琀 眀漀甀氀搀 挀漀爀爀攀猀瀀漀渀搀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 氀椀渀攀猀 漀昀 昀氀漀眀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀吀漀 猀攀攀 眀栀攀琀栀攀爀 琀栀椀猀 戀攀 猀漀 眀攀 眀椀氀氀 琀愀欀攀 漀渀氀礀 琀栀漀猀攀 double canals that lie exclusively in the northern and਀猀漀甀琀栀攀爀渀 栀攀洀椀猀瀀栀攀爀攀猀 爀攀猀瀀攀挀琀椀瘀攀氀礀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 渀漀琀攀 琀栀漀猀攀 椀渀 236਀琀栀攀 昀漀爀洀攀爀 琀栀愀琀 琀爀攀渀搀 琀漀 琀栀攀 眀攀猀琀 漀昀 猀漀甀琀栀 愀猀 愀最愀椀渀猀琀 those that run to the east of it, and vice versa in the਀猀漀甀琀栀攀爀渀⸀ 䤀渀 琀栀攀 渀漀爀琀栀攀爀渀 琀栀攀 瀀爀漀瀀漀爀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 westerly to the easterly ones is 17 to 4; in the southern,਀㄀ 琀漀   琀栀攀 漀琀栀攀爀 眀愀礀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀伀昀 琀栀漀猀攀 眀栀漀猀攀 挀漀甀爀猀攀 椀猀 挀漀洀洀漀渀 琀漀 戀漀琀栀 栀攀洀椀猀瀀栀攀爀攀猀 we find for the ratio of the southwesterly to the southeasterly਀㠀 琀漀 㜀⸀ 䈀甀琀 琀栀攀 瀀爀漀瀀漀爀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 挀漀甀爀猀攀 漀昀 these canals in the two hemispheres is on the side of਀琀栀椀猀 猀愀洀攀 爀愀琀椀漀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䘀爀漀洀 琀栀攀椀爀 搀椀爀攀挀琀椀漀渀 眀攀 渀漀眀 瀀愀猀猀 琀漀 挀漀渀猀椀搀攀爀愀琀椀漀渀 of their distribution in longitude. It appears that਀猀漀洀攀 洀攀爀椀搀椀愀渀猀 愀爀攀 洀漀爀攀 昀愀瘀漀爀攀搀 琀栀愀渀 漀琀栀攀爀猀⸀ 吀栀攀 hemisphere which has the Syrtis Major for centre is਀洀漀爀攀 瀀爀漀氀椀昀椀挀 椀渀 琀栀攀洀 琀栀愀渀 椀琀猀 愀渀琀椀瀀漀搀攀猀⸀ 䘀爀漀洀 氀漀渀最椀琀甀搀攀 80° to 200° there are ten doubles, from 200° to਀㌀㈀ 뀀 琀眀攀渀琀礀ⴀ昀漀甀爀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 昀爀漀洀 ㌀㈀ 뀀 琀漀 㠀 뀀 猀攀瘀攀渀琀攀攀渀㬀 漀爀Ⰰ roughly, in the proportion of 2, 5, and 3. That਀琀栀椀猀 搀椀猀琀爀椀戀甀琀椀漀渀 洀攀愀渀猀 愀渀礀琀栀椀渀最 戀礀 椀琀猀攀氀昀 椀猀 搀漀甀戀琀昀甀氀㬀 it is much more likely to be a general topographical਀挀漀渀猀攀焀甀攀渀挀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀椀爀 搀椀猀琀爀椀戀甀琀椀漀渀 椀渀 愀渀漀琀栀攀爀 搀椀爀攀挀琀椀漀渀Ⰰ which proves to be highly significant and which we਀猀栀愀氀氀 渀漀眀 攀砀瀀漀猀攀᐀琠栀愀琀 漀昀 氀愀琀椀琀甀搀攀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䤀昀 眀攀 猀攀瀀愀爀愀琀攀 琀栀攀 猀甀爀昀愀挀攀 椀渀琀漀 稀漀渀攀猀Ⰰ 攀愀挀栀 琀攀渀 搀攀最爀攀攀猀 wide, and count the doubles found traversing in whole਀漀爀 瀀愀爀琀 琀栀攀 猀攀瘀攀爀愀氀 稀漀渀攀猀Ⰰ 眀攀 昀椀渀搀 琀栀攀 昀漀氀氀漀眀椀渀最 愀爀爀愀渀最攀洀攀渀琀㨀᐀㰠⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀搀椀瘀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㌀㜀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㌀㜀✀㸀㈀㌀㜀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 戀爀 渀戀氀 戀戀✀ 挀漀氀猀瀀愀渀㴀✀㈀✀㸀䐀漀甀戀氀攀 䌀愀渀愀氀猀 漀昀 䴀愀爀猀 愀爀爀愀渀最攀搀 愀挀挀漀爀搀椀渀最 琀漀 䰀愀琀椀琀甀搀攀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 戀戀 戀氀 渀戀爀✀㸀䄀琀 䄀氀氀㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀 伀瀀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀猀㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀 猀漀 昀愀爀㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀攀搀㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀 愀琀㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀 䘀氀愀最猀琀愀昀昀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 渀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀戀 栀椀✀㸀吀椀琀栀漀渀椀甀猀Ⰰ 一攀挀琀愀爀Ⰰ 䰀愀攀猀琀爀礀最漀渀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 戀氀 渀戀爀 渀戀戀✀㸀㌀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀琀 渀戀戀 渀戀氀 戀爀 栀椀✀㸀䨀愀洀甀渀愀Ⰰ 䜀愀渀最攀猀Ⰰ 䜀椀最愀猀Ⰰ 䰀愀攀猀琀爀礀最漀渀Ⰰ 䌀礀挀氀漀瀀猀Ⰰ 吀椀琀愀渀Ⰰ 吀愀爀琀愀爀甀猀Ⰰ Polyphemus, Tithonius਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀戀 渀戀琀✀㸀㜀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀琀 渀戀戀 渀戀氀 渀戀爀 琀氀攀✀㸀䈀攀琀眀攀攀渀 ㄀ 뀀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀匀⸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀愀渀搀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀 뀀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 渀戀爀 渀戀戀 渀戀琀✀㸀㈀ 㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀琀 渀戀戀 渀戀氀 戀爀 栀椀✀㸀䜀椀栀漀渀Ⰰ 䐀樀椀栀漀甀渀Ⰰ 䨀愀洀甀渀愀Ⰰ 䜀愀渀最攀猀Ⰰ Gigas, Laestrygon, Cerberus N, Cyclops, Cerberus S, Eunostos, Aethiops, Lethes,਀    䄀洀攀渀琀栀攀猀Ⰰ 吀爀椀琀漀渀Ⰰ 一攀瀀攀渀琀栀攀猀Ⰰ 倀栀椀猀漀渀Ⰰ 䔀甀瀀栀爀愀琀攀猀Ⰰ 匀椀琀愀挀甀猀Ⰰ 䠀椀搀搀攀欀攀氀Ⰰ 吀愀爀琀愀爀甀猀Ⰰ 䄀搀愀洀愀猀Ⰰ 䄀猀漀瀀甀猀Ⰰ Typhon, Vexillum, Cocytus, Is, Avernus N, Naarmalcha, Polyphemus਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀戀 渀戀琀✀㸀㈀㄀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀琀 渀戀戀 渀戀氀 渀戀爀 琀氀攀✀㸀䈀攀琀眀攀攀渀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀㄀ 뀀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀一⸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀愀渀搀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀㈀ 뀀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀一⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 渀戀爀 渀戀戀 渀戀琀✀㸀㈀㘀
238
਀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀琀 渀戀戀 渀戀氀 戀爀 栀椀✀㸀䜀椀栀漀渀Ⰰ 䐀樀椀栀漀甀渀Ⰰ 䨀愀洀甀渀愀Ⰰ 一椀氀漀欀攀爀愀猀 䤀 ☀愀洀瀀㬀 䤀䤀Ⰰ㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀昀㐀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀洀礀昀✀㸀㰀猀甀瀀㸀嬀㐀崀㰀⼀猀甀瀀㸀㰀⼀愀㸀 一椀氀漀欀攀爀愀猀 䤀Ⰰ 䄀氀愀渀搀攀爀Ⰰ Hyblaeus, Lethes, Amenthes, Thoth, Sitacus, Astaboras, Vexillum, Phison, Euphrates,਀    䠀椀搀搀攀欀攀氀Ⰰ 䄀搀愀洀愀猀Ⰰ 䔀甀渀漀猀琀漀猀Ⰰ 䄀攀琀栀椀漀瀀猀Ⰰ 䜀攀氀戀攀猀Ⰰ 䄀瘀攀爀渀甀猀 一Ⰰ 一愀愀爀洀愀氀挀栀愀Ⰰ 䤀猀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 渀戀爀 渀戀戀 渀戀琀✀㸀㈀㌀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀琀 渀戀戀 渀戀氀 戀爀 栀椀✀㸀䐀攀甀琀攀爀漀渀椀氀甀猀Ⰰ 䄀氀愀渀搀攀爀Ⰰ 一愀爀Ⰰ 䴀愀爀猀椀愀猀Ⰰ 䘀爀攀琀甀洀 䄀渀椀愀渀Ⰰ 䄀洀攀渀琀栀攀猀Ⰰ 吀栀漀琀栀Ⰰ Vexillum, Phison, Euphrates, Hiddekel, Adamas, Eunostos, Djihoun, Gihon, Nilokeras I, Chaos,਀    䜀攀氀戀攀猀Ⰰ 䄀攀琀栀椀漀瀀猀Ⰰ 一愀愀爀洀愀氀挀栀愀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 渀戀爀 渀戀戀 渀戀琀✀㸀㈀ 㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀琀 渀戀戀 渀戀氀 戀爀 栀椀✀㸀䘀爀攀琀甀洀 䄀渀椀愀渀Ⰰ 倀礀爀愀洀甀猀Ⰰ 倀爀漀琀漀渀椀氀甀猀Ⰰ 倀爀漀瀀漀渀琀椀猀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀昀㐀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀洀礀昀✀㸀㰀猀甀瀀㸀嬀㐀崀㰀⼀猀甀瀀㸀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 渀戀爀 渀戀戀 渀戀琀✀㸀㐀
239
਀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀琀 渀戀戀 渀戀氀 戀爀 栀椀✀㸀䌀愀氀氀椀爀爀栀漀攀Ⰰ 䘀爀攀琀甀洀 䄀渀椀愀渀Ⰰ 倀椀攀爀椀甀猀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 渀戀爀 渀戀戀 渀戀琀✀㸀㌀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀琀 渀戀戀 渀戀氀 戀爀 栀椀✀㸀倀椀攀爀椀甀猀Ⰰ 䌀愀氀氀椀爀爀栀漀攀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 渀戀爀 渀戀戀 渀戀琀✀㸀㈀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀
 
At
Opposition
of 1903 [Darian: 156] Alone
Between 30° S. and 20° S.2
Between 20° S. and 10° S.9
Jamuna, Ganges, Gigas, Laestrygon, Cyclops,Cerberus S, Aethiops, Lethes, Amenthes,਀    吀爀椀琀漀渀Ⰰ 倀栀椀猀漀渀Ⰰ 䔀甀瀀栀爀愀琀攀猀Ⰰ 吀椀琀愀渀Ⰰ 吀愀爀琀愀爀甀猀Ⰰ 䄀搀愀洀愀猀Ⰰ 吀礀瀀栀漀渀Ⰰ 嘀攀砀椀氀氀甀洀Ⰰ 䄀猀漀瀀甀猀Ⰰ 一愀愀爀洀愀氀挀栀愀Ⰰ 倀漀氀礀瀀栀攀洀甀猀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 15
Between 0° and 10° N.29
Gihon, Djihoun, Jamuna, Nilokeras਀    䤀 愀渀搀 䤀䤀㰀愀 椀搀㴀✀爀㐀✀ ⼀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀昀㐀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀洀礀昀✀㸀㰀猀甀瀀㸀嬀㐀崀㰀⼀猀甀瀀㸀㰀⼀愀㸀Ⰰ 一椀氀漀欀攀爀愀猀 䤀Ⰰ 䜀愀渀最攀猀Ⰰ 䜀椀最愀猀Ⰰ 䔀甀渀漀猀琀漀猀Ⰰ 䄀攀琀栀椀漀瀀猀Ⰰ 䰀攀琀栀攀猀Ⰰ 䄀洀攀渀琀栀攀猀Ⰰ 吀栀漀琀栀Ⰰ Astaboras, Phison, Sitacus, Euphrates, Hiddekel, Adamas, Asopus, Gelbes, Avernus N,਀    䔀爀攀戀甀猀Ⰰ 一愀愀爀洀愀氀挀栀愀Ⰰ 嘀攀砀椀氀氀甀洀Ⰰ 䤀猀Ⰰ 䐀椀猀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 18
Between 20° N. and 30° N.17
Between 30° N. and 40° N.12
Between 40° N. and 50° N.3
Between 50° N. and 60°&nbpp;N.3
Between 60° N. and 63° N.2
 

From this tabulating of them it is apparent that the਀搀漀甀戀氀攀猀 愀爀攀 瀀爀愀挀琀椀挀愀氀氀礀 挀漀渀昀椀渀攀搀 琀漀 琀栀攀 稀漀渀攀猀 眀椀琀栀椀渀 forty degrees of the equator. Only 7% of them straggle਀昀愀爀琀栀攀爀 渀漀爀琀栀 琀栀愀渀 琀栀椀猀Ⰰ 眀栀椀氀攀 愀戀漀瘀攀 㘀㌀뀀 渀漀爀琀栀 氀愀琀椀琀甀搀攀 and 35° south latitude there are none. Such a distribution਀椀猀 渀漀琀 椀渀 瀀爀漀瀀漀爀琀椀漀渀 琀漀 琀栀攀 愀爀攀愀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 稀漀渀攀猀Ⰰ which though diminishing toward the poles do so਀愀琀 渀漀 猀甀挀栀 爀愀琀攀⸀ 吀栀攀 猀甀爀昀愀挀攀 椀渀挀氀甀搀攀搀 戀攀琀眀攀攀渀 琀栀攀 equator and 40° of latitude is 65% of the hemisphere,਀眀栀攀爀攀愀猀 琀栀攀 昀爀愀挀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 渀甀洀戀攀爀 漀昀 搀漀甀戀氀攀猀 昀漀甀渀搀 there is 93%. The doubles are, then, an equatorial਀昀攀愀琀甀爀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀Ⰰ 挀漀渀昀椀渀攀搀 琀漀 琀栀攀 琀爀漀瀀椀挀 愀渀搀 琀攀洀瀀攀爀愀琀攀 belts.

To perceive the tropical character of the doubles in਀愀渀漀琀栀攀爀 眀愀礀 眀攀 栀愀瘀攀 戀甀琀 琀漀 挀漀渀猀椀搀攀爀 琀栀攀 稀漀渀愀氀 搀椀猀琀爀椀戀甀琀椀漀渀 of the single canals. Unlike the former the਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㐀 ✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㐀 ✀㸀㈀㐀 㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 latter do not thin out as one advances toward the poles;਀猀椀渀挀攀 椀渀 琀栀攀 愀爀挀琀椀挀 爀攀最椀漀渀猀 猀椀渀最氀攀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 戀攀洀攀猀栀 琀栀攀 猀甀爀昀愀挀攀 as meticulously as elsewhere. It is only that they਀琀栀攀爀攀 爀攀瀀氀愀挀攀 琀栀攀 搀漀甀戀氀攀猀㬀 漀爀Ⰰ 渀漀琀 琀漀 瀀甀琀 琀栀攀 挀愀爀琀 戀攀昀漀爀攀 the horse, it is the doubles that in part replace the singles਀椀渀 琀栀攀 琀爀漀瀀椀挀猀⸀ 䄀渀搀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀椀猀 愀爀爀愀渀最攀洀攀渀琀 栀愀猀 猀漀洀攀琀栀椀渀最 physical behind it by way of cause is curiously਀猀栀漀眀渀 戀礀 琀眀漀 挀愀渀愀氀猀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 䄀爀渀漀渀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 䬀椀猀漀渀Ⰰ 眀栀椀挀栀 are neither of the one kind nor yet the other, but a਀挀爀漀猀猀 戀攀琀眀攀攀渀 琀栀攀 琀眀漀⸀ 䘀漀爀 琀栀攀 䄀爀渀漀渀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 䬀椀猀漀渀 are convergent doubles; the two lines of the Kison਀氀攀愀瘀椀渀最 愀 挀漀洀洀漀渀 瀀漀椀渀琀 愀琀 琀栀攀 攀搀最攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀漀氀愀爀 挀愀瀀 and separating as they travel south, while the two਀䄀爀渀漀渀 琀愀欀攀 甀瀀 愀渀搀 挀漀渀琀椀渀甀攀 琀栀攀 搀椀瘀攀爀最攀渀挀攀Ⰰ 挀漀渀渀攀挀琀椀渀最 at last with the parallel pair of the Euphrates.਀吀栀攀猀攀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 琀栀甀猀 洀愀欀攀 琀爀愀渀猀椀琀椀漀渀 戀攀琀眀攀攀渀 琀栀攀 琀爀甀攀 doubles and the true singles, and may be looked upon਀愀猀 攀渀搀漀眀攀搀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 瀀漀琀攀渀琀椀愀氀椀琀椀攀猀 漀昀 戀漀琀栀⸀ 䘀爀漀洀 their association with the double Euphrates, it is clear਀琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 琀爀愀渀猀椀琀椀漀渀 戀攀琀眀攀攀渀 琀栀攀 琀眀漀 昀漀爀洀猀 椀猀 渀漀琀 漀渀氀礀 formal but physical, and that the stopping of the dual਀挀漀渀搀椀琀椀漀渀 愀琀 琀栀攀 昀漀爀琀椀攀琀栀 瀀愀爀愀氀氀攀氀 椀猀 渀漀琀 琀栀攀 漀甀琀挀漀洀攀 of chance.

It may occur to the thoughtful that the doubles appear਀挀漀渀昀椀渀攀搀 琀漀 琀栀攀 洀漀爀攀 琀爀漀瀀椀挀愀氀 瀀漀爀琀椀漀渀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀 because of a better presentation of those zones, the਀爀攀愀搀攀爀 猀甀瀀瀀漀猀椀渀最 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀 琀漀 戀攀 猀攀攀渀 愀砀椀猀攀搀 瀀攀爀瀀攀渀搀椀挀甀氀愀爀氀礀 241਀琀漀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀 漀昀 猀椀最栀琀Ⰰ 愀猀 最攀漀最爀愀瀀栀椀攀猀 爀攀瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀 the earth’s globe. The supposition, however, is erroneous.਀圀攀 猀漀洀攀琀椀洀攀猀 猀攀攀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀 猀漀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 洀漀爀攀 漀昀琀攀渀 not. Such is the tilt of the Martian axis to the plane਀漀昀 琀栀攀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 攀挀氀椀瀀琀椀挀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 搀椀昀昀攀爀攀渀琀 稀漀渀攀猀 愀爀攀 rarely seen on an even keel, so to speak, their aspects਀猀栀椀昀琀椀渀最 琀漀琀愀氀氀礀 昀爀漀洀 漀渀攀 漀瀀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀 琀漀 愀渀漀琀栀攀爀⸀ 圀栀愀琀 shows in mid-disk on one occasion may be forty-eight਀搀攀最爀攀攀猀 爀攀洀漀瘀攀搀 昀爀漀洀 椀琀 愀琀 愀渀漀琀栀攀爀Ⰰ 愀 搀椀猀琀愀渀挀攀 amounting to three-quarters of the way from apparent਀攀焀甀愀琀漀爀 琀漀 愀瀀瀀愀爀攀渀琀 瀀漀氀攀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀吀栀甀猀 琀栀攀 搀漀甀戀氀攀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 愀爀攀 昀漀爀 猀漀洀攀 椀渀琀爀椀渀猀椀挀 爀攀愀猀漀渀 equatorial features of the planet as opposed to polar਀漀渀攀猀⸀ 䄀渀搀 琀栀椀猀 渀漀琀 猀椀洀瀀氀礀 戀攀挀愀甀猀攀 漀昀 最爀攀愀琀攀爀 猀瀀愀挀攀 there. Duality is a result of conditions intrinsic to਀琀栀攀 猀攀瘀攀爀愀氀 氀漀挀愀氀椀琀椀攀猀⸀ 圀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 挀愀甀猀攀 洀愀礀 戀攀 椀猀 爀攀氀愀琀攀搀 to the character of the things themselves, which਀眀攀 猀栀愀氀氀 氀愀琀攀爀 挀漀渀猀椀搀攀爀⸀ 䘀漀爀 琀栀攀 洀漀洀攀渀琀 眀攀 洀愀礀 渀漀琀攀 that the fact disposes quietly of the diplopic theory਀漀昀 琀栀攀椀爀 洀愀渀甀昀愀挀琀甀爀攀⸀ 䘀漀爀Ⰰ 昀漀爀 搀椀瀀氀漀瀀椀挀 搀漀甀戀氀攀猀 琀漀 show such respect for the equator would betoken a਀挀漀甀爀琀攀猀礀 椀渀 琀栀攀洀 琀漀 戀攀 挀漀洀洀攀渀搀攀搀 漀昀 匀礀搀渀攀礀 匀洀椀琀栀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䈀甀琀 琀栀椀猀 椀猀 渀漀琀 琀栀攀椀爀 漀渀氀礀 最攀漀最爀愀瀀栀椀挀 戀椀愀猀⸀ 䤀渀 愀搀搀椀琀椀漀渀 to not being partial to the poles, the double canals਀猀栀漀眀 愀 挀攀爀琀愀椀渀 攀砀挀氀甀猀椀瘀攀渀攀猀猀 琀漀眀愀爀搀 琀栀攀 搀愀爀欀 愀爀攀愀猀 generally. Not only do they avoid the arctic and antarctic਀稀漀渀攀猀 攀渀琀椀爀攀氀礀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 琀栀攀礀 氀愀爀最攀氀礀 猀栀甀渀 琀栀攀 戀氀甀攀ⴀ最爀攀攀渀 242਀爀攀最椀漀渀猀⸀ 䤀渀 琀栀攀猀攀 戀甀琀 琀眀漀 猀甀猀瀀椀挀椀漀渀猀 漀昀 搀漀甀戀氀攀猀 occur, in the Aonium Sinus, although single canals਀琀栀攀爀攀 愀爀攀 愀猀 渀甀洀攀爀漀甀猀 愀猀 愀渀礀眀栀攀爀攀 攀氀猀攀 漀渀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀一攀瘀攀爀琀栀攀氀攀猀猀Ⰰ 愀氀琀栀漀甀最栀 琀栀攀礀 愀瘀漀椀搀 爀甀渀渀椀渀最 琀栀爀漀甀最栀 them, they run from them in a manner that is marked.਀倀爀漀挀攀攀搀椀渀最 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 最爀攀愀琀 搀椀愀瀀栀爀愀最洀 愀爀攀 渀漀 氀攀猀猀 琀栀愀渀 28 out of the 53 doubles. Connecting directly with਀琀栀攀猀攀 愀爀攀 ㄀㜀 洀漀爀攀㬀 眀栀椀氀攀 琀栀攀 爀攀洀愀椀渀椀渀最 㠀 愀爀攀 愀氀猀漀 愀猀猀漀挀椀愀琀攀搀 through the intermediarism of dark areas, the਀匀漀氀椀猀 䰀愀挀甀猀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 吀爀椀瘀椀甀洀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䤀渀 氀椀欀攀 爀攀氀愀琀椀漀渀 琀漀 搀愀爀欀 爀攀最椀漀渀猀Ⰰ 琀栀攀礀 愀爀攀 氀椀洀椀琀攀搀 漀渀 the north by the Mare Acidalium, the Propontis, the਀圀攀搀最攀 漀昀 䌀愀猀椀甀猀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀椀爀 椀渀琀攀爀挀漀渀渀攀挀琀椀渀最 戀愀渀搀猀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 Pierius, Callirrhoe, Helicon. In this manner do they਀昀漀爀洀 愀 戀爀漀愀搀 最椀爀搀氀攀 爀漀甀渀搀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀ᤀ猠 眀愀椀猀琀Ⰰ 氀攀愀瘀椀渀最 the polar extremities bare.


਀ ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀㸀
਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀嘀攀爀礀 眀椀搀攀 愀渀搀 瀀漀猀猀椀戀氀礀 渀漀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 挀氀愀猀猀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀
਀    㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀愀戀氀攀㸀 ਀㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀栀愀瀀琀攀爀✀㸀 ਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㐀㌀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㐀㌀✀㸀㈀㐀㌀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀

CHAPTER XIX

CANALS IN THE DARK REGIONS

਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀搀爀漀瀀ⴀ挀愀瀀愀 开㌀开 开㠀 挀 ㄀㔀✀     㸀匀攀瘀攀渀琀攀攀渀 礀攀愀爀猀 愀昀琀攀爀 琀栀攀 爀攀挀漀最渀椀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 canals in the light regions occurred another important਀攀瘀攀渀琀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 搀椀猀挀漀瘀攀爀礀 漀昀 愀 猀椀洀椀氀愀爀 猀攀琀 椀渀 琀栀攀 搀愀爀欀 ones. The detection of these markings in the dark਀愀爀攀愀猀 眀愀猀 愀 洀漀爀攀 搀椀昀昀椀挀甀氀琀 昀攀愀琀 琀栀愀渀 琀栀攀 瀀攀爀挀攀椀瘀椀渀最 漀昀 those in the light, and in consequence was later accomplished.਀䄀氀猀漀 眀愀猀 椀琀 漀渀攀 眀栀攀爀攀 爀攀挀漀最渀椀琀椀漀渀 挀愀洀攀 戀礀 degrees.

I have previously pointed out what this discovery਀搀椀搀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀 猀攀愀猀᐀渠漀琀栀椀渀最 氀攀猀猀 琀栀愀渀 琀栀攀 琀愀欀椀渀最 愀眀愀礀 of their character in a generally convincing manner.਀吀漀 漀渀攀 眀栀漀 栀愀搀 挀愀爀攀昀甀氀氀礀 挀漀渀猀椀搀攀爀攀搀 琀栀攀 洀愀琀琀攀爀Ⰰ the seas had indeed already lost it, as was shown in਀䌀栀愀瀀琀攀爀 堀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 琀漀 琀栀漀猀攀 眀栀漀 栀愀搀 渀漀琀 琀栀攀猀攀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 presented a very instant proof of the fact.

From such not wholly supererogatory service they਀眀攀渀琀 漀渀 琀漀 昀甀爀渀椀猀栀 甀渀氀漀漀欀攀搀ⴀ昀漀爀 栀攀氀瀀 椀渀 漀琀栀攀爀 搀椀爀攀挀琀椀漀渀猀⸀ Their discovery showed in the first place that no part਀漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀ᤀ猠 猀甀爀昀愀挀攀 眀愀猀 昀爀攀攀 昀爀漀洀 挀愀渀愀氀 琀爀椀愀渀最甀氀愀琀椀漀渀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䈀甀琀 椀琀 搀椀搀 洀漀爀攀 琀栀愀渀 琀栀椀猀⸀ 䘀漀爀 琀栀攀猀攀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 椀渀 琀栀攀 dark regions left the edge of the ‘continents’ at the਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㐀㐀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㐀㐀✀㸀㈀㐀㐀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 very points where the canals of the light regions entered਀琀栀攀洀Ⰰ 眀栀椀挀栀 昀愀挀琀 瀀爀漀瘀攀搀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀洀 愀 挀漀洀洀甀渀椀琀礀 漀昀 interest with the latter. Such continuation was highly਀猀椀最渀椀昀椀挀愀渀琀Ⰰ 猀椀渀挀攀 椀琀 氀椀渀欀攀搀 琀栀攀 琀眀漀 琀漀最攀琀栀攀爀 椀渀琀漀 愀 猀椀渀最氀攀 system, compassing the whole surface of the planet.਀匀琀愀爀琀椀渀最 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀挀攀猀 眀栀攀爀攀 琀栀攀 氀椀最栀琀ⴀ爀攀最椀漀渀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 come out upon the great girdle of seas that stretches all਀爀漀甀渀搀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀Ⰰ 洀漀猀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 渀攀眀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 栀攀愀搀攀搀 琀漀眀愀爀搀 the passes between the islands south, as nearly polewards਀愀猀 挀椀爀挀甀洀猀琀愀渀挀攀猀 漀昀 氀漀挀愀氀 琀漀瀀漀最爀愀瀀栀礀 眀漀甀氀搀 瀀攀爀洀椀琀⸀ In the broader expanses of the Syrtis Major and਀琀栀攀 䴀愀爀攀 䔀爀礀琀栀爀愀攀甀洀Ⰰ 戀攀猀椀搀攀猀 洀愀椀渀 愀爀琀攀爀椀攀猀 漀琀栀攀爀猀 went to spots in their midst after the same fashion਀愀猀 琀栀漀猀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 氀椀最栀琀 爀攀最椀漀渀猀⸀ 吀栀攀猀攀 猀瀀漀琀猀 搀椀昀昀攀爀攀搀 椀渀 no way apparently from their fellow oases elsewhere.਀䘀爀漀洀 愀 猀瀀漀琀 椀渀 琀栀攀 挀攀渀琀爀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 匀礀爀琀椀猀 琀栀爀攀攀 最爀攀愀琀 氀椀渀攀猀 thus traveled south: the Dosaron, heading straight਀甀瀀 琀栀攀 匀礀爀琀椀猀 漀渀 琀栀攀 洀攀爀椀搀椀愀渀 琀椀氀氀 椀琀 猀琀爀甀挀欀 琀栀攀 渀漀爀琀栀攀爀渀洀漀猀琀 point of Hellas; the Orosines, inclined more to਀琀栀攀 爀椀最栀琀Ⰰ 瀀愀猀猀椀渀最 琀栀爀漀甀最栀 琀栀攀 搀愀爀欀 挀栀愀渀渀攀氀 琀漀 琀栀攀 眀攀猀琀 of that land and so proceeding south; and lastly the਀䔀爀礀洀愀渀琀栀甀猀 琀甀爀渀椀渀最 攀愀猀琀眀愀爀搀 琀椀氀氀 椀琀 戀爀漀甀最栀琀 甀瀀 昀椀渀愀氀氀礀 at the Hesperidum Lucus. Where, on the other hand,਀琀栀攀 氀漀渀最 挀栀愀椀渀 漀昀 氀椀最栀琀攀爀 氀愀渀搀Ⰰ 挀愀氀氀攀搀 戀礀 匀挀栀椀愀瀀愀爀攀氀氀椀 islands, and stretching from the Solis Lacus region westward਀琀漀 䠀攀氀氀愀猀Ⰰ 漀昀昀攀爀攀搀 漀渀氀礀 栀攀爀攀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀爀攀 愀渀 攀砀椀琀Ⰰ the canals made for these exits. The canals in the Mare਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㐀㔀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㐀㔀✀㸀㈀㐀㔀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 Sirenum, the Mare Cimmerium, and the Mare Tyrrhenum਀猀琀爀甀挀欀 洀漀爀攀 漀爀 氀攀猀猀 搀椀愀最漀渀愀氀氀礀 愀挀爀漀猀猀 琀栀漀猀攀 猀攀愀猀 昀爀漀洀 their northern termini to the entrances of the straits਀戀攀琀眀攀攀渀 琀栀攀 椀猀氀愀渀搀猀Ⰰ 琀栀甀猀 氀愀挀椀渀最 琀栀攀 猀攀愀猀 椀渀 琀栀攀 眀愀礀 愀 sail is rolled to its spar. From the exact manner in਀眀栀椀挀栀 琀栀攀礀 挀漀渀渀攀挀琀攀搀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 氀椀最栀琀ⴀ爀攀最椀漀渀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 琀栀攀礀 proved the two to be part and parcel of one system,਀眀栀椀挀栀 椀渀 椀琀猀 攀砀琀攀渀猀椀漀渀 眀愀猀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀ⴀ眀椀搀攀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀爀攀昀漀爀攀 proportionately important. Whatever of strange interest਀琀栀攀 挀甀爀椀漀甀猀 挀栀愀爀愀挀琀攀爀椀猀琀椀挀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 琀栀攀洀猀攀氀瘀攀猀 suggested was now greatly increased by this addition;਀昀漀爀 琀栀攀 猀漀氀椀搀愀爀椀琀礀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀栀攀渀漀洀攀渀漀渀 愀昀昀攀挀琀攀搀 琀栀攀 cogency of any argument derived from it.

In 1894 [Darian: 151] only the dark areas of the southern hemisphere਀眀攀爀攀 昀漀甀渀搀 琀漀 戀攀 琀栀甀猀 氀愀挀攀搀 眀椀琀栀 氀椀渀攀猀⸀ 䘀漀爀 琀栀攀渀 so great was the tilt of the planet’s south pole toward਀琀栀攀 攀愀爀琀栀Ⰰ 琀栀愀琀 眀栀椀氀攀 琀栀漀猀攀 稀漀渀攀猀 眀攀爀攀 眀攀氀氀 搀椀猀瀀氀愀礀攀搀 the dark patches of the northern hemisphere were more਀漀爀 氀攀猀猀 栀甀氀氀ⴀ搀漀眀渀 漀瘀攀爀 琀栀攀 搀椀猀欀ᤀ猠 渀漀爀琀栀攀爀渀 栀漀爀椀稀漀渀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䌀漀渀琀爀愀猀琀 眀愀猀 琀栀攀 漀瀀攀渀 猀攀猀愀洀攀 琀漀 琀栀攀椀爀 搀攀琀攀挀琀椀漀渀⸀ When the maria show dark, the lines are lost in the਀猀漀洀戀爀攀渀攀猀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 戀愀挀欀最爀漀甀渀搀⸀ 䄀猀 琀栀攀 洀愀爀椀愀 氀椀最栀琀攀渀 the lines come out. Such was amply witnessed by਀琀栀攀 攀昀昀攀挀琀 椀渀 ㄀㠀㤀㐀 愀渀搀 ㄀㠀㤀㘀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㄀ 愀渀搀 ㄀㔀㈀崀⸀ 䤀渀 ㄀㠀㤀㐀 䤀 昀漀甀渀搀 椀琀 椀洀瀀漀猀猀椀戀氀攀 to perceive them, except where the Padargus਀挀爀漀猀猀攀搀 䄀琀氀愀渀琀椀猀Ⰰ 昀漀爀 琀栀攀 栀甀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 㰀椀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 氀愀渀最㴀∀氀愀∀ 砀洀氀㨀氀愀渀最㴀∀氀愀∀㸀洀愀爀椀愀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀椀㸀 琀栀攀洀猀攀氀瘀攀猀 was then very dark. In 1896, on the other hand, I saw਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㐀㘀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㐀㘀✀㸀㈀㐀㘀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 them without difficulty. What is also of interest: so਀猀漀漀渀 愀猀 猀攀攀渀 琀栀攀礀 愀瀀瀀攀愀爀攀搀 猀洀愀氀氀Ⰰ 眀椀琀栀漀甀琀 栀愀稀椀渀攀猀猀 or distention.

As the oppositions succeeded one another the northern਀爀攀最椀漀渀猀 爀漀猀攀 椀渀琀漀 瘀椀攀眀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀椀爀 愀瀀瀀攀愀爀愀渀挀攀 came the detection in them of the same phenomena.਀一漀 氀愀爀最攀 搀愀爀欀 愀爀攀愀猀 氀椀欀攀 琀栀攀 搀椀愀瀀栀爀愀最洀 攀砀椀猀琀 琀栀攀爀攀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 the smaller patches of blue-green which bestrew them਀瀀爀漀瘀攀搀 琀漀 戀攀 猀椀洀椀氀愀爀氀礀 洀攀猀栀攀搀⸀ 䄀琀 昀椀爀猀琀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 眀攀爀攀 evident upon their peripheries, contouring them about;਀琀栀攀渀 琀栀攀 戀漀搀椀攀猀 琀栀攀洀猀攀氀瘀攀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀愀琀挀栀攀猀 猀栀漀眀攀搀 最爀椀搀ⴀ椀爀漀渀攀搀 by lines.

The Mare Acidalium with its adjuncts, the Lucus਀一椀氀椀愀挀甀猀 漀渀 琀栀攀 猀漀甀琀栀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 䰀愀挀甀猀 䠀礀瀀攀爀戀漀爀攀甀猀 漀渀 the north, thus stood out in 1901 [Darian: 155]. On a particularly਀最漀漀搀 攀瘀攀渀椀渀最 漀昀 搀攀昀椀渀椀琀椀漀渀 愀琀 琀栀攀 攀渀搀 漀昀 䴀愀礀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 䴀愀爀攀 suddenly made background for a sunburst of dark rays,਀猀椀砀 漀昀 琀栀攀洀 椀渀 愀氀氀 爀愀搀椀愀琀椀渀最 昀爀漀洀 愀 瀀漀椀渀琀 戀攀琀眀攀攀渀 椀琀 愀渀搀 the Lacus Hyperboreus. Considering how sombre the਀䴀愀爀攀 眀愀猀 愀琀 琀栀攀 琀椀洀攀Ⰰ 琀栀椀猀 眀愀猀 愀猀 爀攀洀愀爀欀愀戀氀攀 愀 瘀椀猀椀漀渀 as it was striking to see. Although at the moment਀琀栀攀 猀椀最栀琀 眀愀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 渀愀琀甀爀攀 漀昀 愀 爀攀瘀攀氀愀琀椀漀渀Ⰰ 琀栀攀猀攀 氀椀渀攀猀 have been amply verified since, as the Martian season਀栀愀猀 瀀爀漀瘀攀搀 洀漀爀攀 瀀爀漀瀀椀琀椀漀甀猀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀匀椀洀椀氀愀爀 搀攀挀椀瀀栀攀爀洀攀渀琀 栀愀猀 戀攀昀愀氀氀攀渀 愀氀氀 琀栀攀 漀琀栀攀爀 patches of blue-green in the northern hemisphere;਀琀栀攀猀攀 栀愀瘀椀渀最 猀栀漀眀渀 琀栀攀洀猀攀氀瘀攀猀 昀椀爀猀琀 挀椀爀挀甀洀猀挀爀椀戀攀搀 愀渀搀 247਀琀栀攀渀 琀爀愀瘀攀爀猀攀搀 戀礀 挀愀渀愀氀猀⸀ 䤀渀琀攀爀攀猀琀椀渀最 椀渀猀琀愀渀挀攀猀 眀攀爀攀 the Wedge of Casius and the Propontis. These markings,਀昀椀爀猀琀 瀀攀爀挀攀椀瘀攀搀 礀攀愀爀猀 愀最漀 愀猀 洀攀爀攀 瀀愀琀挀栀攀猀 漀昀 猀栀愀搀椀渀最Ⰰ then partially resolved by Schiaparelli, now stood਀爀攀瘀攀愀氀攀搀 愀猀 愀 瀀攀爀昀攀挀琀 渀攀琀眀漀爀欀 漀昀 氀椀渀攀猀 愀渀搀 猀瀀漀琀猀⸀ 匀漀 many of both kinds of their਀搀攀琀愀椀氀 漀挀挀甀瀀椀攀搀 琀栀攀 最爀漀甀渀搀 that to identify them all was਀洀愀琀琀攀爀 漀昀 攀砀挀攀攀搀椀渀最 搀椀昀昀椀挀甀氀琀礀⸀ The outcome is shown in the਀搀椀愀最爀愀洀洀愀琀椀挀 爀攀瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀愀琀椀漀渀猀 opposite and on page 256.਀吀栀攀猀攀 搀爀愀眀椀渀最猀 搀椀猀挀氀漀猀攀 戀攀琀琀攀爀 琀栀愀渀 愀渀礀 搀攀猀挀爀椀瀀琀椀漀渀 the mass of detail of which the patches are in reality਀挀漀洀瀀漀猀攀搀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 猀攀爀瘀攀 琀漀 挀漀渀瘀攀礀 愀渀 椀搀攀愀 漀昀 琀栀攀 挀漀洀瀀氀攀砀椀琀礀 involved. If the general canal system seems਀椀渀琀爀椀挀愀琀攀Ⰰ 栀攀爀攀 椀猀 猀漀洀攀琀栀椀渀最 眀栀椀挀栀 攀砀挀攀攀搀猀 琀栀愀琀 愀猀 much again.

਀㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀椀氀氀甀猀ⴀ㌀  ✀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀攀ⴀ挀愀瀀琀椀漀渀✀㸀吀栀攀 倀爀漀瀀漀渀琀椀猀Ⰰ ㄀㤀 㔀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㜀崀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀
਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀吀栀攀 攀砀琀攀渀猀椀漀渀 椀渀 琀栀椀猀 洀愀渀渀攀爀 漀昀 琀栀攀 挀甀爀椀漀甀猀 琀爀椀愀渀最甀氀愀琀椀漀渀 of the light areas into and through all the਀搀愀爀欀 愀爀攀愀猀 愀猀 眀攀氀氀Ⰰ 戀礀 琀栀甀猀 猀瀀爀攀愀搀椀渀最 琀栀攀 昀椀攀氀搀 漀昀 椀琀猀 operations over both terranes complexioned so unlike,਀最爀攀愀琀氀礀 椀渀挀爀攀愀猀攀猀 琀栀攀 挀漀最攀渀挀礀 漀昀 琀栀攀 搀攀搀甀挀琀椀漀渀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀椀猀 detail is of later origin than the background upon which਀椀琀 爀攀猀琀猀⸀ 吀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 洀攀猀栀 漀昀 氀椀渀攀猀 挀漀瘀攀爀猀 渀漀琀 漀渀氀礀 琀栀攀 ochre stretches of the disk, but the blue-green parts as਀眀攀氀氀Ⰰ 洀愀欀攀猀 椀琀 猀琀椀氀氀 洀漀爀攀 挀攀爀琀愀椀渀 琀栀愀琀 椀琀 椀猀 渀漀琀 愀 猀椀洀瀀氀攀 248਀瀀栀礀猀椀挀愀氀 漀甀琀挀漀洀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 昀甀渀搀愀洀攀渀琀愀氀 昀漀爀挀攀猀 琀栀愀琀 featured the planet’s face. For in that case it could਀渀漀琀 眀椀琀栀 猀甀挀栀 愀戀猀漀氀甀琀攀 椀洀瀀愀爀琀椀愀氀椀琀礀 椀渀瘀漀氀瘀攀 戀漀琀栀 愀氀椀欀攀⸀ Thus here, again, we find corroboration by later observations਀漀昀 眀栀愀琀 攀愀爀氀椀攀爀 漀渀攀猀 攀猀琀愀戀氀椀猀栀攀搀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䄀 氀愀猀琀 氀椀渀欀 椀渀 琀栀攀 挀栀愀椀渀 漀昀 挀愀渀愀氀 猀攀焀甀攀渀挀攀猀 爀攀洀愀椀渀猀 to be recorded. Just as the lines in the dark regions਀挀漀渀琀椀渀甀攀搀 琀栀漀猀攀 椀渀 琀栀攀 氀椀最栀琀Ⰰ 猀漀 琀栀攀礀 琀栀攀洀猀攀氀瘀攀猀 琀甀爀渀攀搀 out to be similarly prolonged and in no less suggestive਀愀 洀愀渀渀攀爀⸀ 䘀漀爀 眀栀攀渀 琀栀攀 渀漀爀琀栀 瀀漀氀愀爀 稀漀渀攀 挀愀洀攀 琀漀 戀攀 displayed, canals were evident there, continuing those਀椀渀 琀栀攀 漀琀栀攀爀 稀漀渀攀猀 愀渀搀 爀甀渀渀椀渀最 愀琀 琀栀攀椀爀 渀漀爀琀栀攀爀渀 攀渀搀猀 into dark spots at the edge of the polar cap. Here,਀琀栀攀渀Ⰰ 眀攀 栀愀瘀攀 琀栀攀 攀渀搀 漀昀 琀栀攀 眀栀漀氀攀 猀礀猀琀攀洀Ⰰ 漀爀 洀漀爀攀 properly its origin, in the polar snows. The significance਀漀昀 琀栀椀猀 眀椀氀氀 戀攀 猀攀攀渀 昀爀漀洀 漀琀栀攀爀 瀀栀攀渀漀洀攀渀愀Ⰰ 琀漀 愀 consideration of which we now proceed.

249਀  㰀栀㈀ 椀搀㴀✀挀栀㈀ ✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㘀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀砀氀愀爀最攀✀㸀䌀䠀䄀倀吀䔀刀 堀堀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀 㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀伀䄀匀䔀匀㰀⼀栀㈀㸀

Next to be caught of the details of this most curious਀渀攀琀眀漀爀欀 琀栀愀琀 洀攀猀栀攀猀 琀栀攀 猀甀爀昀愀挀攀 漀昀 䴀愀爀猀 眀愀猀 a set of phenomena stranger even than the lines; to wit,਀搀愀爀欀 爀漀甀渀搀 搀漀琀猀 猀琀愀渀搀椀渀最 愀琀 琀栀攀椀爀 椀渀琀攀爀猀攀挀琀椀漀渀猀⸀ 䴀漀爀攀 difficult to make out than the lines, they were in consequence਀搀攀琀攀挀琀攀搀 琀栀甀猀 氀愀琀攀爀 戀礀 昀椀昀琀攀攀渀 礀攀愀爀猀⸀ 伀渀挀攀 discovered, however, it became possible to trace their਀甀渀挀漀渀猀挀椀漀甀猀 爀攀挀漀最渀椀琀椀漀渀 戀愀挀欀 椀渀 琀椀洀攀⸀ 吀栀甀猀 匀挀栀椀愀瀀愀爀攀氀氀椀 told the writer in 1895, apropos of those found at਀䘀氀愀最猀琀愀昀昀Ⰰ 琀栀愀琀 栀攀 栀愀搀 栀椀洀猀攀氀昀 猀甀猀瀀攀挀琀攀搀 琀栀攀洀 戀甀琀 挀漀甀氀搀 not make sure. Some of them stand figured in his਀㰀挀椀琀攀㸀䴀攀洀漀爀椀愀 匀攀猀琀愀㰀⼀挀椀琀攀㸀 搀攀愀氀椀渀最 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 漀瀀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 ㄀㠀㠀㠀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㐀㠀崀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 not published till 1899. In such posthumous recognition,਀愀猀 漀渀攀 洀愀礀 挀愀氀氀 椀琀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 猀瀀漀琀猀 爀攀瀀攀愀琀攀搀 琀栀攀 栀椀猀琀漀爀礀 of the canals. For Schiaparelli had himself pointed਀漀甀琀 愀 猀椀洀椀氀愀爀 瀀爀攀挀漀渀猀挀椀漀甀猀 瘀椀猀椀漀渀椀渀最 漀昀 琀栀攀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 椀渀 the delicate pencilings of Dawes and the streaks of਀䰀漀挀欀礀攀爀Ⰰ 䬀愀椀猀攀爀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 匀攀挀挀栀椀Ⰰ 渀漀眀 琀爀愀渀猀氀愀琀愀戀氀攀 愀猀 爀攀瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀椀渀最 the Phison, the Euphrates, and half a dozen਀漀琀栀攀爀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 椀洀瀀攀爀昀攀挀琀氀礀 猀攀攀渀⸀ 吀栀愀琀 戀漀琀栀 琀栀攀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 and the oases were thus sketched before they were seen਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㔀 ✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㔀 ✀㸀㈀㔀 㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 well enough to be definitely discovered is to an unprejudiced਀洀椀渀搀 愀洀漀渀最 琀栀攀椀爀 猀琀爀漀渀最攀猀琀 挀爀攀搀攀渀琀椀愀氀猀 琀漀 credit.

Nor was Schiaparelli the sole person thus to get proof਀戀攀昀漀爀攀 氀攀琀琀攀爀⸀ 伀渀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀椀爀 瘀攀爀礀 攀愀爀氀椀攀猀琀 瀀漀爀琀爀愀礀愀氀猀 appears in a drawing by Otto Boeddicker, made on਀䐀攀挀攀洀戀攀爀 ㈀㘀Ⰰ ㄀㠀㠀㄀ 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㐀㔀 匀愀最椀琀琀愀爀椀甀猀 ㈀㔀崀Ⰰ 眀栀攀爀攀 琀栀攀 倀猀攀戀漀愀猀 䰀甀挀甀猀 椀猀 挀氀攀愀爀氀礀 represented. In a still more imperfect manner some਀漀昀 琀栀攀 猀瀀漀琀猀 栀愀搀 戀攀攀渀 愀搀甀洀戀爀愀琀攀搀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀椀爀 猀栀愀搀漀眀猀 drawn long before that. Thus they may be deciphered਀愀猀 琀栀攀 挀愀甀猀攀 漀昀 瀀愀琀挀栀攀猀 搀爀愀眀渀 戀礀 䐀愀眀攀猀 椀渀 ㄀㠀㘀㐀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㌀㔀崀Ⰰ though none of them were in any definite sense detected਀琀椀氀氀 ㄀㠀㜀㤀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㐀㌀崀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 漀渀氀礀 琀栀攀渀 猀漀 椀氀氀 搀攀昀椀渀攀搀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀椀爀 true character was not apparent. As patches they are਀猀琀椀氀氀 挀漀洀洀漀渀氀礀 猀攀攀渀 愀琀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀愀琀漀爀椀攀猀 眀栀攀爀攀 琀栀攀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀愀琀椀漀渀愀氀 conditions are not of the best and the study਀漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀 渀漀琀 猀礀猀琀攀洀愀琀椀挀愀氀氀礀 攀渀漀甀最栀 瀀甀爀猀甀攀搀 琀漀 栀愀瘀攀 them disclose their true shape and size.

The history of their detection is resumed in the਀攀砀瀀攀爀椀攀渀挀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 椀渀搀椀瘀椀搀甀愀氀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀攀爀⸀ 䐀甀爀椀渀最 琀栀攀 course of my own observations I have had occasion to਀渀漀琀椀挀攀 琀栀攀 猀攀瘀攀爀愀氀 猀琀愀最攀猀 椀渀 爀攀挀漀最渀椀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀瀀漀琀猀 which have marked their chronologic career. As with਀琀栀攀 氀椀渀攀猀Ⰰ 琀栀爀攀攀 猀琀愀最攀猀 椀渀 琀栀攀 愀瀀瀀攀愀爀愀渀挀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀瀀漀琀猀 may be remarked: first, where the scattering of the਀爀愀礀猀 椀猀 猀漀 眀椀搀攀 琀栀愀琀 搀椀氀甀琀椀漀渀 瀀爀攀瘀攀渀琀猀 愀渀礀琀栀椀渀最 昀爀漀洀 being seen; second, where the commotion being less਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㔀㄀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㔀㄀✀㸀㈀㔀㄀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 the object appears as a gray patch; and third, where਀椀渀 挀漀洀瀀愀爀愀琀椀瘀攀 焀甀椀攀琀 椀琀 挀漀渀搀攀渀猀攀猀 椀渀琀漀 愀 戀氀愀挀欀 搀漀琀⸀ For the two former our own air waves are to blame.਀䤀渀 挀漀甀爀猀椀渀最 眀愀瘀攀猀 漀昀 挀漀渀搀攀渀猀愀琀椀漀渀 愀渀搀 爀愀爀攀昀愀挀琀椀漀渀 琀栀攀礀 spread the image of the spot as they do that of the਀挀愀渀愀氀⸀ 吀栀攀渀 愀猀 琀栀攀 挀甀爀爀攀渀琀猀 挀愀氀洀 琀栀攀 猀瀀漀琀 猀栀爀椀渀欀猀 to its normal proportions, and in so doing darkens in਀挀漀渀猀攀焀甀攀渀挀攀 漀昀 戀攀椀渀最 氀攀猀猀 眀椀搀攀氀礀 搀椀昀昀甀猀攀搀⸀ 吀栀甀猀 琀栀攀 evolution in perception which may take place in the਀挀漀甀爀猀攀 漀昀 愀渀 栀漀甀爀 昀漀爀 愀 瀀愀爀琀椀挀甀氀愀爀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀攀爀 爀攀瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀猀 exactly what has occurred in the person of the race by਀琀栀攀 椀洀瀀爀漀瘀攀洀攀渀琀 椀渀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀愀琀椀漀渀愀氀 洀攀琀栀漀搀猀 愀渀搀 猀椀琀攀猀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀吀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 猀瀀漀琀猀Ⰰ 愀氀琀栀漀甀最栀 眀椀搀攀爀 琀栀愀渀 琀栀攀 挀愀渀愀氀猀Ⰰ 爀攀洀愀椀渀攀搀 longer hidden from human sight, is due to the਀漀瀀琀椀挀漀ⴀ瀀栀礀猀椀挀 昀愀挀琀 琀栀愀琀 愀 琀攀渀甀漀甀猀 氀椀渀攀 洀愀礀 戀攀 瀀攀爀挀攀椀瘀攀搀 owing to its length when a dot of the same diameter਀眀漀甀氀搀 戀攀 椀渀瘀椀猀椀戀氀攀⸀ 匀甀洀洀愀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 椀洀瀀爀攀猀猀椀漀渀猀 椀猀 甀渀搀漀甀戀琀攀搀氀礀 the cause of this. The mere fact that a row਀漀昀 爀攀琀椀渀愀氀 挀漀渀攀猀 椀猀 猀琀爀甀挀欀Ⰰ 愀氀琀栀漀甀最栀 攀愀挀栀 戀攀 戀甀琀 昀攀攀戀氀礀 affected, is sufficient to raise the sum total into the਀猀瀀栀攀爀攀 漀昀 挀漀渀猀挀椀漀甀猀渀攀猀猀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䤀渀 琀栀攀 猀攀挀漀渀搀 猀琀愀最攀 漀昀 琀栀攀椀爀 瘀椀猀椀戀椀氀椀琀礀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 猀瀀漀琀猀 愀爀攀 椀渀 danger of mistake with the smaller true patches of sombre਀栀甀攀 眀栀椀挀栀 昀氀攀挀欀 琀栀攀 渀漀爀琀栀攀爀渀 栀攀洀椀猀瀀栀攀爀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 planet and from which they differ totally in kind, totally਀猀漀 昀愀爀 愀猀 漀甀爀 瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀 瀀攀爀挀攀瀀琀椀漀渀 最漀攀猀⸀ 匀甀挀栀 琀爀甀攀 patches consist of a groundwork of shading, upon which,਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㔀㈀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㔀㈀✀㸀㈀㔀㈀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 indeed, are superposed the usual network of lines and਀猀瀀漀琀猀⸀ 倀爀漀洀椀渀攀渀琀 愀猀 椀渀猀琀愀渀挀攀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀洀 愀爀攀 琀栀攀 吀爀椀瘀椀甀洀 Charontis, the Wedge of Casius, and the Mare Acidalium.਀圀椀琀栀 瀀愀琀挀栀攀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀漀爀琀 琀栀攀 猀瀀漀琀猀 瀀爀漀瀀攀爀 洀甀猀琀 渀漀琀 戀攀 confounded.

Close treading on the heels of the detection of lines਀愀琀栀眀愀爀琀 琀栀攀 猀攀愀猀 挀愀洀攀 琀栀攀 爀攀挀漀最渀椀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 猀瀀漀琀猀 琀栀攀爀攀 likewise. At the opposition of 1896-1897 [Darian: 152-153] the number਀眀愀猀 愀搀搀攀搀 琀漀㬀 愀渀搀 猀漀 琀栀攀 琀愀氀攀 栀愀猀 戀攀攀渀 猀琀攀愀搀椀氀礀 increased. Their number as found at Flagstaff up to਀琀栀攀 瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀 琀椀洀攀Ⰰ 琀栀愀琀 椀猀Ⰰ 琀漀 琀栀攀 挀氀漀猀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 漀瀀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀 of 1905 [Darian: 157], is 186; of which 121 lie in the light regions,਀㐀㈀ 椀渀 琀栀攀 搀愀爀欀 愀爀攀愀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀漀甀琀栀攀爀渀 栀攀洀椀猀瀀栀攀爀攀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 23 in the smaller sombre patches of the northern zones.

From their relationships and behavior it became਀愀瀀瀀愀爀攀渀琀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 猀瀀漀琀猀 眀攀爀攀 渀漀琀 氀愀欀攀猀 戀甀琀 猀漀洀攀琀栀椀渀最 which answered much more nearly to oases.

Of the spots three kinds may be distinguished: the਀氀愀爀最攀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 氀椀琀琀氀攀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 氀攀猀猀Ⰰ 椀昀 戀礀 琀栀攀 氀愀琀琀攀爀 琀攀爀洀 椀琀 洀愀礀 be permitted to denote what has but collateral claim਀琀漀 戀攀 椀渀挀氀甀搀攀搀 愀渀搀 礀攀琀 搀攀洀愀渀搀猀 愀 挀攀爀琀愀椀渀 爀攀挀漀最渀椀琀椀漀渀⸀ For though not spots like the others, the members of਀琀栀攀 琀栀椀爀搀 挀氀愀猀猀 栀愀瘀攀 挀攀爀琀愀椀渀 琀爀愀椀琀猀 椀渀 挀漀洀洀漀渀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀洀 while differing radically in others.

To the kind called large belong the greater number਀漀昀 猀瀀漀琀猀 猀漀 昀愀爀 昀漀甀渀搀 甀瀀漀渀 琀栀攀 搀椀猀欀⸀ 吀栀攀礀 愀爀攀 氀愀爀最攀 only by comparison with the little. For they measure਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㔀㌀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㔀㌀✀㸀㈀㔀㌀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 according to my latest determinations but seventy-five਀漀爀 漀渀攀 栀甀渀搀爀攀搀 洀椀氀攀猀 椀渀 搀椀愀洀攀琀攀爀㬀 漀渀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀 some two degrees across. Sizable black pin-heads,਀椀琀 椀猀 琀栀攀椀爀 琀漀渀攀 琀栀愀琀 挀栀椀攀昀氀礀 挀愀琀挀栀攀猀 琀栀攀 攀礀攀Ⰰ 昀漀爀 琀栀攀礀 are commonly the darkest markings on the disk.਀䄀最愀椀渀猀琀 琀栀攀 漀挀栀爀攀 猀琀爀攀琀挀栀攀猀 琀栀攀礀 愀瀀瀀攀愀爀 戀氀愀挀欀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 even in the midst of the dark areas they stand out਀愀氀洀漀猀琀 愀猀 洀甀挀栀 挀漀渀琀爀愀猀琀攀搀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀椀爀 猀甀爀爀漀甀渀搀椀渀最猀 as these do with the light regions themselves. About਀愀 栀甀渀搀爀攀搀 愀渀搀 昀漀爀琀礀 愀爀攀 渀漀眀 欀渀漀眀渀⸀ 吀栀漀猀攀 椀渀 琀栀攀 light areas were discovered first; those in the dark਀爀攀最椀漀渀猀 戀攀椀渀最 栀愀爀搀攀爀 琀漀 猀攀攀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀伀昀 琀栀椀猀 昀椀爀猀琀 欀椀渀搀 愀爀攀 猀甀挀栀 猀瀀漀琀猀 愀猀 琀栀攀 倀猀攀戀漀愀猀 䰀甀挀甀猀Ⰰ the Aquae Calidae, the Lacus Phoenicis, and the Novem਀嘀椀愀攀㬀 漀爀Ⰰ 椀渀 䔀渀最氀椀猀栀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 䜀爀漀瘀攀 漀昀 倀猀攀戀漀愀猀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 䠀漀琀 Springs, the Phœnix Lake, and the Nine Ways, to mention਀渀漀 洀漀爀攀⸀ 吀栀愀琀 琀栀攀礀 戀攀愀爀 搀椀猀猀椀洀椀氀愀爀 渀愀洀攀猀 椀洀瀀氀椀攀猀 no dissimilarity in structure. The phenomena are all਀爀攀洀愀爀欀愀戀氀礀 愀氀椀欀攀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 挀氀攀愀爀氀礀 戀攀琀漀欀攀渀 漀渀攀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 same class of objects; differing between themselves਀愀琀 洀漀猀琀 椀渀 猀椀稀攀 愀渀搀 椀洀瀀漀爀琀愀渀挀攀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䤀渀 昀漀爀洀 琀栀攀礀 愀氀氀 猀攀攀洀 琀漀 戀攀 爀漀甀渀搀⸀ 吀栀攀礀 挀攀爀琀愀椀渀氀礀 appear so, and were it not that retinal images of small਀愀爀攀愀猀 琀攀渀搀 琀漀 愀猀猀甀洀攀 琀栀椀猀 猀栀愀瀀攀 洀椀最栀琀 椀洀瀀氀椀挀椀琀氀礀 戀攀 credited with being what they seem. The reason for਀漀瀀琀椀挀愀氀 挀椀爀挀甀氀愀爀椀琀礀 瀀爀漀戀愀戀氀礀 爀攀猀椀搀攀猀 椀渀 琀栀攀 猀栀愀瀀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 retinal cones and in their patterning into a mosaic਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㔀㐀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㔀㐀✀㸀㈀㔀㐀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 floor. So that unless a sufficient number of cones be਀猀琀爀甀挀欀 琀栀攀 椀洀愀最攀 琀愀欀攀猀 漀渀 琀漀 挀漀渀猀挀椀漀甀猀渀攀猀猀 愀 爀漀甀最栀氀礀 circular figure—whether it be so in fact or not. In਀琀栀攀 瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀 挀愀猀攀Ⰰ 栀漀眀攀瘀攀爀Ⰰ 琀栀攀礀 猀攀攀洀 琀漀 戀攀 琀漀漀 眀攀氀氀 seen for self-deception of the sort.

The little are distinguished from the large by being਀瀀椀渀ⴀ瀀漀椀渀琀猀 椀渀猀琀攀愀搀 漀昀 瀀椀渀ⴀ栀攀愀搀猀⸀ 吀栀攀礀 愀爀攀 洀漀猀琀 洀椀渀甀琀攀㬀 from fifteen to twenty-five miles in diameter਀漀渀氀礀⸀ 吀栀愀琀 愀渀礀琀栀椀渀最 攀砀挀攀瀀琀 猀椀稀攀 搀椀猀琀椀渀最甀椀猀栀攀猀 琀栀攀 two apart is from their look improbable. In color or਀爀愀琀栀攀爀 琀漀渀攀Ⰰ᐀映漀爀 搀椀猀琀椀渀挀琀椀瘀攀 挀漀氀漀爀 椀猀 漀昀 猀甀挀栀 洀椀渀甀琀攀 objects unpredicable,—they਀眀漀甀氀搀 猀攀攀洀 琀漀 戀攀 愀氀椀欀攀⸀ Such is also the case with਀琀栀攀椀爀 搀椀猀琀爀椀戀甀琀椀漀渀 愀渀搀 搀攀琀愀椀氀 association.

਀㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀椀氀氀甀猀ⴀ㌀  ✀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀攀ⴀ挀愀瀀琀椀漀渀✀㸀䘀漀渀猀 䤀洀洀漀爀琀愀氀椀猀Ⰰ 䨀甀渀攀 ㄀㤀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㜀 䜀攀洀椀渀椀 ㄀㌀崀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀
਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀吀漀 琀栀攀 猀攀挀漀渀搀 挀氀愀猀猀 戀攀氀漀渀最 the Fons Juventae,—Schiaparelli’s਀䘀漀甀渀琀愀椀渀 漀昀 Youth,—the Fons Immortalis਀椀渀 䔀氀礀猀椀甀洀 椀渀 ㄀㤀 㔀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㜀崀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 䜀礀最愀攀愀 倀愀氀甀猀Ⰰ 戀攀猀椀搀攀猀 many more. These are all pin-points, just upon the਀氀椀洀椀琀 漀昀 瘀椀猀椀漀渀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 渀漀琀攀眀漀爀琀栀礀 挀栀椀攀昀氀礀 昀漀爀 戀攀椀渀最 瘀椀猀椀戀氀攀 at all. All those detected so far lie not very distant਀昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 攀焀甀愀琀漀爀Ⰰ 眀栀椀挀栀 洀愀礀 漀爀 洀愀礀 渀漀琀 戀攀 愀 洀愀琀琀攀爀 漀昀 accident. It is not one of perception, since this part਀漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀 眀愀猀 渀漀琀 琀栀攀 戀攀猀琀 瀀氀愀挀攀 昀漀爀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀愀琀椀漀渀 愀琀 255਀琀栀攀 琀椀洀攀 琀栀攀礀 眀攀爀攀 搀椀猀挀漀瘀攀爀攀搀⸀ 吀漀 洀愀欀攀 漀甀琀 漀渀攀 漀昀 these little dots is a peculiarly pleasing bit of observation,਀愀猀 椀琀 爀攀焀甀椀爀攀猀 瀀愀爀琀椀挀甀氀愀爀氀礀 最漀漀搀 搀攀昀椀渀椀琀椀漀渀⸀ 伀渀攀 might almost take them for fly-specks upon the image਀搀椀搀 琀栀攀礀 渀漀琀 洀漀瘀攀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 搀椀猀欀⸀ 吀栀攀礀 栀愀瘀攀 渀漀 瀀攀爀挀攀瀀琀椀戀氀攀 size and yet are clearly larger in diameter than਀琀栀攀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 眀栀椀挀栀 爀甀渀 椀渀琀漀 琀栀攀洀㬀 眀栀椀挀栀 瀀爀漀瘀攀猀 栀漀眀 very slender the latter must be.

Very early in the detection of the spots it became਀攀瘀椀搀攀渀琀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀礀 眀攀爀攀 渀漀琀 猀挀愀琀琀攀爀攀搀 栀愀瀀栀愀稀愀爀搀 漀瘀攀爀 the surface, but that on the contrary they were never਀昀漀甀渀搀 攀砀挀攀瀀琀 愀琀 琀栀攀 洀攀攀琀椀渀最ⴀ瀀漀椀渀琀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 氀椀渀攀猀⸀ 䘀爀漀洀 this it must not be supposed, as has been done, that the਀猀瀀漀琀猀 愀爀攀 洀攀爀攀氀礀 漀瀀琀椀挀愀氀 爀攀椀渀昀漀爀挀攀洀攀渀琀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 氀椀渀攀猀 愀琀 their crossings due to the more crowded character਀琀栀攀爀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 氀椀渀攀猀 琀栀攀洀猀攀氀瘀攀猀⸀ 吀栀愀琀 琀栀攀礀 愀爀攀 渀漀琀 猀甀挀栀 is demonstrated by the existence of crossings where,਀攀椀琀栀攀爀 琀攀洀瀀漀爀愀爀椀氀礀 漀爀 瀀攀爀洀愀渀攀渀琀氀礀Ⰰ 渀漀渀攀 愀瀀瀀攀愀爀㬀 which shows that they are far too well seen for any਀猀甀挀栀 椀氀氀甀猀椀漀渀 愀戀漀甀琀 琀栀攀洀 琀漀 戀攀 瀀漀猀猀椀戀氀攀⸀ 䄀琀 琀栀攀猀攀 挀爀漀猀猀椀渀最猀 the lines traverse one another without thickening,਀眀栀攀琀栀攀爀 琀栀攀礀 戀攀 猀椀渀最氀攀 漀爀 搀漀甀戀氀攀 氀椀渀攀猀⸀ 吀栀攀 猀瀀漀琀猀Ⰰ on the other hand, are much wider than the lines,਀最椀瘀椀渀最 愀 戀攀愀搀攀搀 氀漀漀欀 琀漀 琀栀攀 琀栀爀攀愀搀猀⸀ 䤀渀 猀栀漀爀琀Ⰰ 琀栀攀礀 are the knots to the canal network. All the more important਀樀甀渀挀琀椀漀渀猀 愀爀攀 挀栀愀爀愀挀琀攀爀椀稀攀搀 戀礀 琀栀攀椀爀 瀀爀攀猀攀渀挀攀⸀ Such starred junctions are not confined to the ochre਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㔀㘀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㔀㘀✀㸀㈀㔀㘀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 regions; they dot the light and the dark areas with਀攀焀甀愀氀 椀洀瀀愀爀琀椀愀氀椀琀礀Ⰰ 琀栀甀猀 猀栀漀眀椀渀最 琀栀攀洀猀攀氀瘀攀猀 琀漀 戀攀 椀渀搀攀瀀攀渀搀攀渀琀 of the nature of the ground where large਀猀琀爀攀琀挀栀攀猀 漀昀 挀漀甀渀琀爀礀 愀爀攀 挀漀渀挀攀爀渀攀搀⸀ 伀渀 琀栀攀 漀琀栀攀爀 栀愀渀搀Ⰰ they appear to be unusually numerous in the smaller,਀椀猀漀氀愀琀攀搀Ⰰ 搀愀爀欀 愀爀攀愀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 渀漀爀琀栀攀爀渀 栀攀洀椀猀瀀栀攀爀攀Ⰰ 猀甀挀栀 as the Trivium, the Mare Acidalium, the Propontis,਀愀渀搀 琀栀攀 圀攀搀最攀 漀昀 䌀愀猀椀甀猀⸀ 䠀攀爀攀 琀栀攀礀 挀爀漀眀搀㬀 愀渀搀 漀渀攀 cannot avoid the inference that their plentifulness in਀琀栀攀猀攀 爀攀最椀漀渀猀 椀猀 渀漀琀 搀甀攀 琀漀 挀栀愀渀挀攀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀搀椀瘀 椀搀㴀✀椀开戀开㈀㔀㘀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀昀椀最挀攀渀琀攀爀✀㸀

਀㰀椀洀最 猀爀挀㴀✀椀洀愀最攀猀⼀椀开戀开㈀㔀㘀⸀樀瀀最✀ 愀氀琀㴀✀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀椀最 ㄀㘀✀ ⼀㸀

Utopia regio—1903 [Darian: 156].

਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀

To the large spots, those of the first class, fall the਀瀀氀愀挀攀猀 漀昀 椀渀琀攀爀猀攀挀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 氀愀爀最攀猀琀 愀渀搀 洀漀猀琀 渀甀洀攀爀漀甀猀 canals, while the little spots make termini to਀昀愀椀渀琀攀爀 氀椀渀攀猀Ⰰ 漀渀攀猀 琀栀愀琀 戀攀愀爀 琀漀 琀栀攀洀 愀 氀椀欀攀 爀愀琀椀漀 漀昀 甀渀椀洀瀀漀爀琀愀渀挀攀⸀ Spots and lines are thus connected not਀猀椀洀瀀氀礀 椀渀 瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀 戀甀琀 椀渀 猀椀稀攀⸀ 吀栀攀 漀渀攀 椀猀 挀氀攀愀爀氀礀 dependent on the other, the importance of the centre਀戀攀椀渀最 最愀甀最攀搀 戀礀 琀栀攀 洀愀最渀椀琀甀搀攀 漀昀 椀琀猀 挀漀洀洀甀渀椀挀愀琀椀漀渀猀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀 257਀䘀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 昀愀挀琀 漀昀 愀猀猀漀挀椀愀琀椀漀渀 眀攀 渀漀眀 瀀愀猀猀 琀漀 琀栀攀 洀愀渀渀攀爀 of it, which is quite as remarkable. The position਀漀昀 琀栀攀 猀瀀漀琀 爀攀氀愀琀椀瘀攀 琀漀 椀琀猀 琀爀椀戀甀琀愀爀礀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 搀攀瀀攀渀搀猀 甀瀀漀渀 the character of the connecting lines. If the canal be਀猀椀渀最氀攀 椀琀 爀甀渀猀Ⰰ 猀漀 昀愀爀 愀猀 洀愀礀 戀攀 樀甀搀最攀搀Ⰰ 猀琀爀愀椀最栀琀 椀渀琀漀 the middle of the oasis, or, in other words, the oasis਀椀猀 猀礀洀洀攀琀爀椀挀愀氀氀礀 搀椀猀瀀漀猀攀搀 愀戀漀甀琀 椀琀猀 攀渀搀⸀ 吀栀椀猀 椀猀 琀爀甀攀 of the greater number of the large spots and of all the਀氀椀琀琀氀攀 漀渀攀猀Ⰰ 猀椀渀挀攀 琀栀攀 氀愀琀琀攀爀 栀愀瘀攀 愀猀 挀漀渀渀攀挀琀椀漀渀猀 漀渀氀礀 single canals.

In the case of a double canal arriving at a spot, a different਀愀渀搀 洀漀猀琀 挀甀爀椀漀甀猀 搀攀瀀攀渀搀攀渀挀攀 椀猀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀愀戀氀攀⸀ 吀栀椀猀 fact I first noticed in a general way at the opposition of਀㄀㠀㤀㘀ⴀ㄀㠀㤀㜀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㈀ⴀ㄀㔀㌀崀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 椀渀椀琀椀愀氀 愀瀀瀀攀愀爀愀渀挀攀 漀昀 椀琀 戀攀椀渀最 瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀攀搀 on September 30, 1896 [Darian: 152 Tula 6], by the Coloe Palus and the਀倀栀椀猀漀渀⸀ 䤀琀 眀愀猀 愀最愀椀渀 瘀椀猀椀戀氀攀 椀渀 琀栀攀 挀愀猀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀瀀漀琀猀 in the Trivium at the time the canals leading to that਀瀀氀愀挀攀 搀漀甀戀氀攀搀 椀渀 䴀愀爀挀栀Ⰰ ㄀㠀㤀㜀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㌀ 䌀愀瀀爀椀挀漀爀渀甀猀ⴀ䴀愀欀愀爀愀崀⸀ 䈀甀琀 琀栀攀 攀砀愀挀琀 渀愀琀甀爀攀 of the phenomenon was not fully appreciated till਀㄀㤀 ㌀ 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㘀崀Ⰰ 眀栀攀渀 琀栀攀 琀栀椀渀最 眀愀猀 猀攀攀渀 猀漀 眀攀氀氀 愀猀 琀漀 愀瀀瀀攀愀爀 cut on copper plate. It was this: the spot is exactly਀攀洀戀爀愀挀攀搀 戀攀琀眀攀攀渀 琀栀攀 琀眀漀 愀爀洀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 搀漀甀戀氀攀 挀愀渀愀氀⸀ It is, moreover, seemingly perfectly round and just਀昀椀琀猀 椀渀 戀攀琀眀攀攀渀 琀栀攀 瀀愀爀愀氀氀攀氀 氀椀渀攀猀⸀ 吀栀攀 䄀猀挀爀愀攀甀猀 䰀甀挀甀猀 was the first spot that showed thus in association with਀琀栀攀 搀漀甀戀氀攀 䜀椀最愀猀⸀ 伀琀栀攀爀猀 昀漀氀氀漀眀攀搀 猀甀椀琀 椀渀 猀漀 猀栀漀眀椀渀最Ⰰ several specimens presenting themselves so well as to਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㔀㠀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㔀㠀✀㸀㈀㔀㠀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 leave no doubt of the precise connection. The sight਀瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀攀搀 戀礀 猀甀挀栀 愀 猀瀀漀琀 愀渀搀 椀琀猀 椀渀挀愀猀椀渀最 搀漀甀戀氀攀 椀猀 愀 beautiful bit of detail, perhaps the most beautiful so਀昀愀爀 琀漀 戀攀 猀攀攀渀 甀瀀漀渀 琀栀攀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 搀椀猀欀⸀ 吀栀攀 搀椀猀琀椀渀挀琀渀攀猀猀 with which it stands out on occasion suggests਀愀 猀琀攀攀氀 攀渀最爀愀瘀椀渀最Ⰰ and shows how਀挀氀攀愀爀ⴀ挀甀琀 琀栀攀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 features really਀愀爀攀 眀栀攀渀 漀甀爀 漀眀渀 air ceases from਀琀爀漀甀戀氀椀渀最 愀渀搀 愀氀氀漀眀猀 them to be਀愀琀 爀攀猀琀⸀ 䤀渀挀椀搀攀渀琀愀氀氀礀Ⰰ 眀攀 洀愀礀 渀漀琀攀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀椀猀 瀀栀攀渀漀洀攀渀漀渀 alone serves to disprove the diplopic theory਀漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀爀漀搀甀挀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 搀漀甀戀氀攀 挀愀渀愀氀猀⸀ 䘀漀爀 椀昀 愀 搀漀甀戀氀攀 were a single line seen out of focus, any spot upon it਀猀栀漀甀氀搀 戀攀 搀漀甀戀氀攀搀 琀漀漀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀搀椀瘀 椀搀㴀✀椀开戀开㈀㔀㠀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀椀洀最氀攀昀琀✀㸀

਀ 㰀椀洀最 猀爀挀㴀✀椀洀愀最攀猀⼀椀开戀开㈀㔀㠀⸀樀瀀最✀ 愀氀琀㴀✀✀ ⼀㸀

Ascraeus Lucus and Gigas.—March. 2. 1903 [Darian: 156 Mina 2].

਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀

It may seem to the reader as if what was seen਀椀渀 ㄀㤀 ㌀ 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㘀崀 眀愀猀 戀甀琀 愀渀 甀渀椀洀瀀漀爀琀愀渀琀 愀搀瘀愀渀挀攀 漀瘀攀爀 琀栀攀 observed phenomena of 1896-1897 [Darian: 152-153]. Not so, however.਀䘀漀爀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 攀愀爀氀椀攀爀 椀渀猀琀愀渀挀攀猀 椀琀 眀愀猀 渀漀琀 瀀漀猀猀椀戀氀攀 to be sure of the precise limits of the spot with regard਀琀漀 琀栀攀 搀漀甀戀氀攀⸀ 吀栀攀 䌀漀氀漀攀 倀愀氀甀猀Ⰰ 漀渀 琀栀攀 漀渀攀 栀愀渀搀Ⰰ 搀椀搀 not fill all the space apparently between the double਀倀栀椀猀漀渀㬀 眀栀椀氀攀 琀栀攀 䰀甀挀甀猀 䤀猀洀攀渀椀甀猀 洀漀爀攀 琀栀愀渀 搀椀搀 猀漀 with the double Euphrates. To have set down the਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㔀㤀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㔀㤀✀㸀㈀㔀㤀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 different appearances to insufficient definition would਀栀愀瘀攀 戀攀攀渀 愀 最爀攀愀琀 洀椀猀琀愀欀攀Ⰰ 愀猀 猀甀戀猀攀焀甀攀渀琀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀愀琀椀漀渀 has served to show. The Lucus Ismenius instances਀琀栀椀猀⸀ 䤀渀 ㄀㠀㤀㘀ⴀ㄀㠀㤀㜀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㄀ⴀ㄀㔀㌀崀 椀琀 眀愀猀 猀攀攀渀 琀攀爀洀椀渀愀琀椀渀最 琀栀攀 䔀甀瀀栀爀愀琀攀猀Ⰰ blocking all the space between the two lines਀愀渀搀 攀砀琀攀渀搀椀渀最 愀 氀椀琀琀氀攀 甀瀀漀渀 攀椀琀栀攀爀 猀椀搀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀洀⸀ 一漀眀Ⰰ from its appearance in 1901 [Darian: 155] it was evident that the਀攀昀昀攀挀琀 栀愀搀 戀攀攀渀 瀀爀漀搀甀挀攀搀 戀礀 琀眀椀渀 猀瀀漀琀猀 氀礀椀渀最 愀氀漀渀最 the Deuteronilus, the axis joining them being perpendicular਀琀漀 琀栀攀 䔀甀瀀栀爀愀琀攀猀⸀ 䤀渀 ㄀㤀 ㌀ 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㘀崀 琀栀攀 爀攀氀愀琀椀漀渀 眀愀猀 still better explained by what appeared then, when not਀漀渀氀礀 搀椀搀 琀栀攀 琀眀漀 猀瀀漀琀猀 猀琀愀渀搀 漀甀琀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 琀栀攀 䔀甀瀀栀爀愀琀攀猀 showed with a line running centrally into each.

Although originally seen by Schiaparelli as a single਀猀瀀漀琀 愀渀搀 猀漀 愀琀 昀椀爀猀琀 猀攀攀渀 戀礀 洀攀Ⰰ 戀攀琀琀攀爀 愀挀焀甀愀椀渀琀愀渀挀攀 with the disk disclosed to both observers its really dual਀挀栀愀爀愀挀琀攀爀⸀ 䄀猀 琀栀椀猀 瀀愀椀爀 栀愀猀 瀀攀爀猀椀猀琀攀搀 琀栀爀漀甀最栀 愀氀氀 琀栀爀攀攀 of the most recent oppositions, it seems fairly certain਀琀栀愀琀 椀琀 椀猀 愀氀眀愀礀猀 漀昀 琀栀椀猀 挀栀愀爀愀挀琀攀爀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 洀漀爀攀 昀椀琀琀椀渀最Ⰰ therefore, to give it the plural appellative. This਀椀猀 琀栀攀 猀椀渀最氀攀 椀渀猀琀愀渀挀攀 漀昀 愀 搀漀甀戀氀攀 漀愀猀椀猀⸀ 吀栀攀爀攀 愀爀攀 many that lie close together and might be taken as਀猀甀挀栀㬀 戀甀琀 琀栀椀猀 椀猀 琀栀攀 漀渀氀礀 漀渀攀 眀栀攀爀攀 琀栀攀 挀漀渀渀攀挀琀椀漀渀 椀猀 intrinsic. According to measures of the drawings of਀㄀㤀 㔀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㜀崀 攀砀琀攀渀搀椀渀最 琀栀爀漀甀最栀 猀椀砀 瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀愀琀椀漀渀猀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 搀椀猀琀愀渀挀攀 between the twin oases is 4°.2.

Their relation to the canals which run into them is of਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㘀 ✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㘀 ✀㸀㈀㘀 㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 the most complicated description and of the most suggestive਀挀栀愀爀愀挀琀攀爀⸀ 䘀漀爀 琀漀 琀栀攀 琀眀椀渀 猀瀀漀琀猀 挀漀渀瘀攀爀最攀 no less than seven double canals, one wedge-shaped਀瀀愀椀爀 愀渀搀 琀栀爀攀攀 猀椀渀最氀攀 挀愀渀愀氀猀Ⰰ 愀 洀漀猀琀 最漀漀搀氀礀 渀甀洀戀攀爀 漀昀 communication lines. Four of the double canals run਀椀渀琀漀 琀栀攀 漀愀猀攀猀 眀椀琀栀 漀渀攀 氀椀渀攀 琀漀 攀愀挀栀㬀 琀栀攀猀攀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 愀爀攀 the Astaboras, the Naarmalcha, the Euphrates, and the਀䠀椀搀搀攀欀攀氀⸀ 吀栀爀攀攀 搀漀甀戀氀攀猀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 倀爀漀琀漀渀椀氀甀猀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 䐀樀椀栀漀甀渀Ⰰ and the Deuteronilus, embrace the oases between their਀琀眀漀 氀椀渀攀猀Ⰰ 眀栀椀氀攀Ⰰ 椀渀 琀栀攀 猀椀渀最氀攀猀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 挀愀渀愀氀 挀漀渀渀攀挀琀猀 眀椀琀栀 one or other of the twins, as the case may be.

Now, there is method as to which of the doubles਀猀栀愀氀氀 猀琀爀愀搀搀氀攀Ⰰ 眀栀椀挀栀 攀洀戀爀愀挀攀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 琀眀漀 䤀猀洀攀渀椀椀⸀ 吀栀漀猀攀 which leave the place parallel਀漀爀 渀攀愀爀氀礀 猀漀 琀漀 琀栀攀 搀椀爀攀挀琀椀漀渀 joining the Luci, inclose਀琀栀攀洀 戀漀琀栀㬀 琀栀漀猀攀 漀昀 眀栀椀挀栀 the setting forth is at an਀愀渀最氀攀 琀漀 琀栀椀猀 搀椀爀攀挀琀椀漀渀 搀攀瀀愀爀琀Ⰰ each line of the pair, from਀琀栀攀 攀愀猀琀攀爀渀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 眀攀猀琀攀爀渀 spot respectively.

਀㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀椀氀氀甀猀ⴀ㌀  ✀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀攀ⴀ挀愀瀀琀椀漀渀✀㸀倀攀挀甀氀椀愀爀 愀猀猀漀挀椀愀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 䰀甀挀椀 䤀猀洀攀渀椀椀 眀椀琀栀 搀漀甀戀氀攀 挀愀渀愀氀猀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀
਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䌀漀渀猀椀搀攀爀Ⰰ 渀漀眀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 搀椀猀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀 of these seven pairs of lines. All of them lie in਀漀渀攀 猀攀洀椀挀椀爀挀氀攀 愀戀漀甀琀 琀栀攀 䰀甀挀椀Ⰰ 戀攀最椀渀渀椀渀最 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 Protonilus on the east and ending with the Deuteronilus਀漀渀 琀栀攀 眀攀猀琀⸀ 䘀甀爀琀栀攀爀洀漀爀攀Ⰰ 愀氀氀 昀漀氀氀漀眀 愀瀀瀀爀漀砀椀洀愀琀攀氀礀 261਀愀爀挀猀 漀昀 最爀攀愀琀 挀椀爀挀氀攀猀Ⰰ 攀砀挀攀瀀琀 琀栀攀 䐀樀椀栀漀甀渀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 all send one of their twin lines to one Lucus, one to਀琀栀攀 漀琀栀攀爀⸀ 吀栀攀 搀愀琀愀 愀爀攀 攀渀漀甀最栀 琀漀 洀愀欀攀 琀栀椀猀 猀琀愀琀攀洀攀渀琀 possible. Although the west line of the Naarmalcha਀栀愀猀 渀漀琀 戀攀攀渀 挀愀甀最栀琀 攀渀琀攀爀椀渀最 椀琀猀 漀愀猀椀猀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 攀愀猀琀 one has been seen to enter the other, and the width of਀琀栀攀 搀漀甀戀氀攀 猀栀漀眀猀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 眀攀猀琀 漀渀攀 洀甀猀琀 攀渀琀攀爀 琀栀攀 corresponding spot. In the case of the Astaboras the਀搀漀甀戀氀攀 栀愀猀 漀渀氀礀 戀攀攀渀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀攀搀 愀猀 昀愀爀 愀猀 琀栀攀 嘀攀砀椀氀氀甀洀Ⰰ but the south line has continued on to the west਀䤀猀洀攀渀椀甀猀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 栀攀爀攀 愀最愀椀渀 琀栀攀 眀椀搀琀栀 洀愀欀攀猀 椀琀 挀攀爀琀愀椀渀 that were the canal double throughout, the other line਀洀甀猀琀 攀渀琀攀爀 琀栀攀 攀愀猀琀 䤀猀洀攀渀椀甀猀⸀ 䘀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 戀愀猀攀 氀椀渀攀 漀昀 the Proto-Deuteronilus the inclinations of the seven਀瀀愀椀爀猀 愀爀攀 愀猀 昀漀氀氀漀眀猀㨀᐀㰠⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀琀愀戀氀攀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㤀✀ 猀甀洀洀愀爀礀㴀✀✀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀ ✀㸀倀爀漀琀漀渀椀氀甀猀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀䐀甀攀 䔀愀猀琀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㈀㘀✀㸀㐀 뀀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀ ✀㸀一愀愀爀洀愀氀挀栀愀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀一漀爀琀栀 漀昀 䔀愀猀琀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㈀㘀✀㸀㠀 뀀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀ ✀㸀䠀椀搀搀攀欀攀氀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀一漀爀琀栀 漀昀 圀攀猀琀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㈀㘀✀㸀 뀀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀ ✀㸀䐀攀甀琀攀爀漀渀椀氀甀猀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㤀✀㸀䐀甀攀 圀攀猀琀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀愀戀氀攀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㄀㘀✀ 㸀一漀眀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 眀椀搀琀栀 戀攀琀眀攀攀渀 琀栀攀 琀眀漀 氀椀渀攀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 昀漀甀爀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 to the east increases regularly from the Protonilus਀爀漀甀渀搀㬀 琀栀攀 倀爀漀琀漀渀椀氀甀猀 戀攀椀渀最 琀栀攀 渀愀爀爀漀眀攀猀琀 搀漀甀戀氀攀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 Astaboras the next, the Naarmalcha the next, and the਀䔀甀瀀栀爀愀琀攀猀 琀栀攀 眀椀搀攀猀琀⸀ 䄀渀搀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 眀椀搀琀栀 戀攀琀眀攀攀渀 the twin oases, it would seem that they severally enter਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㘀㈀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㘀㈀✀㸀㈀㘀㈀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 the centres of them. What takes place in the case of਀琀栀攀 䠀椀搀搀攀欀攀氀Ⰰ 眀栀椀挀栀 椀猀 眀椀搀攀爀 琀栀愀渀 椀琀猀 琀椀氀琀 眀漀甀氀搀 椀洀瀀氀礀Ⰰ and in the Djihoun,਀眀栀椀挀栀 椀猀 narrower, is not਀猀漀 挀氀攀愀爀⸀ 䈀甀琀 that they enter਀琀栀攀 漀愀猀攀猀 椀渀 猀漀洀攀 place is certain.

਀㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀椀氀氀甀猀ⴀ㌀  ✀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀攀ⴀ挀愀瀀琀椀漀渀✀㸀㰀椀㸀䰀甀挀甀猀 䤀猀洀攀渀椀甀猀⸀ 䴀愀爀挀栀 ㄀㤀 ㌀ 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㘀 䴀椀渀愀崀⸀㰀⼀椀㸀㰀⼀瀀㸀
਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀吀栀攀 猀瀀漀琀猀 洀愀欀攀 common termini for all the canals of a given neighborhood.਀䤀渀 漀琀栀攀爀 眀漀爀搀猀Ⰰ 挀愀渀愀氀猀 挀漀渀瘀攀爀最攀 琀漀 琀栀攀 places occupied by the spots and do not cross haphazard਀愀挀挀漀爀搀椀渀最 琀漀 琀栀攀 氀愀眀猀 漀昀 挀栀愀渀挀攀⸀ 伀渀氀礀 漀渀攀 instance exists where a spot fails to gather to itself਀琀栀攀 眀栀漀氀攀 猀栀攀愀昀 漀昀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 愀渀搀 攀瘀攀渀 琀栀攀爀攀 椀琀 挀漀氀氀攀挀琀猀 all but two. This anomaly is the Pseboas Lucus.਀吀栀攀 瀀攀挀甀氀椀愀爀椀琀礀 漀昀 琀栀椀猀 漀愀猀椀猀 椀猀 琀栀愀琀 椀琀 氀椀攀猀 渀漀琀 漀渀Ⰰ but just off, the Protonilus. That it does so is exceeding਀挀甀爀椀漀甀猀Ⰰ 挀漀渀猀椀搀攀爀椀渀最 琀栀愀琀 椀琀 椀猀 琀栀攀 猀漀氀攀 攀砀愀洀瀀氀攀 of such extra-canaline position. Strictly speaking, it is਀渀漀琀 琀栀攀 倀爀漀琀漀渀椀氀甀猀 戀甀琀 琀栀攀 瀀漀椀渀琀 眀栀攀爀攀 琀栀攀 倀爀漀琀漀渀椀氀甀猀 turns into the Nilosyrtis to which it stands thus neighboringly਀愀氀漀漀昀⸀ 䄀渀搀 琀栀椀猀 洀愀礀 攀砀瀀氀愀椀渀 琀栀攀 愀渀漀洀愀氀礀⸀ For the Nilosyrtis has not the full geometric regularity਀漀昀 琀栀攀 渀漀爀洀愀氀 挀愀渀愀氀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 猀攀攀洀猀 琀漀 栀愀瘀攀 戀攀攀渀 a more or less fundamental feature of the region.

਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㘀㌀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㘀㌀✀㸀㈀㘀㌀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 For the rest, the Lucus has the form and possesses਀琀栀攀 挀愀渀愀氀 挀漀渀渀攀挀琀椀漀渀猀 愀瀀瀀爀漀瀀爀椀愀琀攀 琀漀 椀琀猀 猀琀愀琀攀⸀ 䤀琀 椀猀 apparently round, and lies between the twin lines of the਀倀栀椀猀漀渀 愀渀搀 愀氀猀漀 戀攀琀眀攀攀渀 琀栀漀猀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 嘀攀砀椀氀氀甀洀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀一漀琀 昀愀爀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 倀猀攀戀漀愀猀 䰀甀挀甀猀 愀爀攀 琀漀 戀攀 昀漀甀渀搀 愀氀氀 the examples of the third class of spots; for so far they਀栀愀瘀攀 渀漀琀 戀攀攀渀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀攀搀 漀甀琀猀椀搀攀 漀昀 䄀攀爀椀愀Ⰰ 愀 爀攀最椀漀渀 瀀攀挀甀氀椀愀爀氀礀 peopled by double canals. With double canals਀琀栀攀礀 愀爀攀 渀攀挀攀猀猀愀爀椀氀礀 愀猀猀漀挀椀愀琀攀搀Ⰰ 椀渀愀猀洀甀挀栀 愀猀 琀栀攀礀 挀漀渀猀椀猀琀 of shading in the form of a square or parallelogram,਀昀椀氀氀椀渀最 琀栀攀 搀攀氀琀愀猀 戀攀琀眀攀攀渀 琀眀漀 瀀愀椀爀猀 琀栀愀琀 挀爀漀猀猀⸀ 吀栀甀猀 have shown the Coloe Palus at the crossing of the double਀倀栀椀猀漀渀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 搀漀甀戀氀攀 䄀猀琀愀戀漀爀愀猀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 䨀甀琀甀爀渀愀 Fons where the double Sitacus traverses the double਀䔀甀瀀栀爀愀琀攀猀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䄀琀 琀栀攀猀攀 猀愀洀攀 瀀氀愀挀攀猀 愀 昀漀甀爀琀栀 欀椀渀搀 椀猀 猀漀洀攀琀椀洀攀猀 渀漀琀椀挀攀愀戀氀攀㨀 a four-square set of pin-points or a two-square਀猀攀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 愀琀 琀栀攀 挀漀爀渀攀爀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 氀椀渀攀ⴀ洀愀搀攀 瀀愀爀愀氀氀攀氀漀最爀愀洀⸀ This kind may well be synchronous with the਀琀栀椀爀搀Ⰰ 琀栀漀甀最栀 椀琀 栀愀猀 漀渀氀礀 戀攀攀渀 渀漀琀椀挀攀搀 愀琀 挀漀渀猀攀挀甀琀椀瘀攀 presentations. The third, however, has no observed਀搀攀瀀攀渀搀攀渀挀攀 甀瀀漀渀 琀栀攀 昀椀爀猀琀 漀爀 猀攀挀漀渀搀 挀氀愀猀猀攀猀⸀ 䄀渀搀 琀栀椀猀 serves to make more probable the true objectivity਀漀昀 琀栀攀 挀椀爀挀甀氀愀爀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 猀焀甀愀爀攀 昀椀最甀爀攀猀 爀攀猀瀀攀挀琀椀瘀攀氀礀 shown by each.

The spots apparent in the dark regions do not appreciably਀搀椀昀昀攀爀 椀渀 攀椀琀栀攀爀 猀椀稀攀 漀爀 猀栀愀瀀攀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 戀甀氀欀 漀昀 264਀琀栀漀猀攀 瘀椀猀椀戀氀攀 椀渀 琀栀攀 氀椀最栀琀⸀ 䔀焀甀愀氀氀礀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀洀 琀栀攀礀 seem to be round, small, and nearly black. They਀眀漀甀氀搀 猀攀攀洀Ⰰ 琀漀漀Ⰰ 椀渀 琀栀攀 最爀攀愀琀 搀椀愀瀀栀爀愀最洀᐀漠爀 氀愀爀最攀爀 contiguous sombre region—to be equally plentifully਀搀椀猀琀爀椀戀甀琀攀搀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀栀愀瀀琀攀爀✀㸀 ਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㘀㔀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㘀㔀✀㸀㈀㘀㔀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀

CHAPTER XXI

CARETS ON THE BORDERS OF THE GREAT DIAPHRAGM

਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀搀爀漀瀀ⴀ挀愀瀀愀 开㈀开 开㠀 挀 ㄀㔀✀     㸀䘀甀渀挀琀椀漀渀愀氀氀礀 爀攀氀愀琀攀搀 琀漀 琀栀攀 挀愀渀愀氀 猀礀猀琀攀洀Ⰰ and yet in look and location contrasted with its਀漀琀栀攀爀 搀攀琀愀椀氀猀Ⰰ 椀猀 愀 昀甀爀琀栀攀爀 猀攀琀 漀昀 洀愀爀欀椀渀最猀Ⰰ 搀攀琀攀挀琀攀搀 戀礀 me in 1894 [Darian: 151], and reseen at subsequent oppositions਀猀椀渀挀攀Ⰰ 愀氀漀渀最 琀栀攀 渀漀爀琀栀 戀漀爀搀攀爀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀漀甀琀栀攀爀渀 猀攀愀猀⸀ They lie upon what used to be thought the continental਀挀漀愀猀琀氀椀渀攀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 昀爀椀渀最椀渀最 攀搀最攀 漀昀 琀栀愀琀 愀氀洀漀猀琀 continuous band of shading that belts the Martian਀最氀漀戀攀 琀栀爀漀甀最栀漀甀琀 琀栀攀 猀漀甀琀栀攀爀渀 猀甀戀琀爀漀瀀椀挀 稀漀渀攀 愀渀搀 called by Schiaparelli the great diaphragm. The terrane਀氀攀渀搀猀 椀琀猀攀氀昀 琀漀 琀栀攀 愀瀀瀀攀氀氀愀琀椀瘀攀Ⰰ 昀漀爀洀椀渀最Ⰰ 愀猀 椀琀 搀漀攀猀Ⰰ a dark dividing strip of country between the brilliant਀爀攀搀搀椀猀栀ⴀ漀挀栀爀攀 栀攀洀椀猀瀀栀攀爀攀 漀渀 琀栀攀 渀漀爀琀栀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 栀愀氀昀ⴀ琀漀渀攀搀 islands to the south of it. By Schiaparelli it਀眀愀猀 琀栀漀甀最栀琀 琀漀 戀攀 漀渀攀 氀漀渀最 䴀攀搀椀琀攀爀爀愀渀攀愀渀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 琀栀漀甀最栀 its marine character is now disproved, that it lies਀氀漀眀攀爀 琀栀愀渀 琀栀攀 戀爀椀最栀琀 漀挀栀爀攀 爀攀最椀漀渀猀 椀猀 氀椀欀攀氀礀⸀ 吀漀 琀栀椀猀 difference of level is probably due the peculiar phenomenon਀眀栀椀挀栀 琀栀攀爀攀 洀愀渀椀昀攀猀琀攀搀 椀琀猀攀氀昀 琀漀 挀愀爀攀昀甀氀 猀挀爀甀琀椀渀礀 in 1894 [Darian: 151]. For it was there only that it occurred.

The phenomenon in question consisted of nicks in਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㘀㘀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㘀㘀✀㸀㈀㘀㘀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 the coastline, of triangular shape and filled with shading.਀吀栀攀礀 漀挀挀甀爀爀攀搀 愀琀 椀渀琀攀爀瘀愀氀猀 愀氀漀渀最 椀琀 愀渀搀 眀攀爀攀 漀昀 the general form of carets, such marks as one makes਀椀渀 挀栀攀挀欀椀渀最 椀琀攀洀猀 搀漀眀渀 愀 氀椀猀琀⸀ 吀栀攀椀爀 瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀 眀愀猀 愀氀眀愀礀猀 where a canal debouched from the diaphragm਀甀瀀漀渀 椀琀猀 挀愀爀攀攀爀 愀挀爀漀猀猀 琀栀攀 漀瀀攀渀 挀漀渀琀椀渀攀渀琀⸀ 吀栀攀 挀愀渀愀氀 itself was by no means necessarily visible. On the਀挀漀渀琀爀愀爀礀Ⰰ 愀琀 昀椀爀猀琀 椀琀 眀愀猀 甀猀甀愀氀氀礀 愀戀猀攀渀琀⸀ 匀甀挀栀 眀愀猀 琀栀攀 case with those marking the departure-points of the਀倀栀椀猀漀渀 愀渀搀 䔀甀瀀栀爀愀琀攀猀 愀渀搀 漀昀 琀栀攀 䄀洀攀渀琀栀攀猀 愀渀搀 Lethes, which appeared, without being well defined,਀昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 洀漀洀攀渀琀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀 挀愀洀攀 琀漀 戀攀 猀挀愀渀渀攀搀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀伀渀攀 戀礀 漀渀攀 琀栀攀猀攀 挀愀爀攀琀猀 猀琀漀漀搀 漀甀琀 琀漀 瘀椀攀眀Ⰰ 瀀甀渀挀琀甀愀琀椀渀最 the points where canals later were to show or terminating਀琀栀漀猀攀 琀栀愀琀 愀氀爀攀愀搀礀 攀砀椀猀琀攀搀⸀ 匀琀爀甀渀最 琀栀甀猀 眀椀琀栀 them at intervals was the whole coastline of the diaphragm,਀戀攀最椀渀渀椀渀最 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 䴀愀爀攀 䤀挀愀爀椀甀洀 愀渀搀 猀琀爀攀琀挀栀椀渀最 round through the Mare Tyrrhenum, Mare Cimmerium,਀䴀愀爀攀 匀椀爀攀渀甀洀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 䴀愀爀攀 䔀爀礀琀栀爀愀攀甀洀 琀漀 琀栀攀 Mare Icarium again. As the planet got nearer to the਀攀愀爀琀栀 琀栀攀椀爀 瀀攀挀甀氀椀愀爀 猀栀愀瀀攀 戀攀最愀渀 琀漀 搀攀昀椀渀攀 椀琀猀攀氀昀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 椀琀 was again in the case of those giving origin to the Phison਀愀渀搀 䔀甀瀀栀爀愀琀攀猀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 爀攀挀漀最渀椀琀椀漀渀 挀愀洀攀 昀椀爀猀琀⸀ 圀栀愀琀 had appeared earlier simply as a spot now stood out਀愀猀 琀眀漀 琀爀椀愀渀最甀氀愀爀 渀漀琀挀栀攀猀Ⰰ 椀渀搀攀渀琀椀渀最 琀栀攀 挀漀愀猀琀 愀渀搀 最椀瘀椀渀最 exit at their apices, the eastern one to the Phison, the਀眀攀猀琀攀爀渀 琀漀 琀栀攀 䔀甀瀀栀爀愀琀攀猀⸀ 吀栀攀猀攀 眀攀爀攀 琀栀攀 琀栀椀渀最猀Ⰰ 267਀琀栀攀渀Ⰰ 琀栀愀琀 栀愀搀 挀漀渀猀琀椀琀甀琀攀搀 琀栀攀 倀漀爀琀甀猀 匀椀最愀攀甀猀 漀昀 匀挀栀椀愀瀀愀爀攀氀氀椀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䌀漀洀洀漀渀氀礀 琀栀攀 挀愀爀攀琀猀 氀椀攀 愀琀 琀栀攀 戀漀琀琀漀洀 漀昀 眀攀氀氀ⴀ洀愀爀欀攀搀 bays, as, for example, those terminating the Syrtis਀䴀椀渀漀爀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 匀椀渀甀猀 吀椀琀愀渀甀洀⸀ 䈀甀琀 昀爀攀焀甀攀渀琀氀礀 琀栀攀礀 are placed in the very midst of a long and otherwise਀甀渀愀挀挀攀渀琀攀搀 挀漀愀猀琀Ⰰ 愀猀 椀猀 琀栀攀 挀愀猀攀 椀渀 洀椀搀ⴀ挀漀甀爀猀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 Mare Cimmerium and the Mare Sirenum. Yet in no਀椀渀猀琀愀渀挀攀 椀猀 琀栀攀 琀栀椀渀最 甀渀愀猀猀漀挀椀愀琀攀搀 眀椀琀栀 愀 挀愀渀愀氀⸀ 䤀渀 every case one or more canals leave the caret for their਀氀漀渀最 琀爀愀瘀攀爀猀攀 搀漀眀渀 琀栀攀 搀椀猀欀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀吀栀椀猀 椀猀 渀漀琀 琀栀攀椀爀 漀渀氀礀 挀愀渀愀氀 挀漀渀渀攀挀琀椀漀渀⸀ 圀栀攀渀 琀栀攀 canals in the dark regions came to be discovered, each਀漀昀 琀栀攀洀 眀愀猀 昀漀甀渀搀 戀礀 洀攀Ⰰ 愀猀 渀攀愀爀氀礀 愀猀 搀椀昀昀椀挀甀氀琀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀愀琀椀漀渀猀 would permit, to be associated with the caret਀甀瀀漀渀 椀琀猀 漀琀栀攀爀 猀椀搀攀⸀ 吀栀甀猀 琀栀攀 氀愀挀椀渀最 漀昀 琀栀攀 䴀愀爀攀 䌀椀洀洀攀爀椀甀洀 and Sirenum used them as its reeving-points.਀匀椀洀椀氀愀爀氀礀 琀栀漀猀攀 愀琀 琀栀攀 洀漀甀琀栀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 倀栀椀猀漀渀 愀渀搀 䔀甀瀀栀爀愀琀攀猀 did duty likewise to the Maesolus and the Ion.਀䤀渀 猀甀挀栀 洀愀渀渀攀爀 琀栀攀 挀愀爀攀琀猀 猀琀漀漀搀 椀渀 搀甀愀氀 爀攀氀愀琀椀漀渀 琀漀 canals; subserving a purpose to the light-region canals਀漀渀 琀栀攀 漀渀攀 栀愀渀搀 愀渀搀 琀漀 琀栀攀 搀愀爀欀ⴀ爀攀最椀漀渀 漀渀攀猀 漀渀 琀栀攀 other. In a way the caret, then, holds the same position਀琀漀眀愀爀搀 琀栀攀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 琀栀愀琀 搀漀 琀栀攀 猀瀀漀琀猀 椀渀 琀栀攀 氀椀最栀琀 漀爀 搀愀爀欀 regions. Like them it is a canal-distribution point.਀唀渀氀椀欀攀 琀栀攀洀Ⰰ 栀漀眀攀瘀攀爀Ⰰ 椀渀 猀栀愀瀀攀 椀琀 椀猀 琀爀椀愀渀最甀氀愀爀 椀渀猀琀攀愀搀 of round, and we are piqued to inquire to what cause਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㘀㠀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㘀㠀✀㸀㈀㘀㠀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 it can owe its different contour. The answer seems to਀氀椀攀 椀渀 琀栀攀 挀栀愀爀愀挀琀攀爀 漀昀 琀栀攀 氀漀挀愀氀椀琀礀Ⰰ 渀漀琀 猀椀洀瀀氀礀 椀渀 椀琀猀 complexion. For the spots in both the northern and਀琀栀攀 猀漀甀琀栀攀爀渀 搀愀爀欀 瀀愀琀挀栀攀猀 愀爀攀 愀猀 挀椀爀挀甀氀愀爀 愀猀 琀栀漀猀攀 猀琀愀渀搀椀渀最 in the light, whether they lie in the centre or upon਀琀栀攀 攀搀最攀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀洀⸀ 吀栀攀 攀搀最攀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 渀漀爀琀栀攀爀渀 瀀愀琀挀栀攀猀Ⰰ however, and the other sides of the southern ones do਀渀漀琀 瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀 琀栀攀 挀氀攀愀爀ⴀ挀甀琀 挀栀愀爀愀挀琀攀爀 漀昀 琀栀攀 渀漀爀琀栀攀爀渀 挀漀愀猀琀 of the diaphragm. Where they seem to be definitely਀戀漀甀渀搀攀搀 琀栀攀礀 愀爀攀 猀漀 戀礀 搀愀爀欀攀爀 挀愀渀愀氀猀⸀ 吀栀椀猀 栀椀渀琀猀 that their contours are not defined by antithesis of਀氀攀瘀攀氀Ⰰ 眀栀椀氀攀 琀栀愀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 渀漀爀琀栀攀爀渀 挀漀愀猀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 最爀攀愀琀 搀椀愀瀀栀爀愀最洀 is. Difference of altitude is then concerned in਀琀栀攀椀爀 挀漀渀猀琀椀琀甀琀椀漀渀㬀 琀栀攀 挀愀渀愀氀 猀礀猀琀攀洀 栀攀爀攀 昀愀氀氀猀 琀漀 愀 lower level, and these triangular spots instead of round਀漀渀攀猀 愀爀攀 琀栀攀 爀攀猀甀氀琀⸀ 吀漀瀀漀最爀愀瀀栀椀挀 漀渀氀礀Ⰰ 猀甀挀栀 攀砀瀀氀愀渀愀琀椀漀渀 leads the way to a more teleologic one, and serves਀攀瘀攀渀 漀渀 昀椀爀猀琀 愀挀焀甀愀椀渀琀愀渀挀攀 琀漀 猀琀椀爀 挀甀爀椀漀猀椀琀礀 琀漀 猀漀洀攀 satisfying cause.

Suggestive in several ways for its resemblance to the਀挀愀爀攀琀猀 椀猀 愀渀漀琀栀攀爀 搀攀琀愀椀氀 渀漀琀 昀愀爀 搀椀猀琀愀渀琀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 倀漀爀琀甀猀 Sigaei, the twin-forked Sabaeus Sinus. Curiously਀攀渀漀甀最栀Ⰰ 琀栀椀猀 昀攀愀琀甀爀攀 漀昀 䴀愀爀猀Ⰰ 眀栀椀挀栀 栀愀猀 戀攀攀渀 眀攀氀氀 known and recognized ever since the eagle-eyed Dawes਀搀攀琀攀挀琀攀搀 椀琀 洀漀爀攀 琀栀愀渀 昀漀爀琀礀 礀攀愀爀猀 愀最漀Ⰰ 瀀爀漀瘀攀猀 琀漀 戀攀 愀 sort of connecting link between the main markings and਀琀栀攀 搀攀琀愀椀氀猀 漀昀 洀漀爀攀 洀漀搀攀爀渀 搀攀琀攀挀琀椀漀渀⸀ 吀栀攀 琀眀椀渀ⴀ昀漀爀欀攀搀 269਀匀愀戀愀攀甀猀 匀椀渀甀猀Ⰰ 愀猀 椀琀猀 渀愀洀攀 椀洀瀀氀椀攀猀Ⰰ 椀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 form of a double bay; was considered to be one in fact਀猀漀 氀漀渀最 愀猀 琀栀攀 㰀椀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 氀愀渀最㴀∀氀愀∀ 砀洀氀㨀氀愀渀最㴀∀氀愀∀㸀洀愀爀椀愀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀椀㸀 眀攀爀攀 栀攀氀搀 琀漀 戀攀 猀攀愀猀⸀ 䤀琀 猀琀爀愀搀搀氀攀猀 the point of land which, called the Fastigium Aryn,਀栀愀猀 戀攀攀渀 琀愀欀攀渀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀 䜀爀攀攀渀眀椀挀栀 漀昀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 氀漀渀最椀琀甀搀攀猀⸀ Each ‘bay’—not in truth a bay at all—indents਀琀栀攀 漀挀栀爀攀 椀渀 愀渀 愀挀甀琀攀 琀爀椀愀渀最氀攀Ⰰ 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 琀椀瀀 漀昀 眀栀椀挀栀 many canals proceed like the rays of a fan from a holding਀栀愀渀搀⸀ 䈀漀琀栀 琀椀瀀猀 愀爀攀 搀愀爀欀攀爀 琀栀愀渀 琀栀攀 洀愀椀渀 戀漀搀礀 of the dark mare from which they proceed. They thus਀爀攀挀愀氀氀 椀渀 最攀渀攀爀愀氀 挀栀愀爀愀挀琀攀爀 琀栀攀 挀愀爀攀琀猀⸀ 吀栀攀礀 昀甀爀琀栀攀爀 reproduce specifically the Portus Sigaei, for they give਀漀爀椀最椀渀 琀漀 琀眀漀 搀漀甀戀氀攀猀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 䜀椀栀漀渀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 䠀椀搀搀攀欀攀氀Ⰰ in exactly the same manner that the two nicks of the਀倀漀爀琀甀猀 匀椀最愀攀椀 搀漀 琀漀 琀栀攀 倀栀椀猀漀渀 愀渀搀 䔀甀瀀栀爀愀琀攀猀⸀ 一漀爀 are their tips much farther apart than those of the਀倀漀爀琀甀猀Ⰰ 昀椀瘀攀 搀攀最爀攀攀猀 洀攀愀猀甀爀椀渀最 琀栀攀 猀瀀爀攀愀搀 漀昀 琀栀攀 漀渀攀 and four degrees that of the other respectively; the਀爀攀愀猀漀渀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀椀爀 攀愀爀氀椀攀爀 搀椀猀挀漀瘀攀爀礀 氀礀椀渀最 椀渀 琀栀攀椀爀 最爀攀愀琀攀爀 size. They thus perform the same office as the Portus਀匀椀最愀攀甀猀Ⰰ 愀爀攀 焀甀椀琀攀 挀漀洀瀀愀爀愀戀氀攀 琀漀 椀琀 椀渀 眀椀搀琀栀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 搀椀昀昀攀爀 in shape only as a larger and more acute triangle differs਀昀爀漀洀 愀 猀洀愀氀氀攀爀 愀渀搀 戀氀甀渀琀攀爀 漀渀攀⸀ 唀渀搀爀攀愀洀琀 漀昀 戀礀 Dawes and unheeded since, they were the first hint to਀琀栀攀 眀漀爀氀搀 漀昀 琀栀攀 搀甀愀氀椀琀礀 眀栀椀挀栀 昀漀爀洀猀 猀漀 猀琀爀愀渀最攀氀礀 瀀攀爀瘀愀猀椀瘀攀 a feature of the canal system of the planet.

Thus the carets stand connected with the canals਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㜀 ✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㜀 ✀㸀㈀㜀 㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 quite as intimately as the oases but in a significantly਀搀椀昀昀攀爀攀渀琀 洀愀渀渀攀爀⸀ 䘀漀爀Ⰰ 椀渀 愀搀搀椀琀椀漀渀 琀漀 琀栀攀椀爀 椀渀琀攀爀洀攀搀椀愀爀礀 standing between the light regions and the dark,਀琀栀攀椀爀 爀攀氀愀琀椀漀渀 琀漀 琀栀攀 搀漀甀戀氀攀猀 椀猀 瀀攀挀甀氀椀愀爀⸀ 䄀渀 椀渀猀琀愀渀挀攀 椀猀 offered by the double Euphrates and another by the਀䜀愀渀最攀猀⸀ 吀栀攀 䔀甀瀀栀爀愀琀攀猀Ⰰ 愀猀 眀攀 猀愀眀 椀渀 䌀栀愀瀀琀攀爀 堀嘀䤀䤀䤀Ⰰ leaves the Portus Sigaei at the south, one line leaving਀攀愀挀栀 挀愀爀攀琀 挀攀渀琀爀愀氀氀礀Ⰰ 猀漀 琀栀愀琀 攀愀挀栀 挀愀爀攀琀 椀猀 挀漀渀挀攀爀渀攀搀 漀渀氀礀 with its own line and has no connection with its fellow.਀䄀琀 琀栀攀椀爀 渀漀爀琀栀攀爀渀 攀渀搀猀 戀漀琀栀 氀椀渀攀猀 栀愀瘀攀 猀椀洀椀氀愀爀氀礀 攀愀挀栀 its own Lucus Ismenius. The like seems to be true of਀琀栀攀 䜀愀渀最攀猀⸀ 匀椀洀椀氀愀爀氀礀 琀栀攀 琀眀椀渀 吀椀琀愀渀Ⰰ 栀愀瘀攀 攀愀挀栀 椀琀猀 own. Such twin duty in the matter of doubles seems਀琀漀 戀攀 琀栀攀 爀甀氀攀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 挀愀爀攀琀猀Ⰰ 攀瘀攀渀 洀漀爀攀 猀漀 琀栀愀渀 眀椀琀栀 the oases; and this is probably from the fact that the਀挀漀愀猀琀氀椀渀攀 椀猀 漀昀 洀漀爀攀 氀椀洀椀琀攀搀 攀砀琀攀渀琀 琀栀愀渀 琀栀攀 椀渀琀攀爀椀漀爀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䄀氀琀漀最攀琀栀攀爀 琀栀攀 挀愀爀攀琀猀 漀昀昀攀爀 琀漀 漀甀爀 椀渀猀瀀攀挀琀椀漀渀 最氀漀猀猀攀猀 in finer print upon the general text of the canals.਀吀栀漀甀最栀琀 甀瀀漀渀 眀栀愀琀 琀栀攀礀 猀栀漀眀 琀愀欀攀猀 甀猀 愀 猀琀攀瀀 昀愀爀琀栀攀爀 toward the solution of the strange riddle of this other਀眀漀爀氀搀Ⰰ 愀 爀椀搀搀氀攀 眀栀椀挀栀 栀攀 眀栀漀 爀甀渀猀 洀愀礀 渀漀琀 爀攀愀搀Ⰰ 猀琀椀氀氀 less scout, and which only reasoning, without prejudice਀漀爀 瀀愀爀琀椀愀氀椀琀礀Ⰰ 挀愀渀 甀渀爀愀瘀攀氀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀栀愀瀀琀攀爀✀㸀 ਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㜀㄀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㜀㄀✀㸀㈀㜀㄀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀

CHAPTER XXII

THE CANALS PHOTOGRAPHED

਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀搀爀漀瀀ⴀ挀愀瀀愀 开㈀开 开㜀 挀 ㄀㔀✀     㸀倀栀漀琀漀最爀愀瀀栀礀 栀漀氀搀猀 琀漀ⴀ搀愀礀 愀 瀀氀愀挀攀 漀昀 瀀甀戀氀椀挀椀琀礀 in the exposition of the stars. Directed by Draper਀琀漀 琀栀攀 栀攀愀瘀攀渀猀 琀栀椀爀琀礀ⴀ昀漀甀爀 礀攀愀爀猀 愀最漀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 挀愀洀攀爀愀 爀攀挀漀爀搀攀搀 then the first picture ever taken of the moon.਀䘀爀漀洀 琀栀椀猀 椀渀椀琀椀愀氀 瀀攀攀爀椀渀最 椀渀琀漀 挀攀氀攀猀琀椀愀氀 洀愀琀琀攀爀猀Ⰰ 瀀爀愀挀琀椀挀攀 has progressed until now the dry plate constitutes one਀漀昀 琀栀攀 洀漀猀琀 昀漀爀洀椀搀愀戀氀攀 攀渀最椀渀攀猀 椀渀 愀猀琀爀漀渀漀洀椀挀 爀攀猀攀愀爀挀栀⸀ Not most effectively, however, in the field which might਀栀愀瘀攀 戀攀攀渀 瀀爀攀搀椀挀琀攀搀⸀ 䈀攀愀甀琀椀昀甀氀 愀猀 琀栀攀 氀甀渀愀爀 瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀洀攀渀琀 was, as a presentiment of what was coming, it਀瀀漀椀渀琀攀搀 愀猀琀爀愀礀⸀ 䘀漀爀 椀琀 椀猀 渀漀琀 椀渀 氀甀渀愀爀 瀀漀爀琀爀愀礀愀氀Ⰰ 猀甀瀀攀爀戀氀礀 as its crater walls in crescent chiaroscuro or its਀挀爀愀最猀 琀栀愀琀 挀愀猀琀 琀栀攀椀爀 琀愀瀀攀爀椀渀最 猀栀愀搀漀眀猀 愀琀栀眀愀爀琀 琀栀攀 搀椀愀氀 of its plains stand out in the latest photographs of our਀猀愀琀攀氀氀椀琀攀Ⰰ 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 挀愀洀攀爀愀ᤀ猠 最爀攀愀琀攀猀琀 猀攀爀瘀椀挀攀 栀愀猀 猀椀渀挀攀 been done. Impressive as they are, these pictorial਀琀爀椀甀洀瀀栀猀 愀爀攀 挀栀椀攀昀氀礀 瀀漀瀀甀氀愀爀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 愀瀀瀀攀愀氀 漀渀 琀栀攀椀爀 昀愀挀攀 to layman and scientist alike. Not in the nearest to਀甀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 漀爀戀猀 漀昀 栀攀愀瘀攀渀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 椀渀 琀栀攀 洀漀猀琀 爀攀洀漀琀攀 栀愀猀 celestial photography’s most prolific field been found਀琀漀 氀椀攀⸀ 䤀琀猀 瀀爀漀瘀椀渀挀攀 栀愀猀 瀀爀漀瘀攀搀 瀀爀攀洀椀渀攀渀琀氀礀 琀栀攀 猀琀愀爀猀Ⰰ 272਀攀猀瀀攀挀椀愀氀氀礀 琀栀攀 昀愀爀琀栀攀猀琀 漀昀昀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 琀栀愀琀 猀琀愀爀ⴀ搀甀猀琀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 nebulæ, from out of which the stars are made. Reason਀昀漀爀 琀栀椀猀 攀砀瀀氀愀椀渀猀 愀琀 漀渀挀攀 椀琀猀 攀昀昀椀挀椀攀渀挀礀 愀渀搀 椀琀猀 氀椀洀椀琀愀琀椀漀渀猀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䤀琀猀 爀椀瘀愀氀Ⰰ 漀昀 挀漀甀爀猀攀Ⰰ 椀猀 琀栀攀 攀礀攀⸀ 䤀琀 椀猀 愀猀 爀攀最愀爀搀猀 琀栀攀 eye that its comparative merits or demerits stand to਀戀攀 樀甀搀最攀搀⸀ 一漀眀Ⰰ 琀栀甀猀 瘀椀攀眀攀搀Ⰰ 椀琀猀 猀甀瀀攀爀椀漀爀椀琀礀 椀渀 漀渀攀 respect is unquestionable; it simply states facts.਀䈀甀琀 琀栀漀甀最栀 椀琀 挀愀渀渀漀琀 洀椀猀椀渀昀漀爀洀Ⰰ 椀琀 挀愀渀 挀漀氀漀爀 椀琀猀 昀愀挀琀猀 by giving undue prominence to the effect of some rays਀愀渀搀 猀甀瀀瀀爀攀猀猀椀渀最 琀栀攀 攀瘀椀搀攀渀挀攀 漀昀 漀琀栀攀爀猀Ⰰ 猀漀 琀栀愀琀 椀琀猀 testimony is not, it must be remembered, always in਀愀挀挀漀爀搀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀愀琀 漀昀 栀甀洀愀渀 瘀椀猀椀漀渀⸀ 匀瀀攀愀欀椀渀最 戀爀漀愀搀氀礀Ⰰ however, it is so little complicated a machine as to਀爀攀最椀猀琀攀爀 椀琀猀 爀攀猀甀氀琀猀 眀椀琀栀 洀漀爀攀 瀀爀攀挀椀猀椀漀渀 琀栀愀渀 琀栀攀 爀攀琀椀渀愀⸀ The evidence of the camera has thus one important਀愀搀瘀愀渀琀愀最攀 漀瘀攀爀 漀琀栀攀爀 愀猀琀爀漀渀漀洀椀挀 搀漀挀甀洀攀渀琀猀㨀 椀琀 椀猀 椀洀瀀攀爀猀漀渀愀氀氀礀 trustworthy in what it states. Bias it has਀渀漀渀攀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 椀琀猀 洀椀猀琀愀欀攀猀 愀爀攀 昀攀眀⸀ 䤀洀瀀攀爀昀攀挀琀椀漀渀猀Ⰰ 椀渀搀攀攀搀Ⰰ affect it, but they are of purely physical occasion and਀洀愀礀 戀攀 攀氀椀洀椀渀愀琀攀搀 漀爀 愀挀挀漀甀渀琀攀搀 昀漀爀 愀猀 眀攀氀氀 戀礀 愀渀漀琀栀攀爀 as by the photographer himself.

In trustworthiness, then, so far as it goes, it stands਀挀漀洀洀攀渀搀攀搀㬀 渀漀琀 猀漀 洀甀挀栀 洀愀礀 戀攀 猀愀椀搀 漀昀 椀琀猀 愀戀椀氀椀琀礀⸀ This depends upon the work to which it is put. In certain਀氀椀渀攀猀 椀琀 愀猀猀攀爀琀猀 瀀爀攀洀椀渀攀渀挀攀㬀 椀渀 挀攀爀琀愀椀渀 漀琀栀攀爀猀 椀琀 椀猀 so far behind as to be out of the race. The reason for਀戀漀琀栀 椀猀 漀渀攀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀Ⰰ 昀漀爀Ⰰ 愀猀 琀栀攀 䘀爀攀渀挀栀 眀漀甀氀搀 273਀猀愀礀㨀 䤀琀 栀愀猀 琀栀攀 昀愀甀氀琀猀 漀昀 椀琀猀 焀甀愀氀椀琀礀⸀ 吀栀攀 瘀攀爀礀 琀爀愀椀琀 that fits it for one function, bars it from the other.਀吀栀椀猀 攀砀挀攀氀氀攀渀挀攀 椀猀 琀栀愀琀 戀礀 眀栀椀挀栀 琀栀攀 琀漀爀琀漀椀猀攀 漀甀琀猀琀爀椀瀀瀀攀搀 the hare,—a plodding perseverance. Far less sensitive਀琀栀愀渀 琀栀攀 爀攀琀椀渀愀 琀栀攀 搀爀礀 瀀氀愀琀攀 栀愀猀 漀渀攀 愀搀瘀愀渀琀愀最攀 漀瘀攀爀 椀琀猀 rival,—its action is cumulative. The eye sees all it can਀椀渀 琀栀攀 琀眀攀渀琀椀攀琀栀 漀昀 愀 猀攀挀漀渀搀㬀 愀昀琀攀爀 琀栀愀琀 椀琀猀 瀀攀爀挀攀瀀琀椀漀渀Ⰰ instead of increasing, is dulled, and no amount of਀愀瀀瀀氀椀挀愀琀椀漀渀 眀椀氀氀 爀攀猀甀氀琀 椀渀 愀搀搀椀渀最 洀漀爀攀⸀ 圀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 搀爀礀 plate it is the reverse. Time works for, not against it.਀圀椀琀栀椀渀 氀椀洀椀琀猀Ⰰ 琀栀攀洀猀攀氀瘀攀猀 氀漀渀最Ⰰ 氀椀最栀琀 愀昀昀攀挀琀猀 椀琀 琀栀爀漀甀最栀漀甀琀 the period it stands exposed and, roughly speaking,਀椀渀 搀椀爀攀挀琀 爀愀琀椀漀 琀漀 琀栀攀 琀椀洀攀 攀氀愀瀀猀攀搀⸀ 吀栀甀猀 琀栀攀 挀愀洀攀爀愀 is able to record stars no human eye has ever caught਀愀渀搀 琀漀 爀攀最椀猀琀攀爀 琀栀攀 猀琀爀甀挀琀甀爀攀 漀昀 渀攀戀甀氀 琀栀攀 攀礀攀 琀爀椀攀猀 琀漀 resolve in vain.

Where illumination alone is concerned the camera਀爀攀椀最渀猀 猀甀瀀爀攀洀攀㬀 渀漀琀 猀漀 眀栀攀渀 椀琀 挀漀洀攀猀 琀漀 愀 焀甀攀猀琀椀漀渀 of definition. Then by its speed and agility the eye਀猀琀攀瀀猀 椀渀琀漀 椀琀猀 瀀氀愀挀攀Ⰰ 昀漀爀 琀栀攀 愀琀洀漀猀瀀栀攀爀攀 椀猀 渀漀琀 琀栀攀 void it could be wished, through which the light-waves਀猀栀漀漀琀 愀琀 眀椀氀氀⸀ 倀甀氀猀椀渀最 愀琀栀眀愀爀琀 椀琀 愀爀攀 愀椀爀ⴀ眀愀瘀攀猀 漀昀 condensation and rarefaction that now obstruct, now਀昀甀爀琀栀攀爀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 瀀愀猀猀愀最攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 爀愀礀⸀ 䈀礀 琀栀攀 渀椀洀戀氀攀渀攀猀猀 漀昀 椀琀猀 action the eye cunningly contrives to catch the good਀洀漀洀攀渀琀猀 愀洀漀渀最 琀栀攀 瀀漀漀爀 愀渀搀 挀愀爀爀礀 琀栀攀椀爀 洀攀猀猀愀最攀 琀漀 琀栀攀 brain. The dry plate by its slowness is impotent to਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㜀㐀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㜀㐀✀㸀㈀㜀㐀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 follow. To register anything, it must take the bad with਀琀栀攀 戀攀琀琀攀爀 琀漀 愀 挀漀洀瀀氀攀琀攀 挀漀渀昀甀猀椀漀渀 漀昀 搀攀琀愀椀氀⸀ 䘀漀爀 琀栀攀 air-waves throw the image first to one place and then਀琀漀 愀渀漀琀栀攀爀Ⰰ 琀漀 愀 戀氀漀琀琀椀渀最 漀昀 戀漀琀栀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䄀氀氀 漀昀 眀栀椀挀栀 爀攀渀搀攀爀猀 琀栀攀 猀琀愀爀猀Ⰰ 眀栀攀爀攀 氀椀最栀琀椀渀最 挀漀甀渀琀猀 for so much and form for so little, the peculiar province਀漀昀 挀攀氀攀猀琀椀愀氀 瀀栀漀琀漀最爀愀瀀栀礀⸀ 圀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 猀琀甀搀礀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀甀爀昀愀挀攀猀 of the planets the exact contrary is the case. With਀洀漀猀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀洀 椀氀氀甀洀椀渀愀琀椀漀渀 椀猀 愀氀爀攀愀搀礀 琀漀 戀攀 栀愀搀 椀渀 abundance; definition it is that is desired. What succeeds਀猀漀 攀砀挀攀氀氀攀渀琀氀礀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 猀琀愀爀猀 椀猀 栀攀爀攀 瀀甀琀 琀漀 椀琀 琀漀 do anything at all. At its best, the camera is hopelessly਀戀攀栀椀渀搀 琀栀攀 攀礀攀 眀栀攀渀 椀琀 挀漀洀攀猀 琀漀 琀栀攀 搀攀挀椀瀀栀攀爀洀攀渀琀 漀昀 planetary detail. To say that the eye is ten times the਀洀漀爀攀 瀀攀爀挀攀瀀琀椀瘀攀 椀猀 渀漀琀 琀漀 漀瘀攀爀猀琀攀瀀 琀栀攀 洀愀爀欀⸀ 吀漀 琀爀礀Ⰰ therefore, here to supplant the eye by the camera਀椀猀 琀椀洀攀 琀栀爀漀眀渀 愀眀愀礀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀伀昀 猀挀愀渀琀 椀洀瀀漀爀琀愀渀挀攀 琀漀 琀栀攀 攀砀瀀攀爀琀 椀渀 猀甀挀栀 洀愀琀琀攀爀猀 愀猀 Mars, there is a side of the subject in which service਀洀椀最栀琀 戀攀 栀漀瀀攀搀 漀昀 椀琀㨀 琀栀愀琀 漀昀 攀氀攀洀攀渀琀愀爀礀 攀砀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀⸀ Congenitally incapable of competing with the eye in਀搀椀猀挀漀瘀攀爀礀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 洀漀猀琀 琀栀愀琀Ⰰ 戀礀 愀渀礀 瀀漀猀猀椀戀椀氀椀琀礀Ⰰ 挀漀甀氀搀 戀攀 looked for would be a recording of the coarser details਀愀昀琀攀爀 琀栀攀 昀愀挀琀⸀ 䘀漀爀 琀栀椀猀 爀攀愀猀漀渀 椀琀 栀愀搀 氀漀渀最 戀攀攀渀 愀 purpose at Flagstaff to photograph some at least of਀琀栀攀 挀愀渀愀氀猀⸀ 䈀甀琀 琀栀攀 瀀爀漀樀攀挀琀 猀攀攀洀攀搀 挀栀椀洀攀爀椀挀愀氀⸀ 吀漀 get an image suitable at all some seconds of exposure਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㜀㔀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㜀㔀✀㸀㈀㜀㔀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 would be required, and during such time the shifting਀愀椀爀ⴀ眀愀瘀攀猀 眀漀甀氀搀 戀氀甀爀 琀栀攀 瘀攀爀礀 搀攀琀愀椀氀 搀攀猀椀爀攀搀 琀漀 戀攀 最漀琀⸀ It was a problem of essential premises mutually annihilative.਀吀栀攀 洀漀爀攀 琀栀攀 眀漀甀氀搀ⴀ戀攀 瀀栀漀琀漀最爀愀瀀栀攀爀 猀栀漀甀氀搀 avoid the one; the more he would fall into the other.

Nevertheless the thing was tried in 1901 [Darian: 155]. In 1903 [Darian: 156]਀琀栀攀 猀甀戀樀攀挀琀 眀愀猀 琀愀欀攀渀 甀瀀 戀礀 䴀爀⸀ 䰀愀洀瀀氀愀渀搀Ⰰ 琀栀攀渀 渀攀眀 at the observatory. The results were better than਀琀栀漀猀攀 漀昀 琀眀漀 礀攀愀爀猀 戀攀昀漀爀攀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 椀洀愀最攀猀 洀漀爀攀 挀氀攀愀爀ⴀ挀甀琀 but still incommunicable of canals. Still they were਀猀愀琀椀猀昀愀挀琀漀爀礀 攀渀漀甀最栀 琀漀 猀瀀甀爀 琀漀 椀渀挀爀攀愀猀攀搀 攀渀搀攀愀瘀漀爀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 during the following interopposition preparations were਀洀愀搀攀 琀漀 最爀愀瀀瀀氀攀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀 愀猀 猀甀挀挀攀猀猀昀甀氀氀礀 愀猀 挀漀甀氀搀 be devised at its next return. This happened in਀䴀愀礀Ⰰ ㄀㤀 㔀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㜀 吀愀甀爀甀猀ⴀ刀椀猀栀愀戀栀愀崀⸀ 䤀琀 琀栀攀渀 猀栀漀眀攀搀 愀 搀椀猀欀 漀渀氀礀 ㄀㜀㈀㈠†椀渀 搀椀愀洀攀琀攀爀Ⰰ or 1/120 that of the moon,—and this disk Mr.਀䰀愀洀瀀氀愀渀搀 愀琀琀愀挀欀攀搀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 ㈀㐀ⴀ椀渀挀栀 愀渀搀 愀 渀攀最愀琀椀瘀攀 amplificator that increased the focal length of the਀昀漀爀洀攀爀 琀漀 ㄀㐀㌀ 昀攀攀琀⸀ 䄀琀 猀甀挀栀 昀漀挀甀猀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀ᤀ猠 椀洀愀最攀 was received upon the plate. Everything that could਀挀漀渀搀甀挀攀 琀漀 猀甀挀挀攀猀猀 栀愀搀 戀攀攀渀 瀀甀琀 椀渀 爀攀焀甀椀猀椀琀椀漀渀⸀ 吀漀 this end of better definition the color curve of the objective਀眀愀猀 昀椀爀猀琀 最漀琀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 昀漀爀 椀琀 愀 猀瀀攀挀椀愀氀 挀漀氀漀爀 猀挀爀攀攀渀 constructed by Wallace. In spite of its name no achromatic਀椀猀 猀漀 椀渀 昀愀挀琀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 戀爀椀渀最猀 爀愀礀猀 漀昀 搀椀昀昀攀爀攀渀琀 琀椀渀琀 琀漀 different focus. The color curve shows where these਀猀攀瘀攀爀愀氀氀礀 氀椀攀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 挀漀氀漀爀 猀挀爀攀攀渀Ⰰ 愀 挀栀攀洀椀挀愀氀氀礀 琀椀渀琀攀搀 276਀瀀椀攀挀攀 漀昀 最氀愀猀猀Ⰰ 椀猀 琀漀 愀戀猀漀爀戀 愀氀氀 琀栀漀猀攀 眀栀椀挀栀 眀漀甀氀搀 戀氀甀爀 the image by having a different focus from the ones retained.਀一攀砀琀Ⰰ 愀氀氀 洀愀渀渀攀爀 漀昀 瀀氀愀琀攀猀 眀攀爀攀 琀爀椀攀搀⸀ 䘀漀爀 in these again it was necessary to reconcile two contradictory਀挀栀愀爀愀挀琀攀爀猀Ⰰ 愀 爀愀瀀椀搀 瀀氀愀琀攀 愀渀搀 愀 眀攀氀氀ⴀ搀攀昀椀渀椀渀最 one. For the coarser the grain the speedier਀琀栀攀 瀀氀愀琀攀㬀 愀渀搀 挀漀愀爀猀攀 最爀愀椀渀 搀椀猀昀椀最甀爀攀猀 琀栀攀 搀攀琀愀椀氀⸀ Both qualities on so small an image were obligatory਀愀渀搀 礀攀琀 戀漀琀栀 挀漀甀氀搀 渀漀琀 戀攀 最漀琀⸀ 吀栀攀渀 琀栀攀 挀氀漀挀欀 had to be as smooth-running as possible. So by a suggestion਀漀昀 䴀爀⸀ 䌀漀最猀栀愀氀氀ᤀ猠 漀渀攀 眀愀猀 漀戀琀愀椀渀攀搀 琀栀愀琀 昀椀氀氀攀搀 this requisite, a new form of conical pendulum. Upon਀琀栀椀猀 愀 昀甀爀琀栀攀爀 爀攀昀椀渀攀洀攀渀琀 眀愀猀 瀀爀愀挀琀椀挀攀搀⸀ 伀爀搀椀渀愀爀椀氀礀 clockwork is timed to follow the stars; this was altered਀琀漀 昀漀氀氀漀眀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 猀漀 欀攀攀瀀 椀琀 洀漀爀攀 渀攀愀爀氀礀 洀漀琀椀漀渀氀攀猀猀 while its picture was being taken. Then the਀搀攀瘀椀挀攀 漀昀 挀愀瀀瀀椀渀最 搀漀眀渀 琀栀攀 琀攀氀攀猀挀漀瀀攀 琀漀 猀甀椀琀 琀栀攀 愀椀爀ⴀ眀愀瘀攀猀Ⰰ which had been found so effective to the bringing਀漀甀琀 漀昀 昀椀渀攀 搀攀琀愀椀氀Ⰰ 眀愀猀 瀀甀琀 椀渀 瀀爀愀挀琀椀挀攀⸀ 䰀愀猀琀氀礀Ⰰ 愀氀氀 搀攀瘀攀氀漀瀀攀爀猀 were tried, and those found suited to the਀昀椀渀攀猀琀 眀漀爀欀 眀攀爀攀 甀猀攀搀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䴀愀渀礀 瀀椀挀琀甀爀攀猀 眀攀爀攀 琀愀欀攀渀 漀渀 攀愀挀栀 瀀氀愀琀攀 漀渀攀 愀昀琀攀爀 the other, both to vary the exposure and to catch such਀最漀漀搀 洀漀洀攀渀琀猀 愀猀 洀椀最栀琀 挀栀愀渀挀攀⸀ 匀攀瘀攀渀 栀甀渀搀爀攀搀 椀洀愀最攀猀 were thus got in all; the days of best definition alone਀戀攀椀渀最 甀琀椀氀椀稀攀搀⸀ 吀栀攀 攀愀最攀爀渀攀猀猀 眀椀琀栀 眀栀椀挀栀 琀栀攀 昀椀爀猀琀 plate was scanned as it emerged from its last bath may਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㜀㜀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㜀㜀✀㸀㈀㜀㜀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 be imagined, and the joy when on it some of the canals਀挀漀甀氀搀 挀攀爀琀愀椀渀氀礀 戀攀 猀攀攀渀⸀ 吀栀攀爀攀 眀攀爀攀 琀栀攀 漀氀搀 挀漀渀昀椀最甀爀愀琀椀漀渀猀 of patches, the light areas and the dark, just਀愀猀 琀栀攀礀 氀漀漀欀攀搀 琀栀爀漀甀最栀 琀栀攀 琀攀氀攀猀挀漀瀀攀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 渀攀瘀攀爀 琀椀氀氀 then otherwise seen of human eye, and there more marvelous਀礀攀琀 眀攀爀攀 琀栀攀 最爀漀猀猀攀爀 漀昀 琀栀漀猀攀 氀椀渀攀猀 琀栀愀琀 栀愀搀 猀漀 piqued human curiosity, the canals of Mars. He who਀爀愀渀 洀椀最栀琀 渀漀眀 爀攀愀搀Ⰰ 猀漀 琀栀愀琀 栀攀 栀愀搀 猀漀洀攀 愀挀焀甀愀椀渀琀愀渀挀攀 with photography. By Mr. Lampland’s thought, assiduity,਀愀渀搀 猀欀椀氀氀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 猀攀攀洀椀渀最氀礀 椀洀瀀漀猀猀椀戀氀攀 栀愀搀 戀攀攀渀 done.

After the initial success was thus assured, plates were਀琀愀欀攀渀 愀琀 漀琀栀攀爀 瀀漀椀渀琀猀 愀爀漀甀渀搀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀 愀渀搀 漀琀栀攀爀 眀攀氀氀ⴀ欀渀漀眀渀 features came out; “continents” and “seas,”਀ᰀ挠愀渀愀氀猀ᴀ†愀渀搀 ᰀ漠愀猀攀猀Ⰰᴀ†琀栀攀 挀甀爀椀漀甀猀 最攀漀最爀愀瀀栀礀 漀昀 琀栀攀 planet printed for the first time by itself in black and਀眀栀椀琀攀⸀ 䈀礀 挀栀愀渀挀攀 漀渀 漀渀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀琀攀猀 愀 琀攀洀瀀漀爀愀氀 event was found registered too, the first snowfall of the਀猀攀愀猀漀渀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 戀攀最椀渀渀椀渀最 漀昀 琀栀攀 渀攀眀 瀀漀氀愀爀 挀愀瀀Ⰰ 猀攀攀渀 瘀椀猀甀愀氀氀礀 just before the plate happened to be put in and reproduced਀戀礀 椀琀 甀渀洀椀猀琀愀欀愀戀氀礀⸀ 唀瀀漀渀 琀栀攀 洀愀渀礀 椀洀愀最攀猀 thirty-eight canals were counted in all, and one of them,਀琀栀攀 一椀氀漀欀攀爀愀猀Ⰰ 搀漀甀戀氀攀⸀ 吀栀甀猀 搀椀搀 琀栀攀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 愀琀 氀愀猀琀 speak for their own reality themselves.

279਀  㰀栀㈀ 椀搀㴀✀瀀㌀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㘀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀砀氀愀爀最攀✀㸀倀䄀刀吀 䤀䤀䤀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀 㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀吀䠀䔀 䌀䄀一䄀䰀匀 䤀一 䄀䌀吀䤀伀一㰀⼀栀㈀㸀
281਀  㰀栀㈀ 椀搀㴀✀挀栀㈀㌀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㘀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀砀氀愀爀最攀✀㸀䌀䠀䄀倀吀䔀刀 堀堀䤀䤀䤀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀 㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀䌀䄀一䄀䰀匀㨀 䬀䤀一䔀䴀䄀吀䤀䌀㰀⼀栀㈀㸀

So far in our account of the phenomena we have਀爀攀最愀爀搀攀搀 琀栀攀 氀椀渀攀猀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 猀瀀漀琀猀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 攀瘀攀爀礀琀栀椀渀最 琀栀愀琀 is theirs solely from the point of view of their appearance਀愀琀 愀渀礀 漀渀攀 琀椀洀攀⸀ 䤀渀 漀琀栀攀爀 眀漀爀搀猀Ⰰ 眀攀 栀愀瘀攀 瘀椀攀眀攀搀 them only from a static standpoint. In this we have਀昀漀氀氀漀眀攀搀 琀栀攀 挀漀甀爀猀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 昀愀挀琀猀Ⰰ 猀椀渀挀攀 椀渀 琀栀椀猀 眀愀礀 眀攀爀攀 the canals first observed. We now come to a different਀瀀栀愀猀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 洀愀琀琀攀爀Ⰰ᐀琠栀攀 椀洀瀀漀爀琀愀渀琀 搀椀猀挀氀漀猀甀爀攀Ⰰ 眀椀琀栀 continued looking, that these strange things show themselves਀琀漀 戀攀 猀甀戀樀攀挀琀 琀漀 挀栀愀渀最攀⸀ 吀栀愀琀 椀猀Ⰰ 琀栀攀礀 琀愀欀攀 on a kinematic character. This at once opens a fresh਀昀椀攀氀搀 漀昀 椀渀焀甀椀爀礀 挀漀渀挀攀爀渀椀渀最 琀栀攀洀 愀渀搀 眀椀搀攀渀猀 琀栀攀 栀漀爀椀稀漀渀 of research. It increases the complexity of the problem,਀戀甀琀 愀琀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 琀椀洀攀 洀愀欀攀猀 椀琀 洀漀爀攀 搀攀琀攀爀洀椀渀愀琀攀⸀ For while it greatly augments the number of facts਀眀栀椀挀栀 洀甀猀琀 戀攀 挀漀氀氀攀挀琀攀搀 琀漀眀愀爀搀 愀渀 攀砀瀀氀愀渀愀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 what the things are, these once acquired, it narrows਀琀栀攀 猀漀氀甀琀椀漀渀 眀栀椀挀栀 挀愀渀 愀瀀瀀氀礀 琀漀 琀栀攀洀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀吀栀攀 昀愀挀琀 漀昀 挀栀愀渀最攀 椀渀 琀栀攀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 洀愀爀欀椀渀最猀 昀漀爀挀攀猀 itself upon any one who will diligently study the planet.਀䠀攀 眀椀氀氀 戀攀 椀渀挀氀椀渀攀搀 愀琀 昀椀爀猀琀 琀漀 愀琀琀爀椀戀甀琀攀 椀琀 琀漀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀愀琀椀漀渀愀氀 282਀洀椀猀琀愀欀攀猀 漀昀 栀椀猀 漀眀渀 漀爀 栀椀猀 瀀爀攀搀攀挀攀猀猀漀爀ᤀ猠 洀愀欀椀渀最Ⰰ preferably the latter. But eventually his own delineations਀眀椀氀氀 瀀爀漀瘀攀 椀爀爀攀挀漀渀挀椀氀愀戀氀攀 眀椀琀栀 漀渀攀 愀渀漀琀栀攀爀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 he will then realize the injustice of his inference and਀眀椀氀氀 瀀甀琀 琀栀攀 挀愀甀猀攀Ⰰ 眀栀攀爀攀 椀渀搀攀攀搀 椀琀 爀椀最栀琀氀礀 戀攀氀漀渀最猀Ⰰ 漀渀 the things themselves. Confronted by this fact he will਀琀栀攀 洀漀爀攀 昀甀氀氀礀 愀瀀瀀爀攀挀椀愀琀攀 栀漀眀 氀漀渀最 愀渀搀 猀礀猀琀攀洀愀琀椀挀 must be the study of him who would penetrate the਀瀀氀愀渀攀琀ᤀ猠 瀀攀挀甀氀椀愀爀椀琀礀⸀ 䨀甀猀琀 愀猀 琀栀攀 爀攀挀漀最渀椀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 猀漀洀攀琀栀椀渀最 akin to seasonal change came to Schiaparelli, because਀漀昀 栀椀猀 愀琀琀攀渀搀椀渀最 琀漀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀 眀椀琀栀 愀渀 愀猀猀椀搀甀椀琀礀 unknown to his predecessors; so it became evident਀琀栀愀琀 琀漀 氀攀愀爀渀 琀栀攀 氀愀眀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀猀攀 挀栀愀渀最攀猀 愀渀搀 昀爀漀洀 them the meaning of the markings, there was necessary਀愀猀 昀甀氀氀 愀渀搀 愀猀 挀漀渀琀椀渀甀漀甀猀 愀 爀攀挀漀爀搀 漀昀 琀栀攀洀 愀猀 椀琀 眀愀猀 瀀漀猀猀椀戀氀攀 to obtain. For this end it was not enough to get਀漀戀猀攀爀瘀愀琀椀漀渀猀 昀爀漀洀 琀椀洀攀 琀漀 琀椀洀攀Ⰰ 栀漀眀攀瘀攀爀 最漀漀搀 琀栀攀猀攀 might be, but to secure as nearly as might be a complete਀猀甀挀挀攀猀猀椀漀渀 漀昀 猀甀挀栀Ⰰ 搀愀礀 愀昀琀攀爀 搀愀礀Ⰰ 洀漀渀琀栀 愀昀琀攀爀 洀漀渀琀栀Ⰰ and opposition after opposition. The outcome justified਀琀栀攀 搀攀搀甀挀琀椀漀渀⸀ 䄀渀搀 椀琀 椀猀 猀瀀攀挀椀愀氀氀礀 最爀愀琀椀昀礀椀渀最 琀漀 爀攀愀氀椀稀攀 that to no one have the method and the results thus਀漀戀琀愀椀渀攀搀 愀瀀瀀攀愀氀攀搀 眀椀琀栀 洀漀爀攀 昀漀爀挀攀 琀栀愀渀 琀漀 匀挀栀椀愀瀀愀爀攀氀氀椀 himself.

Perseverance in scanning the disk long after the਀挀愀猀甀愀氀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀攀爀 栀愀搀 挀漀渀猀椀搀攀爀攀搀 椀琀 琀漀漀 昀愀爀 愀眀愀礀 昀漀爀 observational purposes, resulted in Schiaparelli’s detection਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㠀㌀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㠀㌀✀㸀㈀㠀㌀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 of the canals, and this through a characteristic਀漀昀 琀栀攀椀爀猀 搀攀猀琀椀渀攀搀 琀漀 瀀氀愀礀 愀 最爀攀愀琀 瀀愀爀琀 椀渀 琀栀攀椀爀 栀椀猀琀漀爀礀Ⰰ their susceptibility to change. He tells us in his Memoria਀䤀㰀⼀挀椀琀攀㸀 栀漀眀 䄀攀爀椀愀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 愀搀樀漀椀渀椀渀最 爀攀最椀漀渀猀 猀栀漀眀攀搀 blank of any markings while the planet was near in 1877 [Darian: 142]਀愀渀搀 琀栀攀 搀椀猀欀 氀愀爀最攀 愀渀搀 眀攀氀氀 猀栀漀眀渀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 琀栀攀渀 栀漀眀Ⰰ 琀漀 栀椀猀 surprise, as the planet got farther away and the disk਀猀栀爀愀渀欀Ⰰ 氀椀渀攀猀 戀攀最愀渀 琀漀 挀漀洀攀 漀甀琀 椀渀 琀栀攀 爀攀最椀漀渀 眀椀琀栀 甀渀洀椀猀琀愀欀愀戀氀攀 certainty. Thus to the very variability਀眀栀椀挀栀 栀愀搀 栀椀搀搀攀渀 琀栀攀洀 琀漀 漀琀栀攀爀猀 眀愀猀 搀甀攀 椀渀 匀挀栀椀愀瀀愀爀攀氀氀椀ᤀ猠 hands their initial recognition.

Flux affecting the canals was apparent from the਀漀甀琀猀攀琀 漀昀 洀礀 漀眀渀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀愀琀椀漀渀猀⸀ 一漀 氀攀猀猀 琀栀攀 猀甀戀樀攀挀琀 of transformation than the large dark regions was the਀渀攀琀眀漀爀欀 漀昀 琀攀渀甀漀甀猀 氀椀渀攀猀 琀栀愀琀 漀瘀攀爀猀瀀爀攀愀搀 琀栀攀洀⸀ 䄀琀 times they were very hard to make out, and then again਀琀栀攀礀 眀攀爀攀 挀漀洀瀀愀爀愀琀椀瘀攀氀礀 攀愀猀礀⸀ 䐀椀猀琀愀渀挀攀Ⰰ 椀渀猀琀攀愀搀 of rendering them more difficult, frequently did the਀爀攀瘀攀爀猀攀⸀ 一漀爀 眀愀猀 琀栀攀 洀愀琀琀攀爀 漀渀攀 漀昀 瘀攀椀氀椀渀最⸀ 一攀椀琀栀攀爀 our own atmosphere nor that of Mars showed itself਀椀渀 愀渀礀 眀愀礀 爀攀猀瀀漀渀猀椀戀氀攀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀椀爀 琀攀洀瀀漀爀愀爀礀 搀椀猀愀瀀瀀攀愀爀愀渀挀攀⸀ It was not always when our atmospheric conditions਀眀攀爀攀 戀攀猀琀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 氀椀渀攀猀 猀琀漀漀搀 漀甀琀 洀漀猀琀 挀氀攀愀爀氀礀Ⰰ and as to Martian meteorology there was no sign that਀椀琀 栀愀搀 愀渀礀琀栀椀渀最 眀栀愀琀攀瘀攀爀 琀漀 搀漀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 漀戀氀椀琀攀爀愀琀椀漀渀⸀ Long before the canals were dreamt of, veiling by਀䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 挀氀漀甀搀猀 漀爀 洀椀猀琀 栀愀搀 戀攀攀渀 挀漀渀猀椀搀攀爀攀搀 琀栀攀 挀愀甀猀攀 284਀漀昀 琀栀漀猀攀 挀栀愀渀最攀猀 椀渀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀ᤀ猠 最攀渀攀爀愀氀 昀攀愀琀甀爀攀猀Ⰰ 眀栀椀挀栀 are too extensive and deep-toned wholly to escape observation਀攀瘀攀渀 琀栀漀甀最栀 渀漀渀攀 琀漀漀 挀氀攀愀爀氀礀 猀攀攀渀⸀ 䤀琀 眀愀猀 early evident to me that they were not the cause of਀最攀渀攀爀愀氀 琀漀瀀漀最爀愀瀀栀椀挀 挀栀愀渀最攀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 攀焀甀愀氀氀礀 挀氀攀愀爀氀礀 愀猀 inoperative in those that affected the canals. In short,਀渀漀琀栀椀渀最 攀砀琀爀椀渀猀椀挀 琀漀 琀栀攀 挀愀渀愀氀 挀愀甀猀攀搀 椀琀猀 搀椀猀愀瀀瀀攀愀爀愀渀挀攀㬀 whatever the change was, its action lay intrinsic to the਀挀愀渀愀氀 椀琀猀攀氀昀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀伀渀 漀挀挀愀猀椀漀渀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 椀渀 眀栀漀氀攀 爀攀最椀漀渀猀 愀瀀瀀攀愀爀攀搀 琀漀 戀攀 blotted out. The most careful scrutiny would fail਀琀漀 搀椀猀挀氀漀猀攀 琀栀攀洀Ⰰ 眀栀攀爀攀 猀漀洀攀 琀椀洀攀 戀攀昀漀爀攀 琀栀攀礀 栀愀搀 戀攀攀渀 perfectly clear. And this though distance was at its਀洀椀渀椀洀甀洀 愀渀搀 搀攀昀椀渀椀琀椀漀渀 愀琀 椀琀猀 戀攀猀琀⸀ 䔀瘀攀渀 琀栀攀 猀琀爀漀渀最攀猀琀 marked of the strange pencil lines would show at times਀漀渀氀礀 愀猀 最栀漀猀琀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀椀爀 昀漀爀洀攀爀 猀攀氀瘀攀猀Ⰰ 眀栀椀氀攀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀椀爀 洀漀爀攀 delicate companions it taxed one’s faith to believe that਀琀栀攀礀 挀漀甀氀搀 攀瘀攀爀 爀攀愀氀氀礀 栀愀瘀攀 攀砀椀猀琀攀搀⸀ 䤀氀氀甀洀椀渀愀琀椀漀渀 was invoked to account for this, and plays a part in the਀攀昀昀攀挀琀 甀渀搀漀甀戀琀攀搀氀礀⸀ 䘀漀爀 愀琀 瀀氀甀洀戀 漀瀀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀 琀栀攀 挀攀渀琀爀攀 of the disk for two or three years has shown less਀搀攀琀愀椀氀 琀栀愀渀 戀攀昀漀爀攀 愀渀搀 愀昀琀攀爀 琀栀愀琀 攀瘀攀渀琀⸀ 吀栀椀猀 椀猀 瀀爀漀戀愀戀氀礀 due not, as with the moon, to the withdrawal of਀猀栀愀搀漀眀猀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 琀漀 琀栀攀 最爀攀愀琀攀爀 最氀愀爀攀 琀漀 眀栀椀挀栀 琀栀攀 搀椀猀欀 is then subjected. But this is not the chief cause of਀琀栀攀 挀栀愀渀最攀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀匀琀椀氀氀 洀漀爀攀 猀琀爀椀欀椀渀最 愀渀搀 甀渀愀挀挀漀甀渀琀愀戀氀攀 眀愀猀 琀栀攀 昀愀挀琀 285਀琀栀愀琀 攀愀挀栀 挀愀渀愀氀 栀愀搀 椀琀猀 漀眀渀 琀椀洀攀猀 愀渀搀 猀攀愀猀漀渀猀 昀漀爀 猀栀漀眀椀渀最 or remaining hid. Each had its entrances upon the਀猀挀攀渀攀 愀渀搀 椀琀猀 攀砀椀琀猀 昀爀漀洀 椀琀⸀ What dated the one left਀愀渀漀琀栀攀爀 甀渀愀昀昀攀挀琀攀搀⸀ 吀栀攀 Nilokeras was to be seen਀眀栀攀渀 琀栀攀 䌀栀爀礀猀漀爀爀栀漀愀猀 眀愀猀 invisible, and the Jamuna਀瀀攀爀昀攀挀琀氀礀 攀瘀椀搀攀渀琀 眀栀攀渀 琀栀攀 Indus could scarcely be਀洀愀搀攀 漀甀琀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀搀椀瘀 椀搀㴀✀椀开戀开㈀㠀㔀开㄀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀椀洀最爀椀最栀琀✀㸀

਀ 㰀椀洀最 猀爀挀㴀✀椀洀愀最攀猀⼀椀开戀开㈀㠀㔀开㄀⸀樀瀀最✀ 愀氀琀㴀✀✀ ⼀㸀

Showing seasonal change.
I.

਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀

So much shows in the two਀搀爀愀眀椀渀最猀 栀攀爀攀 爀攀瀀爀漀搀甀挀攀搀⸀ 吀栀攀 椀渀挀爀攀愀猀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 Ganges and the advent of the Chrysorrhoas are਀渀漀琀椀挀攀愀戀氀攀 椀渀 琀栀攀 猀攀挀漀渀搀 over the first.

਀㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀椀氀氀甀猀ⴀ㌀  ✀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀攀ⴀ挀愀瀀琀椀漀渀✀㸀匀栀漀眀椀渀最 猀攀愀猀漀渀愀氀 挀栀愀渀最攀⸀㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀䤀䤀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀
਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀匀攀愀猀漀渀愀氀 挀栀愀渀最攀猀 猀攀攀洀攀搀 the only thing to account਀昀漀爀 琀栀攀 瀀栀攀渀漀洀攀渀愀⸀ 䄀渀搀 椀渀 a general sense this was਀甀渀搀漀甀戀琀攀搀氀礀 琀栀攀 攀砀瀀氀愀渀愀琀椀漀渀⸀ To learn more about਀琀栀攀 洀愀琀琀攀爀Ⰰ 琀漀 瘀攀爀椀昀礀 椀琀 椀昀 椀琀 existed, and to particularize਀椀琀 椀昀 瀀漀猀猀椀戀氀攀Ⰰ 䤀 搀攀琀攀爀洀椀渀攀搀 琀漀 甀渀搀攀爀琀愀欀攀 愀渀 椀渀瘀攀猀琀椀最愀琀椀漀渀 permitting of quantitative precision in the case.਀䄀 洀攀琀栀漀搀 漀昀 搀漀椀渀最 琀栀椀猀 漀挀挀甀爀爀攀搀 琀漀 洀攀 眀栀椀挀栀 眀漀甀氀搀 286਀礀椀攀氀搀 爀攀猀甀氀琀猀 搀攀猀攀爀瘀椀渀最 漀昀 挀漀渀猀椀搀攀爀愀琀椀漀渀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 愀洀漀甀渀琀 of data upon which each was based and capable਀漀昀 戀攀椀渀最 挀漀洀瀀愀爀攀搀 眀椀琀栀 漀渀攀 愀渀漀琀栀攀爀 甀瀀漀渀 愀渀 攀焀甀愀氀 footing from which relative information could be derived.਀䤀琀 猀攀攀洀攀搀 眀椀猀攀 琀漀 搀攀琀攀爀洀椀渀攀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 搀爀愀眀椀渀最猀 the degree of visibility of a given canal at਀搀椀昀昀攀爀攀渀琀 猀攀愀猀漀渀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 礀攀愀爀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 琀栀攀渀 琀漀 搀漀 this for every important canal during the same period਀漀昀 琀椀洀攀⸀ 吀栀攀 最爀攀愀琀 渀甀洀戀攀爀 漀昀 琀栀攀 搀爀愀眀椀渀最猀 猀甀最最攀猀琀攀搀 this use to which they might be put. For from a great਀愀挀挀甀洀甀氀愀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 搀愀琀愀 愀 猀攀琀 漀昀 猀琀愀琀椀猀琀椀挀猀 漀渀 琀栀攀 猀甀戀樀攀挀琀 could be secured in which accident or bias would be਀氀愀爀最攀氀礀 攀氀椀洀椀渀愀琀攀搀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 琀攀氀氀椀渀最 攀昀昀攀挀琀 漀昀 愀瘀攀爀愀最攀猀 make itself felt.

To render this possible it was necessary that the਀搀爀愀眀椀渀最猀 猀栀漀甀氀搀 戀攀 愀氀椀欀攀 渀甀洀攀爀漀甀猀Ⰰ 挀漀渀猀攀挀甀琀椀瘀攀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 extended in time. These conditions were fulfilled by਀琀栀攀 搀爀愀眀椀渀最猀 洀愀搀攀 戀礀 洀攀 愀琀 琀栀攀 漀瀀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 ㄀㤀 ㌀ 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㘀崀⸀ Three hundred and seventy-two drawings had then਀戀攀攀渀 猀攀挀甀爀攀搀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 琀栀攀礀 挀漀瘀攀爀攀搀 戀攀琀眀攀攀渀 琀栀攀洀 愀 瀀攀爀椀漀搀 of six months and a half. They were also as consecutive਀愀猀 椀琀 眀愀猀 瀀漀猀猀椀戀氀攀 琀漀 猀攀挀甀爀攀⸀ 䐀甀爀椀渀最 愀 瀀愀爀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 period the planet was seen and drawn at every twenty-four਀栀漀甀爀猀Ⰰ 昀爀漀洀 䄀瀀爀椀氀 㔀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㘀 䄀爀椀攀猀 㜀崀Ⰰ 渀愀洀攀氀礀Ⰰ 琀漀 䴀愀礀 ㈀㘀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㘀 吀愀甀爀甀猀 ㄀崀Ⰰ 漀爀 昀漀爀 昀漀爀琀礀ⴀ猀椀砀 consecutive days. Though the rest of the time did਀渀漀琀 攀焀甀愀氀 琀栀椀猀 瀀攀爀昀攀挀琀椀漀渀Ⰰ 渀漀 最爀攀愀琀 最愀瀀 漀挀挀甀爀爀攀搀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 one hundred and forty-three nights were utilized in all.਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㠀㜀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㠀㜀✀㸀㈀㠀㜀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 Furthermore, as these drawings were all made by one਀洀愀渀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 瀀攀爀猀漀渀愀氀 攀焀甀愀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀攀爀᐀愠 瘀攀爀礀 important source of deviation where drawings are to਀戀攀 挀漀洀瀀愀爀攀搀᐀眠愀猀 攀氀椀洀椀渀愀琀攀搀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䈀甀琀 攀瘀攀渀 琀栀椀猀 搀漀攀猀 渀漀琀 最椀瘀攀 愀渀 椀搀攀愀 漀昀 琀栀攀 洀愀猀猀 漀昀 the data. For by the method employed about਀㄀   搀爀愀眀椀渀最猀 眀攀爀攀 甀猀攀搀 椀渀 琀栀攀 挀愀猀攀 漀昀 攀愀挀栀 挀愀渀愀氀Ⰰ and as 109 canals were examined this gave 10,900਀猀攀瀀愀爀愀琀攀 搀攀琀攀爀洀椀渀愀琀椀漀渀猀 甀瀀漀渀 眀栀椀挀栀 琀栀攀 甀氀琀椀洀愀琀攀 result depended. That each of these determinations਀眀愀猀 椀渀搀攀瀀攀渀搀攀渀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 漀琀栀攀爀猀 眀椀氀氀 愀瀀瀀攀愀爀 昀爀漀洀 愀 description of the method itself on which the investigation਀眀愀猀 挀漀渀搀甀挀琀攀搀⸀ 吀漀 甀渀搀攀爀猀琀愀渀搀 琀栀愀琀 洀攀琀栀漀搀 漀渀攀 must begin a little way back.

As the two planets, Mars and the Earth, turn on their਀愀砀攀猀 琀栀攀 瀀愀爀琀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀椀爀 猀甀爀昀愀挀攀猀 琀栀攀礀 瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀 琀漀 攀愀挀栀 other are constantly changing. For a feature on Mars਀琀漀 戀攀 瘀椀猀椀戀氀攀 昀爀漀洀 愀 最椀瘀攀渀 瀀漀猀琀 漀渀 攀愀爀琀栀Ⰰ 漀戀猀攀爀瘀攀爀 愀渀搀 observed must confront each other, and, furthermore,਀椀琀 洀甀猀琀 戀攀 搀愀礀 琀栀攀爀攀 眀栀攀渀 椀琀 椀猀 渀椀最栀琀 栀攀爀攀⸀ 䈀甀琀Ⰰ 愀猀 Mars takes about forty minutes longer to turn than the਀䔀愀爀琀栀Ⰰ 猀甀挀栀 挀漀渀昀爀漀渀琀椀渀最 漀挀挀甀爀猀 氀愀琀攀爀 愀渀搀 氀愀琀攀爀 攀愀挀栀 night by about forty minutes, until finally it does not਀漀挀挀甀爀 愀琀 愀氀氀 眀栀椀氀攀 䴀愀爀猀 椀猀 猀甀椀琀愀戀氀礀 愀戀漀瘀攀 琀栀攀 栀漀爀椀稀漀渀㬀 then the feature passes from sight to remain hidden਀琀椀氀氀 琀栀攀 搀椀昀昀攀爀攀渀挀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 爀漀琀愀琀椀漀渀猀 戀爀椀渀最猀 椀琀 爀漀甀渀搀 椀渀琀漀 view again. There are thus times when a given region਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㠀㠀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㠀㠀✀㸀㈀㠀㠀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 is visible, times when it is not, and these succeed each਀漀琀栀攀爀 椀渀 昀爀漀洀 昀椀瘀攀 琀漀 猀椀砀 眀攀攀欀猀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 愀爀攀 挀愀氀氀攀搀 瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀愀琀椀漀渀猀⸀ For about a fortnight at each presentation a਀爀攀最椀漀渀 椀猀 挀攀渀琀爀愀氀氀礀 攀渀漀甀最栀 瀀氀愀挀攀搀 琀漀 戀攀 眀攀氀氀 猀攀攀渀㬀 昀漀爀 the rest of the period either ill-placed or on the other਀猀椀搀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䤀昀 愀 洀愀爀欀椀渀最 眀攀爀攀 愀氀眀愀礀猀 猀愀氀椀攀渀琀 攀渀漀甀最栀 椀琀 眀漀甀氀搀 appear in every drawing made of the disk during the਀爀攀挀甀爀爀攀渀琀 昀漀爀琀渀椀最栀琀猀 漀昀 椀琀猀 搀椀猀瀀氀愀礀⸀ 䤀昀 椀琀 眀攀爀攀 眀攀愀欀攀爀 than this, it might appear on some drawings and not on਀漀琀栀攀爀猀Ⰰ 搀攀瀀攀渀搀攀渀琀 甀瀀漀渀 椀琀猀 漀眀渀 猀琀爀攀渀最琀栀 愀渀搀 甀瀀漀渀 琀栀攀 definition at the moment, and we should have a certain਀瀀攀爀挀攀渀琀愀最攀 漀昀 瘀椀猀椀戀椀氀椀琀礀 昀漀爀 椀琀 愀琀 琀栀愀琀 瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀愀琀椀漀渀⸀ While if it changed in strength between one presentation਀愀渀搀 琀栀攀 渀攀砀琀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 瀀攀爀挀攀渀琀愀最攀 漀昀 椀琀猀 爀攀挀漀爀搀椀渀最 眀漀甀氀搀 change likewise. Definition of course is always varying,਀戀甀琀 椀昀 椀琀猀 瘀愀氀甀攀 戀攀 渀漀琀攀搀 愀琀 琀栀攀 琀椀洀攀 漀昀 攀愀挀栀 搀爀愀眀椀渀最 this factor may be allowed for more or less successfully.਀䴀愀欀椀渀最 猀甀挀栀 愀氀氀漀眀愀渀挀攀Ⰰ 琀漀最攀琀栀攀爀 眀椀琀栀 漀琀栀攀爀 corrections to produce extrinsic equality, such as the਀瀀氀愀渀攀琀ᤀ猠 搀椀猀琀愀渀挀攀Ⰰ 眀栀椀挀栀 眀攀 渀攀攀搀 渀漀琀 攀渀琀攀爀 甀瀀漀渀 栀攀爀攀Ⰰ we are left with only the marking’s intrinsic visibility਀琀漀 愀昀昀攀挀琀 琀栀攀 瀀攀爀挀攀渀琀愀最攀猀㬀 琀栀愀琀 椀猀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 瀀攀爀挀攀渀琀愀最攀猀 琀攀氀氀 of the changes it has successively undergone and give਀甀猀 愀 栀椀猀琀漀爀礀 漀昀 椀琀猀 眀愀砀 愀渀搀 眀愀渀攀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䘀爀漀洀 搀爀愀眀椀渀最猀 愀挀挀甀爀愀琀攀氀礀 洀愀搀攀 椀琀 椀猀 瀀漀猀猀椀戀氀攀 琀漀 愀搀搀 to the accuracy of the percentage by noting in each,਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㠀㤀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㠀㤀✀㸀㈀㠀㤀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 not only the presence or absence of the marking, but਀琀栀攀 搀攀最爀攀攀 漀昀 猀琀爀攀渀最琀栀 眀椀琀栀 眀栀椀挀栀 椀琀 椀猀 爀攀瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀攀搀⸀ This was done on the final investigation in the present਀挀愀猀攀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 椀琀 眀愀猀 椀渀琀攀爀攀猀琀椀渀最 琀漀 渀漀琀攀 栀漀眀 氀椀琀琀氀攀 搀椀昀昀攀爀攀渀挀攀 it made in the result.

The longitude of each canal was known, and the਀氀漀渀最椀琀甀搀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 挀攀渀琀爀愀氀 洀攀爀椀搀椀愀渀 漀昀 攀愀挀栀 搀爀愀眀椀渀最 眀愀猀 always calculated and tabulated with the drawing, so਀琀栀愀琀 椀琀 眀愀猀 瀀漀猀猀椀戀氀攀 琀漀 琀攀氀氀 眀栀椀挀栀 搀爀愀眀椀渀最猀 洀椀最栀琀 栀愀瘀攀 shown the canal. Only when the position of the canal਀眀愀猀 眀椀琀栀椀渀 愀 挀攀爀琀愀椀渀 渀甀洀戀攀爀 漀昀 搀攀最爀攀攀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 挀攀渀琀爀攀 of the drawing (60°) was the drawing used in the਀爀攀猀甀氀琀Ⰰ 愀氀氀漀眀愀渀挀攀 戀攀椀渀最 搀甀氀礀 洀愀搀攀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀 氀漀猀猀 甀瀀漀渀 琀栀攀 phase side. Each drawing, it should be remembered,਀眀愀猀 愀猀 渀攀愀爀氀礀 愀渀 椀渀猀琀愀渀琀愀渀攀漀甀猀 瀀椀挀琀甀爀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 搀椀猀欀 愀猀 possible. It covered only a few minutes of observation,਀愀渀搀 眀愀猀 洀愀搀攀 瀀爀愀挀琀椀挀愀氀氀礀 愀猀 椀昀 琀栀攀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀攀爀 栀愀搀 never seen the planet before. In other words, the਀洀愀渀 眀愀猀 猀甀渀欀 椀渀 琀栀攀 洀愀渀渀攀爀⸀ 匀甀挀栀 洀攀渀琀愀氀 攀昀昀愀挀攀洀攀渀琀 is as vital to good observation as mental assertion is਀愀昀琀攀爀眀愀爀搀 琀漀 瀀爀攀最渀愀渀琀 爀攀愀猀漀渀椀渀最⸀ 䘀漀爀 愀 洀愀渀 猀栀漀甀氀搀 be a machine in collecting his data, a mind in coördinating਀琀栀攀洀⸀ 吀漀 爀攀瘀攀爀猀攀 琀栀攀 瀀爀漀挀攀猀猀Ⰰ 愀猀 椀猀 猀漀洀攀琀椀洀攀猀 done, is not conducive to science.

When the successive true percentages of visibility਀漀昀 愀 最椀瘀攀渀 挀愀渀愀氀 栀愀搀 琀栀甀猀 戀攀攀渀 昀漀甀渀搀Ⰰ 琀栀攀礀 眀攀爀攀 瀀氀漀琀琀攀搀 vertically at points along a horizontal line corresponding਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㤀 ✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㤀 ✀㸀㈀㤀 㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 in distance from the origin to the number of days਀愀昀琀攀爀 ⠀漀爀 戀攀昀漀爀攀⤀ 琀栀攀 猀甀洀洀攀爀 猀漀氀猀琀椀挀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 northern hemisphere. The horizontal distance thus਀洀攀愀猀甀爀攀搀 琀栀攀 琀椀洀攀 眀栀椀氀攀 琀栀攀 瘀攀爀琀椀挀愀氀 栀攀椀最栀琀 最愀瘀攀 琀栀攀 relative visibility. The points so plotted were then਀樀漀椀渀攀搀 戀礀 愀 猀洀漀漀琀栀 挀甀爀瘀攀⸀ 吀栀椀猀 挀甀爀瘀攀 爀攀瀀爀漀搀甀挀攀搀 琀栀攀 continuous change in visibility undergone by the canal਀搀甀爀椀渀最 琀栀攀 瀀攀爀椀漀搀 甀渀搀攀爀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀愀琀椀漀渀⸀ 䤀琀 最愀瘀攀 愀 graphic picture of the canal’s change of state. It਀猀攀攀洀攀搀Ⰰ 琀栀攀爀攀昀漀爀攀Ⰰ 瀀爀漀瀀攀爀 琀漀 挀愀氀氀 椀琀 琀栀攀 挀愀渀愀氀ᤀ猠 挀愀爀琀漀甀挀栀攀 or sign manual.

In this manner were obtained the cartouches of 109਀挀愀渀愀氀猀⸀ 一漀眀Ⰰ 愀猀 琀栀攀 瀀爀攀猀攀渀挀攀 漀爀 愀戀猀攀渀挀攀 漀昀 愀渀礀 挀愀渀愀氀 in any drawing was entirely irrespective of the਀瀀爀攀猀攀渀挀攀 漀爀 愀戀猀攀渀挀攀 漀昀 愀渀漀琀栀攀爀Ⰰ 攀愀挀栀 猀甀挀栀 搀愀琀甀洀 spoke only for itself, and was an entirely independent਀漀戀猀攀爀瘀愀琀椀漀渀⸀ 吀栀攀 眀栀漀氀攀 椀渀瘀攀猀琀椀最愀琀椀漀渀 琀栀甀猀 爀攀猀琀攀搀 漀渀 10,900 completely separate determinations, each as਀甀渀挀漀渀搀椀琀椀漀渀攀搀 戀礀 琀栀攀 漀琀栀攀爀猀 愀猀 椀昀 椀琀 攀砀椀猀琀攀搀 愀氀漀渀攀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䄀猀 攀瘀攀爀礀 昀愀挀琀漀爀 漀甀琀猀椀搀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 挀愀渀愀氀 椀琀猀攀氀昀 眀栀椀挀栀 挀漀甀氀搀 affect the latter’s visibility was taken account of, and਀琀栀攀 挀漀爀爀攀挀琀椀漀渀 搀甀攀 琀漀 椀琀 愀猀 渀攀愀爀氀礀 愀猀 瀀漀猀猀椀戀氀攀 愀瀀瀀氀椀攀搀 before the cartouches were deduced, the latter represent਀琀栀攀 瘀椀猀椀戀椀氀椀琀礀 漀昀 琀栀攀 挀愀渀愀氀 㰀攀洀㸀搀甀攀 琀漀 椀渀琀爀椀渀猀椀挀 挀栀愀渀最攀 alone. In other words, they give not the apparent only਀戀甀琀 琀栀攀 爀攀愀氀 栀椀猀琀漀爀礀 漀昀 琀栀攀 挀愀渀愀氀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀 瀀攀爀椀漀搀 挀漀渀挀攀爀渀攀搀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀 291਀䤀洀瀀漀爀琀愀渀琀 搀椀猀挀氀漀猀甀爀攀猀 爀攀猀甀氀琀 昀爀漀洀 椀渀猀瀀攀挀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 cartouches. This we shall perceive by considering what਀搀椀昀昀攀爀攀渀琀 挀甀爀瘀攀猀 洀攀愀渀 椀渀 琀栀攀 挀愀猀攀⸀ 䤀昀 琀栀攀 挀愀渀愀氀 眀攀爀攀 an unchangeable phenomenon, for any reason whatever,਀椀琀猀 挀愀爀琀漀甀挀栀攀 眀漀甀氀搀 戀攀 愀 㰀攀洀㸀猀琀爀愀椀最栀琀 氀椀渀攀 瀀愀爀愀氀氀攀氀 琀漀 the horizon of the diagram. This is evident from the਀昀愀挀琀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 瘀椀猀椀戀椀氀椀琀礀 眀漀甀氀搀 琀栀攀渀 渀攀瘀攀爀 瘀愀爀礀⸀ 䤀昀Ⰰ on the other hand, it were waxing and waning, and the਀眀愀砀 漀爀 眀愀渀攀 眀攀爀攀 甀渀椀昀漀爀洀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 挀愀爀琀漀甀挀栀攀 眀漀甀氀搀 戀攀 愀 straight line inclined to the horizontal; rising if the਀挀愀渀愀氀 眀攀爀攀 椀渀挀爀攀愀猀椀渀最Ⰰ 昀愀氀氀椀渀最 眀栀攀渀 椀琀 搀攀挀爀攀愀猀攀搀⸀ Lastly, if the rate of change itself varied, the cartouche਀眀漀甀氀搀 戀攀 愀 挀甀爀瘀攀 挀漀渀挀愀瘀攀 漀爀 挀漀渀瘀攀砀 琀漀 琀栀攀 氀椀渀攀 搀攀渀漀琀椀渀最 the time, according as the rate of change of the਀最爀漀眀琀栀 漀爀 搀攀挀愀礀 最爀攀眀 最爀攀愀琀攀爀 漀爀 氀攀猀猀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀吀漀 猀攀攀 琀栀椀猀 琀栀攀 洀漀爀攀 挀氀攀愀爀氀礀Ⰰ 眀攀 洀愀礀 猀攀琀 漀瘀攀爀 愀最愀椀渀猀琀 the cartouche the canal character it signalizes:—

਀      㰀搀椀瘀 椀搀㴀✀昀㐀✀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀⌀爀㐀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀 ㈀㈀✀㸀嬀㐀崀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀
AstaborasNorth of East
70°
EuphratesNorth of West
55°
DjihounNorth of West
਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀琀挀攀✀㸀䌀栀愀爀愀挀琀攀爀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀栀椀✀㸀䌀愀渀愀氀 椀渀瘀愀爀椀愀戀氀攀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀栀椀✀㸀䌀愀渀愀氀 椀渀挀爀攀愀猀椀渀最 猀琀攀愀搀椀氀礀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀栀椀✀㸀䌀愀渀愀氀 搀攀挀爀攀愀猀椀渀最 猀琀攀愀搀椀氀礀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀栀椀✀㸀䌀愀渀愀氀 搀攀挀爀攀愀猀椀渀最Ⰰ 戀甀琀 洀漀爀攀 愀渀搀 洀漀爀攀 猀氀漀眀氀礀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀栀椀✀㸀䌀愀渀愀氀 椀渀挀爀攀愀猀椀渀最Ⰰ 戀甀琀 洀漀爀攀 愀渀搀 洀漀爀攀 爀愀瀀椀搀氀礀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀栀椀✀㸀䌀愀渀愀氀 搀攀挀爀攀愀猀椀渀最 洀漀爀攀 愀渀搀 洀漀爀攀 爀愀瀀椀搀氀礀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀栀椀✀㸀䌀愀渀愀氀 椀渀挀爀攀愀猀椀渀最 洀漀爀攀 愀渀搀 洀漀爀攀 猀氀漀眀氀礀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀栀椀✀㸀䌀愀渀愀氀 椀渀挀爀攀愀猀椀渀最 洀漀爀攀 愀渀搀 洀漀爀攀 猀氀漀眀氀礀 琀漀 愀 洀愀砀椀洀甀洀Ⰰ thence decreasing more and more rapidly.਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀
Cartouche.
A horizontal straight line.
A straight line tilted up on the right.
A straight line tilted up on the left.
A curved line descending, concave from above.
A curved line ascending, concave from above.
A curved line descending, convex from above.
A curved line ascending, convex from above.
਀㰀搀椀瘀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㤀㈀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㤀㈀✀㸀㈀㤀㈀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀 A curved line first descending, then਀    愀猀挀攀渀搀椀渀最Ⰰ 挀漀渀挀愀瘀攀 昀爀漀洀 愀戀漀瘀攀 琀栀爀漀甀最栀漀甀琀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 Canal decreasing more and more slowly to a minimum,਀    琀栀攀渀挀攀 椀渀挀爀攀愀猀椀渀最 洀漀爀攀 愀渀搀 洀漀爀攀 爀愀瀀椀搀氀礀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀
A curved line first descending, then ascending, convex from above throughout.

If the cartouche first falls and then rises, this shows਀琀栀攀 挀愀渀愀氀 琀漀 栀愀瘀攀 瀀愀猀猀攀搀 琀栀爀漀甀最栀 愀 洀椀渀椀洀甀洀 猀琀愀琀攀 愀琀 the time denoted by the point of inflection; if it rises਀昀椀爀猀琀 愀渀搀 昀愀氀氀猀 愀昀琀攀爀眀愀爀搀Ⰰ 琀栀椀猀 戀攀琀漀欀攀渀猀 椀渀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 眀愀礀 a maximum. Thus the cartouches reveal to us the਀挀漀洀瀀氀攀琀攀 栀椀猀琀漀爀礀 漀昀 琀栀攀 挀愀渀愀氀猀Ⰰ᐀眠栀愀琀 挀栀愀渀最攀猀 琀栀攀礀 underwent and the times at which these occurred.਀吀栀攀 挀愀爀琀漀甀挀栀攀Ⰰ 琀栀攀渀Ⰰ 椀猀 琀栀攀 最爀愀瀀栀椀挀 瀀漀爀琀爀愀礀愀氀 漀昀 琀栀攀 canal’s behavior. It not only distinguishes at once਀戀攀琀眀攀攀渀 琀栀攀 搀攀愀搀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 氀椀瘀椀渀最Ⰰ 愀猀 眀攀 洀愀礀 挀愀氀氀 琀栀攀 effect of intrinsic change, but it tells the exact character਀漀昀 琀栀椀猀 挀栀愀渀最攀Ⰰ᐀琠栀攀 眀愀礀 椀琀 瘀愀爀椀攀搀 昀爀漀洀 琀椀洀攀 琀漀 琀椀洀攀Ⰰ the epoch at which the development was at its minimum਀漀爀 椀琀猀 洀愀砀椀洀甀洀 昀漀爀 愀渀礀 最椀瘀攀渀 挀愀渀愀氀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 氀愀猀琀氀礀Ⰰ 椀琀猀 actual strength at any time, thus giving its relative਀椀洀瀀漀爀琀愀渀挀攀 椀渀 琀栀攀 挀愀渀愀氀 猀礀猀琀攀洀⸀ 䘀漀爀 琀栀攀 栀攀椀最栀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 curve above the diagrammatic horizon marks the absolute਀愀猀 眀攀氀氀 愀猀 琀栀攀 爀攀氀愀琀椀瘀攀 瘀椀猀椀戀椀氀椀琀礀 愀渀搀 攀渀愀戀氀攀猀 甀猀 琀漀 rank the canals between themselves.

Now, the first point it furnishes a criterion for is the਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㤀㌀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㤀㌀✀㸀㈀㤀㌀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 real or illusory character of the canals. If a line be due਀琀漀 椀氀氀甀猀椀漀渀Ⰰ 眀栀攀琀栀攀爀 漀瀀琀椀挀愀氀 漀爀 瀀栀礀猀椀挀愀氀Ⰰ 椀琀 挀愀渀 瘀愀爀礀 漀渀氀礀 from extrinsic cause, since it has no intrinsic existence.਀䤀昀Ⰰ 琀栀攀爀攀昀漀爀攀Ⰰ 愀氀氀 攀砀琀爀椀渀猀椀挀 挀愀甀猀攀 戀攀 愀氀氀漀眀攀搀 昀漀爀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 挀愀爀琀漀甀挀栀攀 of this ghost must needs be a horizontal straight਀氀椀渀攀㰀⼀攀洀㸀⸀ 䔀瘀攀渀 椀昀 琀栀攀 攀砀琀爀椀渀猀椀挀 昀愀挀琀漀爀猀 琀漀 椀琀猀 瀀爀漀搀甀挀琀椀漀渀 be imperfectly accounted for, their retention could only਀挀愀甀猀攀 猀礀猀琀攀洀愀琀椀挀 瘀愀爀椀愀琀椀漀渀猀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 猀琀爀愀椀最栀琀 氀椀渀攀 椀渀 愀氀氀 the lines, which would themselves vary systematically,਀愀渀搀 琀栀攀猀攀 昀愀挀琀漀爀猀 挀漀甀氀搀 琀栀攀爀攀昀漀爀攀 戀攀 搀攀琀攀挀琀攀搀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀吀栀椀猀 挀爀椀琀攀爀椀漀渀 椀猀 愀戀猀漀氀甀琀攀⸀ 唀渀氀攀猀猀 愀氀氀 琀栀攀 挀愀爀琀漀甀挀栀攀猀 were approximately straight lines, no illusion theory਀漀昀 愀渀礀 欀椀渀搀 眀栀愀琀攀瘀攀爀 挀漀甀氀搀 攀砀瀀氀愀椀渀 琀栀攀 昀愀挀琀猀⸀ 䔀瘀攀渀 then the lines might all be real; for unchangeable reality਀眀漀甀氀搀 瀀爀漀搀甀挀攀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 攀昀昀攀挀琀 漀渀 琀栀攀 挀愀爀琀漀甀挀栀攀猀 愀猀 椀氀氀甀猀椀漀渀⸀ In the case therefore of horizontal straight line਀挀愀爀琀漀甀挀栀攀猀Ⰰ 眀攀 猀栀漀甀氀搀 栀愀瘀攀 渀漀 最甀愀爀愀渀琀攀攀 漀渀 琀栀愀琀 猀挀漀爀攀 of reality or illusion; but, on the other hand, curves or਀椀渀挀氀椀渀攀搀 猀琀爀愀椀最栀琀 氀椀渀攀猀 椀渀 琀栀攀洀 眀漀甀氀搀 戀攀 椀渀猀琀愀渀琀氀礀 昀愀琀愀氀 to all illusion theories.

Turning now to the 109 cartouches obtained in 1903 [Darian: 156],਀琀栀攀 昀椀爀猀琀 瀀漀椀渀琀 琀漀 猀琀爀椀欀攀 漀渀攀ᤀ猠 渀漀琀椀挀攀 椀猀 琀栀愀琀 愀氀氀 戀甀琀 琀栀爀攀攀 of them are curves and that even these three must be਀愀挀挀攀瀀琀攀搀 眀椀琀栀 愀 挀愀瘀攀愀琀⸀ 䠀攀爀攀Ⰰ 琀栀攀渀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 挀愀爀琀漀甀挀栀攀猀 搀椀猀瀀漀猀攀 once and for all of any and every illusion theory.਀吀栀攀礀 猀栀漀眀 挀漀渀挀氀甀猀椀瘀攀氀礀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 愀爀攀 爀攀愀氀 漀戀樀攀挀琀猀 which wax and wane from some intrinsic cause.

਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㤀㐀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㤀㐀✀㸀㈀㤀㐀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 The second result afforded by the cartouches is not of਀愀 搀攀猀琀爀甀挀琀椀瘀攀Ⰰ 渀攀最愀琀椀瘀攀 挀栀愀爀愀挀琀攀爀Ⰰ᐀栠漀眀攀瘀攀爀 瘀愀氀甀愀戀氀攀 the destruction of bars to knowledge may be,—but of਀愀 挀漀渀猀琀爀甀挀琀椀瘀攀Ⰰ 瀀漀猀椀琀椀瘀攀 漀渀攀⸀ 䤀琀 搀漀攀猀 渀漀琀Ⰰ 氀椀欀攀 琀栀攀 昀椀爀猀琀Ⰰ follow from mere inspection, but is brought to light only਀戀礀 挀漀洀瀀愀爀椀猀漀渀 漀昀 愀氀氀 琀栀攀 挀愀爀琀漀甀挀栀攀猀⸀ 䤀渀 愀 瀀漀猀椀琀椀瘀攀 眀愀礀Ⰰ therefore, its testimony is as conclusive as it was in a negative਀搀椀爀攀挀琀椀漀渀⸀ 䘀漀爀 琀栀愀琀 ㄀ Ⰰ㤀   猀攀瀀愀爀愀琀攀 愀渀搀 椀渀搀攀瀀攀渀搀攀渀琀 data should result in a general law of development਀琀栀爀漀甀最栀 攀椀琀栀攀爀 挀漀渀猀挀椀漀甀猀 漀爀 甀渀挀漀渀猀挀椀漀甀猀 戀椀愀猀Ⰰ 眀栀攀渀 琀栀漀猀攀 data would have to be combined in so complicated a਀洀愀渀渀攀爀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀 爀攀猀甀氀琀 琀漀 攀洀攀爀最攀 愀猀 椀猀 栀攀爀攀 琀栀攀 挀愀猀攀Ⰰ 椀猀 impossible. Chance could not do it and consciousness਀眀漀甀氀搀 爀攀焀甀椀爀攀 愀 挀漀爀搀椀渀愀琀攀 洀攀洀漀爀礀Ⰰ 琀漀 眀栀椀挀栀 䴀甀爀瀀栀礀ᤀ猠 nine games of chess at once would be child’s play.

Of the 109 canals examined 106 showed by their cartouches਀琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀礀 栀愀搀 戀攀攀渀 搀甀爀椀渀最 琀栀攀 眀栀漀氀攀 漀爀 愀 瀀愀爀琀 of the period in a state of change. But the change਀眀愀猀 渀漀琀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 昀漀爀 愀氀氀⸀ 䤀渀 猀漀洀攀 琀栀攀 洀椀渀椀洀甀洀 挀愀洀攀 early; in others, late. Some decreased to nothing and਀猀琀愀礀攀搀 琀栀攀爀攀㬀 漀琀栀攀爀猀 椀渀挀爀攀愀猀攀搀 昀爀漀洀 稀攀爀漀 愀渀搀 眀攀爀攀 increasing still at the time observations closed.

Latitude proved the means of bringing comparative਀漀爀搀攀爀 漀甀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 挀栀愀漀猀⸀ 圀栀攀渀 琀栀攀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 眀攀爀攀 爀愀渀最攀搀 according to their latitude on the planet, a law in their਀搀攀瘀攀氀漀瀀洀攀渀琀 挀愀洀攀 琀漀 氀椀最栀琀⸀ 吀漀 甀渀搀攀爀猀琀愀渀搀 椀琀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 circumstances under which the canals were presented਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㤀㔀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㤀㔀✀㸀㈀㤀㔀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 must be considered as regards the then season of਀琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀ᤀ猠 礀攀愀爀⸀ 䤀渀 ㄀㤀 ㌀ 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀 瀀愀猀猀攀搀 漀渀 February 28 [Darian: 156 Pisces 28] through the point of its orbit where the਀猀甀洀洀攀爀 猀漀氀猀琀椀挀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 渀漀爀琀栀攀爀渀 栀攀洀椀猀瀀栀攀爀攀 漀挀挀甀爀猀⸀ One hundred and twenty-six days later took place the਀昀椀爀猀琀 猀渀漀眀昀愀氀氀 椀渀 琀栀攀 愀爀挀琀椀挀 愀渀搀 猀甀戀愀爀挀琀椀挀 爀攀最椀漀渀猀Ⰰ 愀渀 event that denoted the beginning of the new polar cap;਀昀爀漀洀 眀栀椀挀栀 搀愀琀攀 琀栀攀 猀渀漀眀 琀栀攀爀攀 最爀愀搀甀愀氀氀礀 椀渀挀爀攀愀猀攀搀⸀ Its autumnal equinox the planet did not reach till਀䄀甀最甀猀琀 ㈀㤀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㘀 䴀椀琀栀甀渀愀 ㄀ 崀⸀ 一漀眀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 眀攀爀攀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀攀搀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀椀爀琀礀ⴀ猀椀砀 days before the summer solstice of the northern਀栀攀洀椀猀瀀栀攀爀攀 琀漀 漀渀攀 栀甀渀搀爀攀搀 愀渀搀 昀漀爀琀礀ⴀ猀攀瘀攀渀 搀愀礀猀 愀昀琀攀爀 that event. We may tabulate the dates as follows:—

਀ ਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 戀戀 渀戀氀 渀戀爀 琀挀攀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀䐀愀礀 昀爀漀洀 匀甀洀洀攀爀 匀漀氀猀琀椀挀攀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 戀戀 戀氀 戀爀 琀挀攀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀䌀漀爀爀攀猀瀀漀渀搀椀渀最 䐀愀琀攀 漀渀 䔀愀爀琀栀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 渀戀氀 渀戀戀 戀爀✀㸀ⴀ㌀ 㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 戀氀 戀爀 渀戀戀✀㸀䨀甀渀攀 㤀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀氀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 渀戀爀✀㸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀 㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀䨀甀渀攀 ㈀㈀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀氀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 戀爀✀㸀⬀㌀ 㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀䨀甀氀礀 㘀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀氀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 戀爀✀㸀⬀㘀 㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀䨀甀氀礀 ㈀ 㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀氀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 戀爀✀㸀⬀㤀 㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀䄀甀最甀猀琀 㐀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀氀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 戀爀✀㸀⬀㄀㈀ 㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀䄀甀最甀猀琀 ㈀ 㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀渀戀氀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 戀爀✀㸀⬀㄀㔀 㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀✀㸀匀攀瀀琀攀洀戀攀爀 㔀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 戀戀 渀戀爀 渀戀氀 昀猀✀ 挀漀氀猀瀀愀渀㴀✀㐀✀㸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀愀戀氀攀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀吀栀攀 瘀攀爀渀愀氀 氀漀渀最椀琀甀搀攀 椀猀 琀栀攀 氀漀渀最椀琀甀搀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀 in its orbit reckoned from the vernal equinox. From਀琀栀攀 琀愀戀氀攀 椀琀 愀瀀瀀攀愀爀猀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 挀愀爀琀漀甀挀栀攀猀 挀漀瘀攀爀 琀栀攀 搀攀瘀攀氀漀瀀洀攀渀琀 of the canals from about June 6 to September਀㄀ 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 匀椀洀栀愀 ㈀㄀ 琀漀 匀挀漀爀瀀椀甀猀 ㈀㔀崀 漀昀 琀栀攀 䴀愀爀琀椀愀渀 渀漀爀琀栀攀爀渀 栀攀洀椀猀瀀栀攀爀攀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀 挀甀爀爀攀渀琀 but to us undated year, ab Marte condita.

਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㤀㘀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㤀㘀✀㸀㈀㤀㘀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 The 109 canals included all the more conspicuous਀挀愀渀愀氀猀 漀渀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀 愀琀 琀栀愀琀 漀瀀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀Ⰰ 愀氀氀 琀栀漀猀攀 that lent themselves by the sufficient frequency਀眀椀琀栀 眀栀椀挀栀 琀栀攀礀 眀攀爀攀 猀攀攀渀 琀漀 愀 猀琀愀琀椀猀琀椀挀愀氀 爀攀猀甀氀琀⸀ They lay spread all the way between the edge of਀琀栀攀 瀀漀氀愀爀 挀愀瀀 椀渀 氀愀琀椀琀甀搀攀 㠀㜀뀀 渀漀爀琀栀 琀漀 琀栀攀 攀砀琀爀攀洀攀 limit south, at which the then tilt of the north pole਀琀漀眀愀爀搀 琀栀攀 攀愀爀琀栀 瀀攀爀洀椀琀琀攀搀 漀昀 挀愀渀愀氀 爀攀挀漀最渀椀琀椀漀渀⸀ This southern limit was in about latitude 35° south.਀䘀愀爀琀栀攀爀 猀漀甀琀栀 琀栀愀渀 琀栀椀猀 瘀椀猀椀漀渀 戀攀挀愀洀攀 琀漀漀 漀戀氀椀焀甀攀Ⰰ amounting as it did, with an adverse tilt of twenty-five਀搀攀最爀攀攀猀 琀漀 猀琀愀爀琀 眀椀琀栀Ⰰ 琀漀 猀漀洀攀琀栀椀渀最 漀瘀攀爀 猀椀砀琀礀 degrees, for detection of such fine markings to be਀瀀漀猀猀椀戀氀攀⸀ 䈀攀琀眀攀攀渀 琀栀攀 琀眀漀 氀椀洀椀琀猀 琀栀甀猀 椀洀瀀漀猀攀搀Ⰰ 戀礀 the perpetual snow on the one side and the observational਀琀椀氀琀 漀渀 琀栀攀 漀琀栀攀爀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 ㄀ 㤀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 眀攀爀攀 distributed by zones as follows:—

 
Vernal LongitudeDarian Date
77°Pisces 9
90°Mina 9
103°Aries 9
117°Mesha 11
131°Taurus 10
146°Rishabha 12
162°Gemini 13
਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 渀戀氀 戀戀 渀戀爀 琀挀攀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀娀漀渀攀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 戀氀 戀戀 渀戀爀 琀挀攀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀猀挀✀㸀一甀洀戀攀爀 漀昀 䌀愀渀愀氀猀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀琀 戀氀 戀爀 渀戀戀 琀爀攀✀㸀㠀㜀뀀 一⸀ⴀ㜀㠀뀀 一⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀爀 渀戀氀 渀戀戀 渀戀琀 琀氀攀✀㸀䄀爀挀琀椀挀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 渀戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 琀爀攀✀㸀㤀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀爀 戀氀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 琀爀攀✀㸀㘀㘀뀀 一⸀ⴀ㔀㄀뀀 一⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀爀 渀戀氀 渀戀戀 渀戀琀 琀氀攀✀㸀一漀爀琀栀 吀攀洀瀀攀爀愀琀攀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 渀戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 琀爀攀✀㸀㄀㄀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀爀 戀氀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 琀爀攀✀㸀㌀㜀뀀 一⸀ⴀ㈀㐀뀀 一⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀爀 渀戀氀 渀戀戀 渀戀琀 琀氀攀✀㸀一漀爀琀栀 吀爀漀瀀椀挀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 渀戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 琀爀攀✀㸀㈀㄀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀爀 戀氀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 琀爀攀✀㸀㄀㈀뀀 一⸀ⴀ  뀀 一⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀爀 渀戀氀 渀戀戀 渀戀琀 琀氀攀✀㸀匀漀甀琀栀 䔀焀甀愀琀漀爀椀愀氀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 渀戀爀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 琀爀攀✀㸀㄀㜀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀爀 戀氀 渀戀琀 渀戀戀 琀爀攀✀㸀㄀㈀뀀 匀⸀ⴀ㈀㐀뀀 匀⸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀爀 渀戀氀 戀戀 渀戀琀 琀氀攀✀㸀匀漀甀琀栀 匀甀戀ⴀ吀爀漀瀀椀挀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀  㰀琀搀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀戀氀 渀戀爀 渀戀琀 戀戀 琀爀攀✀㸀㈀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀㰀琀爀㸀 ਀㰀⼀琀爀㸀
 
Latitude
North Polar1
78° N.-66° N.
Sub-Arctic9
51° N.-37° N.
North Sub-Tropic18
24° N.-12° N.
North Equatorial14
0° N.-12° S.
South Tropic7
24° S.-37° S.
 

਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㤀㜀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㤀㜀✀㸀㈀㤀㜀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 As the latitude of a canal in the investigation was਀琀愀欀攀渀 愀猀 琀栀愀琀 漀昀 椀琀猀 洀椀搀ⴀ瀀漀椀渀琀Ⰰ 猀甀挀栀 戀攀椀渀最 琀栀攀 洀攀愀渀 value of its successive parts, the latitudes about which਀椀渀昀漀爀洀愀琀椀漀渀 眀愀猀 漀戀琀愀椀渀攀搀 氀愀礀 眀椀琀栀椀渀 琀栀攀 氀椀洀椀琀猀 最椀瘀攀渀 above, the most northern canal, the Jaxartes N having਀昀漀爀 椀琀猀 洀椀搀ⴀ氀愀琀椀琀甀搀攀 㜀㠀뀀 渀漀爀琀栀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 洀漀猀琀 猀漀甀琀栀攀爀渀Ⰰ the Nectar, that of 27° south.

The zones comprised each a belt of territory about਀琀栀椀爀琀攀攀渀 搀攀最爀攀攀猀 眀椀搀攀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 昀椀爀猀琀 戀攀椀渀最 氀攀猀猀 猀漀氀攀氀礀 戀攀挀愀甀猀攀 in part occupied by the permanent polar cap.

The curves of all the canals in a given zone have been਀挀漀洀戀椀渀攀搀 椀渀琀漀 愀 洀攀愀渀 挀甀爀瘀攀 漀爀 挀愀爀琀漀甀挀栀攀 昀漀爀 琀栀愀琀 zone; and then the cartouches for the several zones਀栀愀瘀攀 戀攀攀渀 爀攀瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀攀搀 愀渀搀 爀愀渀最攀搀 愀挀挀漀爀搀椀渀最 琀漀 氀愀琀椀琀甀搀攀 on the accompanying plate. Consideration of਀琀栀攀猀攀 洀攀愀渀 挀愀渀愀氀 挀愀爀琀漀甀挀栀攀猀 椀猀 瘀攀爀礀 椀渀猀琀爀甀挀琀椀瘀攀⸀ 䤀渀 the first place not one of them is a straight line, either਀栀漀爀椀稀漀渀琀愀氀 漀爀 椀渀挀氀椀渀攀搀⸀ 䄀氀氀 愀爀攀 挀甀爀瘀攀猀 愀渀搀Ⰰ 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 exception of the top one, all show a minimum or lowest਀瀀漀椀渀琀 搀甀爀椀渀最 琀栀攀 瀀攀爀椀漀搀 甀渀搀攀爀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀愀琀椀漀渀⸀ 䘀爀漀洀 琀栀椀猀 point they rise with the time, or to the right on the਀瀀氀愀琀攀⸀ 䄀 戀氀愀挀欀 猀琀愀爀 洀愀爀欀猀 琀栀椀猀 洀椀渀椀洀甀洀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 椀猀 昀漀甀渀搀 farther and farther to the right as one goes down the਀瀀氀愀琀攀㬀 琀栀愀琀 椀猀Ⰰ 愀猀 漀渀攀 琀爀愀瘀攀氀猀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 渀攀椀最栀戀漀爀栀漀漀搀 漀昀 the arctic regions down to the equator and then over਀椀渀琀漀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀ᤀ猠 猀漀甀琀栀攀爀渀 栀攀洀椀猀瀀栀攀爀攀⸀ 䐀爀愀眀椀渀最 渀漀眀 a line approximately through the stars and remembering਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㤀㤀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㈀㤀㤀✀㸀㈀㤀㤀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 that the minimum means the date at which the canal਀猀琀愀爀琀攀搀 琀漀 搀攀瘀攀氀漀瀀Ⰰ 眀攀 猀攀攀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 挀愀渀愀氀 搀攀瘀攀氀漀瀀洀攀渀琀 began at the border of the north polar cap and thence਀挀漀渀琀椀渀甀攀搀 搀漀眀渀 琀栀攀 搀椀猀欀 漀瘀攀爀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀ᤀ猠 猀甀爀昀愀挀攀Ⰰ 愀猀 far as observation permitted the surface to be seen,਀眀栀椀挀栀 眀愀猀 猀漀洀攀 琀栀椀爀琀礀ⴀ昀椀瘀攀 搀攀最爀攀攀猀 椀渀琀漀 琀栀攀 漀琀栀攀爀 栀攀洀椀猀瀀栀攀爀攀⸀ This is the first broad fact disclosed by the਀挀愀爀琀漀甀挀栀攀猀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀搀椀瘀 椀搀㴀✀椀开戀开㈀㤀㠀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀椀洀最挀攀渀琀攀爀✀㸀

਀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀✀椀洀愀最攀猀⼀椀开戀开㈀㤀㠀ⴀ氀⸀樀瀀最✀㸀㰀椀洀最 猀爀挀㴀✀椀洀愀最攀猀⼀椀开戀开㈀㤀㠀⸀樀瀀最✀ 愀氀琀㴀✀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀椀洀最ⴀ㌀  ✀ ⼀㸀㰀⼀愀㸀

MEAN CANAL CARTOUCHES

਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀爀攀ⴀ挀愀瀀琀椀漀渀✀㸀倀⸀䰀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀
਀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䘀甀爀琀栀攀爀洀漀爀攀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 搀攀瘀攀氀漀瀀洀攀渀琀 琀漀漀欀 瀀氀愀挀攀 愀琀 愀渀 approximately uniform rate. This is shown by the਀昀愀挀琀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 氀椀渀攀 瀀愀猀猀椀渀最 琀栀爀漀甀最栀 琀栀攀 戀氀愀挀欀 猀琀愀爀猀 椀猀 approximately straight; for such straightness means਀琀栀愀琀 瀀爀漀最爀攀猀猀椀漀渀 搀漀眀渀 琀栀攀 搀椀猀欀 愀猀 洀攀愀猀甀爀攀搀 戀礀 琀栀攀 latitude bore throughout the same ratio to the time਀攀氀愀瀀猀攀搀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䰀漀漀欀椀渀最 愀琀 琀栀攀洀 愀最愀椀渀 眀攀 渀漀琀椀挀攀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 琀栀爀攀攀 琀漀瀀洀漀猀琀 cartouches, those of the north polar, arctic, and਀猀甀戀ⴀ愀爀挀琀椀挀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 爀攀猀瀀攀挀琀椀瘀攀氀礀Ⰰ 搀椀瀀 愀琀 琀栀攀 爀椀最栀琀 戀攀昀漀爀攀 the end of the observations, while the other seven were਀猀琀椀氀氀 爀椀猀椀渀最 眀栀攀渀 琀栀漀猀攀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀愀琀椀漀渀猀 眀攀爀攀 戀爀漀甀最栀琀 琀漀 愀 close. A reason for this, or at least a significant coincidence,਀椀猀 琀漀 戀攀 昀漀甀渀搀 椀渀 琀栀攀 搀漀琀琀攀搀 氀椀渀攀 瀀攀渀搀攀渀琀 昀爀漀洀 the top of the table and labelled “First Frosts.” This਀搀漀琀琀攀搀 氀椀渀攀 搀攀渀漀琀攀猀 琀栀攀 搀愀琀攀 愀琀 眀栀椀挀栀 琀栀攀 昀椀爀猀琀 攀砀琀攀渀猀椀瘀攀 frost occurred in the polar regions; for even before਀琀栀椀猀 琀椀洀攀 瀀愀琀挀栀攀猀 漀昀 眀栀椀琀攀 栀愀搀 愀瀀瀀攀愀爀攀搀 渀漀爀琀栀 漀昀 琀栀攀 Mare Acidalium, denoting the on-coming of the cold.਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㌀  ✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㌀  ✀㸀㌀  㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 The frost did not last but came and went and came਀愀最愀椀渀 樀甀猀琀 愀猀 椀琀 搀漀攀猀 漀渀 攀愀爀琀栀Ⰰ 最爀漀眀椀渀最 洀漀爀攀 椀渀猀椀猀琀攀渀琀 and long-lived at each fresh fall. Its sphere of operation਀眀愀猀 挀漀渀昀椀渀攀搀 琀漀 琀栀攀 琀栀爀攀攀 稀漀渀攀猀 椀渀 焀甀攀猀琀椀漀渀⸀ Even these zones it by no means covered, merely਀戀氀漀琀挀栀椀渀最 琀栀攀洀 椀渀 瀀氀愀挀攀猀 眀椀琀栀 昀甀渀最椀ⴀ氀椀欀攀 瀀愀琀挀栀攀猀 漀昀 昀爀漀猀琀⸀ Beyond them south it never extended during the period਀漀昀 琀栀攀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀愀琀椀漀渀猀㬀 椀渀搀攀攀搀Ⰰ 椀琀 栀愀爀搀氀礀 攀渀琀攀爀攀搀 琀栀攀 猀甀戀ⴀ愀爀挀琀椀挀 zone at all at this very beginning of the polar਀眀椀渀琀攀爀⸀ 䘀漀爀 椀琀 眀愀猀 漀渀氀礀 䄀甀最甀猀琀 ㈀  琀栀攀渀⸀ 吀栀攀 挀漀椀渀挀椀搀攀渀挀攀 of the isotherm as betrayed by the deposition਀漀昀 昀爀漀猀琀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 搀椀瘀椀搀椀渀最 氀椀渀攀 戀攀琀眀攀攀渀 琀栀攀 挀愀渀愀氀ⴀ搀攀瘀攀氀漀瀀洀攀渀琀 curves that dip down at this season and਀琀栀漀猀攀 琀栀愀琀 猀琀椀氀氀 挀漀渀琀椀渀甀攀 琀漀 爀椀猀攀 椀猀 猀甀最最攀猀琀椀瘀攀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䤀琀 戀攀挀漀洀攀猀 愀氀氀 琀栀攀 洀漀爀攀 猀漀 眀栀攀渀 琀栀攀 琀栀爀攀攀 挀愀爀琀漀甀挀栀攀猀 are considered seriatim. The most polewards, the਀渀漀爀琀栀 瀀漀氀愀爀 漀渀攀Ⰰ 栀愀搀 猀甀渀欀 琀漀 稀攀爀漀 猀漀洀攀琀椀洀攀 戀攀昀漀爀攀 琀栀攀 first extensive frost occurred; the second, the arctic,਀搀椀搀 猀漀 氀愀琀攀爀 琀栀愀渀 椀琀猀 渀漀爀琀栀攀爀渀 渀攀椀最栀戀漀爀Ⰰ 瀀爀漀戀愀戀氀礀 樀甀猀琀 before the epoch in question; while the third, practically਀漀甀琀猀椀搀攀 琀栀攀 稀漀渀攀 漀昀 搀攀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀Ⰰ 眀愀猀 戀攀栀椀渀搀 戀漀琀栀 the others in its descent. Inspection of the drawings਀甀瀀漀渀 眀栀椀挀栀 琀栀攀 挀愀爀琀漀甀挀栀攀猀 愀爀攀 戀愀猀攀搀 挀漀渀昀椀爀洀猀 愀渀 椀渀昀攀爀攀渀挀攀 deduced from this: that it was cold that killed,਀渀漀琀 昀爀漀猀琀 琀栀愀琀 挀漀瘀攀爀攀搀Ⰰ 琀栀攀洀Ⰰ 眀栀椀挀栀 眀愀猀 爀攀猀瀀漀渀猀椀戀氀攀 for their obliteration. The drawings show that the਀挀愀渀愀氀猀 挀攀愀猀攀搀 琀漀 戀攀 猀攀攀渀 戀攀昀漀爀攀 琀栀攀 眀栀椀琀攀 瀀愀琀挀栀攀猀 眀攀爀攀 301਀攀瘀椀搀攀渀琀⸀ 一漀眀 琀栀椀猀 眀漀甀氀搀 戀攀 琀栀攀 攀砀愀挀琀 戀攀栀愀瘀椀漀爀 漀昀 vegetation. It would be killed, turned brown by਀昀爀攀攀稀椀渀最Ⰰ 愀渀搀 猀漀 爀攀渀搀攀爀攀搀 椀渀瘀椀猀椀戀氀攀 琀漀 甀猀 愀最愀椀渀猀琀 椀琀猀 ochre desert background, before the cold had grown਀椀渀琀攀渀猀攀 攀渀漀甀最栀 琀漀 挀漀瘀攀爀 琀栀愀琀 最爀漀甀渀搀 眀椀琀栀 愀 猀漀氀椀搀 眀栀椀琀攀 carpet of frost. At the opposition of 1905 [Darian: 157], however,਀琀栀攀 攀砀琀爀攀洀攀 渀漀爀琀栀攀爀渀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 眀攀爀攀 瘀椀猀椀戀氀攀 愀昀琀攀爀 琀栀攀 猀渀漀眀 had covered all the country about them, being evident਀愀猀 氀椀渀攀猀 琀栀爀攀愀搀椀渀最 琀栀攀 渀攀眀 挀愀瀀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀吀栀攀猀攀 琀栀爀攀攀 挀愀爀琀漀甀挀栀攀猀 昀甀爀琀栀攀爀洀漀爀攀 猀栀漀眀 攀愀挀栀 愀 maximum, and what is significant the maximum occurs਀氀愀琀攀爀 椀渀 琀椀洀攀 昀漀爀 攀愀挀栀Ⰰ 愀挀挀漀爀搀椀渀最 愀猀 琀栀攀 稀漀渀攀 氀椀攀猀 爀攀洀漀琀攀 from the pole. A red star marks this maximum and਀猀栀漀眀猀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 琀椀洀攀 漀昀 最爀攀愀琀攀猀琀 搀攀瘀攀氀漀瀀洀攀渀琀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀 three zones was respectively:—

਀  㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀氀椀渀攀最爀漀甀瀀✀㸀
਀      㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀氀椀渀攀✀㸀㐀㄀ 搀愀礀猀 愀昀琀攀爀 琀栀攀 猀甀洀洀攀爀 猀漀氀猀琀椀挀攀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀 一漀爀琀栀 倀漀氀愀爀⸀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀
61 days after the summer solstice for the Arctic.
਀      㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀氀椀渀攀✀㸀㤀㔀 搀愀礀猀 愀昀琀攀爀 琀栀攀 猀甀洀洀攀爀 猀漀氀猀琀椀挀攀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀 匀甀戀ⴀ䄀爀挀琀椀挀⸀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀
਀  㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀

We now pass to the other curves, those that were਀甀渀愀昀昀攀挀琀攀搀 戀礀 挀漀氀搀⸀ 吀栀漀甀最栀 椀渀 琀栀攀猀攀 琀栀攀 洀椀渀椀洀愀 琀栀攀洀猀攀氀瘀攀猀 show the law of latitudinal progression, the wavelike਀挀栀愀爀愀挀琀攀爀 漀昀 琀栀攀 愀搀瘀愀渀挀攀 椀猀 攀瘀攀渀 戀攀琀琀攀爀 搀椀猀挀氀漀猀攀搀 by the curves. As the eye follows them down the਀瀀愀最攀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 愀搀瘀愀渀挀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 眀愀瘀攀 琀漀 琀栀攀 爀椀最栀琀 椀猀 瀀氀愀椀渀氀礀 apparent. The slope of the wave is much the same for਀愀氀氀Ⰰ 椀洀瀀氀礀椀渀最 琀栀愀琀 愀 氀椀欀攀 昀漀爀挀攀 眀愀猀 愀琀 眀漀爀欀 猀甀挀挀攀猀猀椀瘀攀氀礀 down the latitudes.

਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㌀ ㈀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㌀ ㈀✀㸀㌀ ㈀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 It will be noticed next that in all the mean cartouches਀琀栀攀 最爀愀搀椀攀渀琀 椀猀 最爀攀愀琀攀爀 愀昀琀攀爀 琀栀攀 洀椀渀椀洀甀洀 than before it. The curves fall gently to their lowest਀瀀漀椀渀琀猀 愀渀搀 爀椀猀攀 洀漀爀攀 猀琀攀攀瀀氀礀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀洀⸀ 匀甀挀栀 瀀爀漀昀椀氀攀 indicates that the effects of a previous force were slowly਀搀礀椀渀最 漀甀琀 搀漀眀渀 琀漀 琀栀攀 洀椀渀椀洀甀洀 愀渀搀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀渀 愀渀 椀洀瀀甀氀猀攀 started in to act afresh. This explains the attitude਀漀昀 琀栀攀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 琀栀愀琀 搀椀攀搀 漀甀琀⸀ 䤀渀 琀栀攀洀 琀栀攀 攀昀昀攀挀琀 of the old force shows as in the others, but no impulse਀挀愀洀攀 椀渀 琀栀攀椀爀 挀愀猀攀 琀漀 爀攀猀甀猀挀椀琀愀琀椀漀渀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䤀琀 猀攀攀洀猀 瀀漀猀猀椀戀氀攀 琀漀 琀爀愀挀攀 琀栀椀猀 昀漀爀挀攀 琀漀 愀渀 漀爀椀最椀渀 愀琀 the south. For beginning with the north sub-tropic਀稀漀渀攀 琀栀攀 最爀愀搀椀攀渀琀 漀渀 琀栀攀 氀攀昀琀 猀栀漀眀猀 氀攀猀猀 愀渀搀 氀攀猀猀 猀琀攀攀瀀 southward to the south sub-tropic zone. Such a਀搀礀椀渀最ⴀ搀漀眀渀 猀眀攀氀氀 椀猀 眀栀愀琀 猀栀漀甀氀搀 戀攀 氀漀漀欀攀搀 昀漀爀 椀渀 愀渀 impulse which had travelled from the south northward,਀猀椀渀挀攀 琀栀攀 眀愀瘀攀 眀漀甀氀搀 愀昀昀攀挀琀 琀栀攀 洀漀爀攀 渀漀爀琀栀攀爀渀 稀漀渀攀猀 last, and less of a calm period would intervene between਀琀栀攀 琀眀漀 椀洀瀀甀氀猀攀猀 昀爀漀洀 漀瀀瀀漀猀椀琀攀 瀀漀氀攀猀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀吀栀攀 挀愀爀琀漀甀挀栀攀猀Ⰰ 琀栀攀渀Ⰰ 猀琀愀琀攀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 挀愀渀愀氀猀 戀攀最愀渀 琀漀 develop after the greatest melting of the polar cap਀栀愀搀 漀挀挀甀爀爀攀搀㬀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀椀猀 搀攀瘀攀氀漀瀀洀攀渀琀 瀀爀漀挀攀攀搀攀搀 搀漀眀渀 the latitudes to the equator, and then not stopping਀琀栀攀爀攀 愀搀瘀愀渀挀攀搀 甀瀀 琀栀攀 氀愀琀椀琀甀搀攀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 漀琀栀攀爀 栀攀洀椀猀瀀栀攀爀攀⸀ In the next place they show that in the਀愀爀挀琀椀挀 爀攀最椀漀渀 琀栀攀 搀攀瘀攀氀漀瀀洀攀渀琀 眀愀猀 愀爀爀攀猀琀攀搀 愀渀搀 搀攀瘀漀氀甀琀椀漀渀 or decay set in as it began to get cold there,਀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀瀀愀最攀渀甀洀✀㸀㰀愀 渀愀洀攀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㌀ ㌀✀ 椀搀㴀✀倀愀最攀开㌀ ㌀✀㸀㌀ ㌀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀 the most northern canals being affected first. Finally,਀琀栀愀琀 愀 猀椀洀椀氀愀爀 眀愀瘀攀 漀昀 攀瘀漀氀甀琀椀漀渀 栀愀搀 漀挀挀甀爀爀攀搀 昀爀漀洀 the opposite pole some time before and had then਀瀀愀猀猀攀搀 愀眀愀礀⸀ 䄀渀搀 琀栀椀猀 攀瘀椀搀攀渀挀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 挀愀爀琀漀甀挀栀攀猀 is direct, and independent of any theory.

304਀  㰀栀㈀ 椀搀㴀✀挀栀㈀㐀✀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㘀✀㸀㰀猀瀀愀渀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀砀氀愀爀最攀✀㸀䌀䠀䄀倀吀䔀刀 堀堀䤀嘀㰀⼀猀瀀愀渀㸀㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀 㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀䌀䄀一䄀䰀 䐀䔀嘀䔀䰀伀倀䴀䔀一吀㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀 㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀㰀椀㸀䤀渀搀椀瘀椀搀甀愀氀氀礀 䤀渀猀琀愀渀挀攀搀㰀⼀椀㸀㰀⼀栀㈀㸀

As an interesting instance of the law of development਀眀攀 洀愀礀 琀愀欀攀 琀栀攀 挀愀爀攀攀爀 漀昀 琀栀攀 䈀爀漀渀琀攀猀 during this same Martian year; the Brontes witnessing਀椀渀搀椀瘀椀搀甀愀氀氀礀 琀漀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 攀瘀漀氀甀琀椀漀渀愀爀礀 瀀爀漀挀攀猀猀 琀栀愀琀 the canals collectively exhibit.

The Brontes is one of the most imposing canals upon਀琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀⸀ 䤀琀 椀猀 渀漀琀 猀漀 洀甀挀栀 椀琀猀 氀攀渀最琀栀 眀栀椀挀栀 爀攀渀搀攀爀猀 it a striking object, though this length is enough to਀攀渀琀椀琀氀攀 椀琀 琀漀 挀漀渀猀椀搀攀爀愀琀椀漀渀Ⰰ 戀攀椀渀最 渀漀 氀攀猀猀 琀栀愀渀 ㈀㐀㐀  洀椀氀攀猀⸀ Its direction is what singles it out to notice, for it runs਀愀氀洀漀猀琀 渀漀爀琀栀 愀渀搀 猀漀甀琀栀⸀ 䘀漀爀 琀栀椀猀 爀攀愀猀漀渀 椀琀 猀眀椀渀最猀 椀渀琀漀 a position to hold the centre of the stage for a time with਀琀栀攀 瀀爀攀挀椀猀椀漀渀 漀昀 愀 洀攀爀椀搀椀愀渀Ⰰ 愀猀 琀栀攀 瀀氀愀渀攀琀ᤀ猠 爀漀琀愀琀椀漀渀 turns its longitude into view. The points which it਀挀漀渀渀攀挀琀猀 栀攀氀瀀 愀氀猀漀 琀漀 愀搀搀 琀漀 椀琀猀 搀椀猀琀椀渀挀琀椀漀渀⸀ 䘀漀爀 琀栀攀 Sinus Titanum at its southern end and the Propontis਀愀琀 椀琀猀 渀漀爀琀栀攀爀渀 愀爀攀 戀漀琀栀 愀洀漀渀最 琀栀攀 挀漀渀猀瀀椀挀甀漀甀猀 瀀漀椀渀琀猀 of the disk. The latter is but twelve degrees farther਀攀愀猀琀 琀栀愀渀 琀栀攀 昀漀爀洀攀爀Ⰰ 眀栀椀氀攀 椀琀 椀猀 猀椀砀琀礀ⴀ猀椀砀 搀攀最爀攀攀猀 昀愀爀琀栀攀爀 north. This long distance,—from nearly the line of the਀琀爀漀瀀椀挀猀 椀渀 琀栀攀 猀漀甀琀栀攀爀渀 栀攀洀椀猀瀀栀攀爀攀 琀漀 洀椀搀ⴀ琀攀洀瀀攀爀愀琀攀 305਀爀攀最椀漀渀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 渀漀爀琀栀攀爀渀Ⰰ᐀琠栀攀 挀愀渀愀氀 爀甀渀猀 椀渀 愀渀 absolutely straight course.

Its north and south character commends it for any਀椀渀瘀攀猀琀椀最愀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 挀愀渀愀氀 搀攀瘀攀氀漀瀀洀攀渀琀Ⰰ 猀椀渀挀攀 椀琀 爀甀渀猀 椀渀 琀栀攀 general direction that development takes. Its great਀氀愀琀椀琀甀搀椀渀愀氀 猀琀爀攀琀挀栀 昀甀爀琀栀攀爀 昀椀琀猀 椀琀 昀漀爀 愀 爀攀挀漀爀搀攀爀 漀昀 changes sweeping down the disk; so that both in direction਀愀渀搀 氀攀渀最琀栀 椀琀 猀琀愀渀搀猀 眀攀氀氀 挀椀爀挀甀洀猀琀愀渀挀攀搀 昀漀爀 愀 measure of latitudinal variations. The fact that it is਀甀猀甀愀氀氀礀 愀 昀愀椀爀氀礀 挀漀渀猀瀀椀挀甀漀甀猀 挀愀渀愀氀 搀漀攀猀 渀漀琀 搀攀琀爀愀挀琀 昀爀漀洀 its virtue in this respect. It was first recognized at਀䘀氀愀最猀琀愀昀昀 椀渀 ㄀㠀㤀㐀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㄀崀⸀ 䈀甀琀 漀渀挀攀 爀攀愀氀椀稀攀搀Ⰰ 猀漀 琀漀 猀瀀攀愀欀Ⰰ 椀琀 眀愀猀 possible to identify it with a canal seen by Schiaparelli਀愀渀搀 猀甀瀀瀀漀猀攀搀 戀礀 栀椀洀 琀漀 戀攀 琀栀攀 吀椀琀愀渀㬀 椀渀搀攀攀搀Ⰰ 椀琀 瀀氀愀礀攀搀 hide and seek with that canal throughout his drawings.਀䤀渀 ㄀㠀㤀㐀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㄀崀 戀漀琀栀 椀琀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 吀椀琀愀渀 眀攀爀攀 猀漀 眀攀氀氀 猀攀攀渀 琀栀愀琀 椀琀猀 separate existence was unmistakable, causing it to be਀戀漀琀栀 爀攀挀漀最渀椀稀攀搀 愀渀搀 渀愀洀攀搀⸀ 䤀琀 椀猀Ⰰ 氀椀欀攀 琀栀攀 吀椀琀愀渀Ⰰ 漀渀攀 of the sheaf of canals descending the disk from the਀匀椀渀甀猀 吀椀琀愀渀甀洀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 氀椀攀猀 樀甀猀琀 琀漀 琀栀攀 攀愀猀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 吀椀琀愀渀 椀渀 the bunch. In 1896 [Darian: 152] it was also prominent; and at਀戀漀琀栀 琀栀攀猀攀 漀瀀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀猀 洀漀猀琀 猀漀 昀爀漀洀 椀琀猀 猀漀甀琀栀攀爀渀 攀渀搀Ⰰ its northern one being more or less indefinite, especially਀椀渀 ㄀㠀㤀㐀 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㄀崀⸀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀✀挀  㠀✀ 㸀䤀渀 ㄀㤀 ㄀ 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㔀崀 椀琀 眀愀猀 渀漀琀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀⸀ 䤀渀猀琀攀愀搀 漀昀 戀攀椀渀最 琀栀攀 conspicuous canal it had been in earlier years, it was਀渀漀眀 猀漀 昀愀椀渀琀 愀猀 眀椀琀栀 搀椀昀昀椀挀甀氀琀礀 琀漀 戀攀 洀愀搀攀 漀甀琀⸀ 䤀琀 306਀爀攀洀愀椀渀攀搀 猀漀 琀漀 琀栀攀 挀氀漀猀攀 漀昀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀愀琀椀漀渀猀⸀ 䤀琀 眀愀猀 渀漀眀 under suspicion. Its behavior in 1896-1897 [Darian: 152-153] had led਀琀漀 琀栀攀 猀甀瀀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀 琀栀愀琀 渀漀琀 漀渀氀礀 眀攀爀攀 猀攀愀猀漀渀愀氀 挀栀愀渀最攀猀 taking place in it, but that those changes were such as਀琀漀 瀀漀椀渀琀 琀漀 愀 氀愀眀 椀渀 琀栀攀 挀愀猀攀 眀椀琀栀 眀栀椀挀栀 椀琀猀 挀漀渀搀甀挀琀 椀渀 1901 [Darian: 155] fayed in. The suspicion did not, however, become਀愀 挀攀爀琀愀椀渀琀礀 琀椀氀氀 琀栀攀 漀瀀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 ㄀㤀 ㌀ 嬀䐀愀爀椀愀渀㨀 ㄀㔀㘀崀⸀ 吀栀攀 氀攀渀最琀栀 of time during which the disk was then kept under scrutiny਀爀攀猀甀氀琀攀搀 椀渀 琀栀攀 洀攀琀栀漀搀 漀昀 椀琀猀 洀攀琀愀洀漀爀瀀栀漀猀椀猀 戀攀椀渀最 d